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[Reprinted, 1898.'] 

Price Twelve Shillings. 


Committee cf Management : 
Treasurer: HENRY B. WHEATLEY, Esq. 
Hon. Sees. ( North and East : Prof. G. L. Kittredge, Harvard Coll., Cambr., Mass. 
for America : \ South and West : Prof. J. W. Bright, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore.! 



S. L. LEE, B.A. Rev. Prof. WALTER W. SKEAT, Litt.D. 

Rev. Prof. J. E. B, MAYOR, M.A. Dr. HENRY SWEET, M.A. 
( With power to add Workers to their number. ) 

The Early English Text Society was started by Dr. Furnivall in 1864 for the 
purpose of bringing flie mass of Old English Literature within the reach of the] 
ordinary student, and of wiping away the reproach under which England had long, 
rested, of having felt little interest in the monuments of her early language and life. 

On the starting of the Society, so many Texts of importance were at once taken in 
hand by its Editors, that it became necessary in 1867 to open, besides the Original 
Series with which the Society began, an Extra Series which should be mainly devoted 
to fresh editions of all that is most valuable in printed MSS. and Caxton's and other 
black-letter books, though first editions of MSS. will not be excluded when the con- 
venience of issuing completed Texts demands their inclusion in the Extra Series. 

During the thirty-five years of the Society's existence, it has produced, with 
whatever shortcomings, an amount of good solid work for which all students of our| 
Language, and some of our Literature, must be grateful, and which has rendered pos- 
sible the beginnings (at least) of proper Histories and Dictionaries of that Language' 
and Literature, and has illustrated the thoughts, the life, the manners and customs of 
our forefathers and foremothers. 

But the Society's experience has shown the very small number of those inheritors 
of the speech of Cynewulf, Chaucer, and Shakspere, who care two guineas a year for 
the records of that speech. 'Let the dead past bury its dead' is still the cry of Great 
Britain and her Colonies, and of America, in the matter of language. The Society has 
never had money enough to produce the Texts that could easily have been got ready 
for it ; and many Editors are now anxious to send to press the work they have pre- 
pared. The necessity has therefore arisen for trying whether more Texts can be got 
out by the plan of issuing them in advance of the current year, so that those Members 
who like to pay for them by advance Subscriptions, can do so, while those who prefer 
to wait for the year for which the volumes are markt, can do so too. To such waiters, 
the plan will be no injury, but a gain, as every year's Texts will then be ready on the 
New Year's Day on which the Subscription for them is paid. 

The success of this plan will depend on the support it receives from Members, as 
it is obvious that the Society's printers must be paid half or two-thirds of their bill 
for a Text within a few months of its production. Appeal is therefore made to all 
Members who can spare advance Subscriptions, to pay them as soon as they get notice 
that the Texts for any future year are ready. In 1892, the Texts for 1893 were 
issued ; in 1893, those for 1894 and 1895 ; those for 1896-8 in 1896. 

The Subscription to the Society, which constitutes membership, is £1 Is. a year 
[and £1 Is. additional for the Extra Series], due in advance on the 1st of January, 
and should be paid either to the Society's Account at the Head Office of the Union 
Bank of London, Princes. Street, London, E.C. r or by Cheque, Postal Order, or Money- 
Order to the Hon. Secretary, W.^A. Dalziel, Esq., 67, Victoria Rd., Finsbury Park, 
London, N., and crost ' Union Bank of London.' (United-States Subscribers must pay 
for postage Is. Ad. a year extra for the Original Series, and Is. a year for the Extra 
Series.) The Society's Texts are also sold separately at the prices put after them in 
the Lists ; but Members can get back-Texts at one-third less than the List-prices by 
sending the cash for them in advance to the Hon. Secretary. 

Original and Extra Series Books, 1897-1900. 3 

April 1898. For this year the Original-Series Texts were issued in 1896. Those for 
1899 are now ready. The texts of several other works are now printed. Members are askt 
to send their two- or three-years' subscriptions for both Series at once in advance. 

For 1897, the Original- Series Texts are, No. 108, Child-Marriages and -Divorces, Troth- 
plights, Adulteries, Affiliations, Libels, Wills, Miscellanea, Clandestine Marriages, Deposi- 
tions in Trials in the Bishop's Court, Chester, a.d. 1561-6, with Entries from the Chester 
Mayors' Books, 1558-1600, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall, — a most curious volume, full of the social 
life of its time ; — and Part II of the Prymer or Lay-Folks' Prayer-look, edited by Mr. Henry 
Littlehales, with a Paper by Mr. Bishop on the Origin and Growth of the Prymer. 

For 1897, the Extra-Series Texts are LXXI, The Towneley Plays, re-edited from the 
unique MS. by Mr. George England, with sidenotes and Introduction by Alfred W. Pollard, 
M.A. ; LXXII, Hoccleve's Eegement of Princes, a.d. 1411-12, with 14 Minor Poems, now first 
assigned to Hoccleve, from the De Guilleville MS. Egerton 615, re-edited from the MSS. by 
Dr. Furnivall ; the latter forms Part III of Hoccleve's Works ; LXXIII, Part II of Hoccleve's 
Works is Hoccleve's Minor Poems II, from the Yates Thompson (late Ashburnham) MS. , edited 
by Mr. Israel Gollancz, M. A. 

The Original-Series Texts for 1898 are Nos. 110, 111,— Part II, Sections 1 and 2, of Dr. 
T. Miller's Collations of Four MSS. of the Old-English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1898 are No. LXXIV, Secreta Secretorum, 3 prose Englishings, 
one by Jas. Yonge with interesting passages about Ireland, edited by Eobert Steele, B.A., 
Part I ; and No. LXXV, Miss Morrill's edition of the Speculum Guidonis in the Society's 
' Guy-of- Warwick Series. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1899 ought to be the Second Part of the prose Eomance of 
Melusine — Introduction, with ten facsimiles of the best woodblocks of the old foreign black- 
letter editions, Glossary, &c, by A. K. Donald, B.A., if he can be found; and a new edition 
of the famous Early-English Dictionary (English and Latin), Promptorium Parvulorum, from 
the Winchester MS., ab. 1440 a.d.: in this, the Editor, the Rev. A. L. Mayhew, M.A., will 
follow and print his MS. not only in its arrangement of nouns first, and verbs second, under 
every letter of the Alphabet, but also in its giving of the flexions of the words. The Society's 
edition will thus be the first modern one that really represents its original, a point on which 
Mr. Mayhew's insistance will meet with the sympathy of all our Members. But if neither of 
these Texts is forthcoming in 1899, a substitute for it will be found in the probable 1900 
Texts mentioned below. 

The Original-Series Texts for 1899 will be No. 112, Merlin, Part IV, Prof. W. E. Mead's 
Outlines of the Legend of Merlin, with Glossary, &c, and No. 113, Queen Elizabeth's Eng- 
lishings of Boethius de Consolatione, Plutarch's De Curiositate, and part of Horace, De Arte 
Poetica, edited from the unique MS. (a portion in the Queen's own hand) in the Public Record 
Office, London, by the late Miss C. Pemberton, with a Facsimile, and a note on the Queen's 
use of i for long e. The Original- Series Texts for 1900 will be No. 114, Part IV (the last) 
of Prof. Skeat's edition of Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints ; and No. 115, Jacob's Well, a 
quaint allegorical treatise on the cleansing and building-up of Man's Conscience, edited from 
the unique MS. in Salisbury Cathedral, by Dr. J. W. Brandeis, Part I. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1900 will be chosen from Mr. I. Gollancz's re-edition of two 
Alliterative Poems, Winner and Waster, &c, ab. 1360, just issued for the Roxburghe Club ; 
Dr. Norman Moore's re-edition of The Book of the Foundation of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London, from the unique MS. ab. 1425, which gives an account of the Founder, Rahere, and 
the miraculous cures wrought at the Hospital ; or The Craft of Nombrynge, with other of 
the earliest englisht Treatises on Arithmetic, edited by R. Steele, B.A., or Alexander Scott's 
Poems, 1568, from the unique Edinburgh MS., ed. A. K. Donald, B.A. ; or Miss Mary Bate- 
son's edition of George Ashby's Active Policy of a Prince, &c, from the unique MS., A.D. 

An urgent appeal is hereby made to Members to increase the list of Subscribers to the 
E. E. Text Society. It is nothing less than a scandal that the Hellenic Society should have 
nearly 1000 members, while the Early English Text Society has only about 300 ! 

The Original-Series Texts for 1901 and 1902 will be chosen from books already at press : 
Part II of the Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall ; Mr. Gollancz's 
re-edited Exeter-Book — Anglo-Saxon Poems from the unique MS. in Exeter Cathedral — 
Part II ; Dr. Bruce's Introduction to The English Conquest of Ireland, Part II ; Dr. 
Furnivall's edition of the Lichfield Gilds, which is all printed, and waits only for the 
Introduction, that Prof. E. C. K. Gonner has kindly undertaken to write for the book. Dr. 
G. Herzfeld's re-edition of the Anglo-Saxon Martyrology is all in type. Part II of Dr. Holt- 
hausen's Vices and Virtues needs only its Glossary. 

4 Texts preparing : The Extra Series for 1901 fy 1902. Deguilleville. 

The Texts for the Extra Series in 1901 and 1902 will be chosen from The Three Kings' 
Sons, Part II, the Introduction &c. by Prof, Dr. Leon Kellner ; Part II of The Chester Plays, 
re-edited from the MSS., with a full collation of the formerly missing Devonshire MS., by 
Mr. G. England and Dr. Matthews ; the Parallel-Text of the only two MSS. of the Owl and 
Nightingale, edited by Mr. G. F. H. Sykes (at press) ; Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, 
edited by Dr. Furnivall ; Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, in English verse by 
Lydgate. (For the three prose versions — two English, one French — an Editor is wanted. ) 
Mr. Steele has also in type the earliest Treatise on Arithmetic, englisht from Johannes de 
Sacro Bosco. Some of these Texts will be ready in 1899. Members are therefore askt 
to send Advance Subscriptions for 1899 and 1900, in order that the 1899-1900 books may 
be issued to them as soon as the editions are finisht. The Society's experience has shown 
that Editors must be taken when they are in the humour for work. All real Students 
and furtherers of the Society's purpose will be ready to push-on the issue of Texts. Those 
Members who care only a guinea a year (or can afford only that sum) for the history of our 
language and our nation's thought, will not be hurt by those who care more, getting their 
books in advance ; on the contrary, they will be benefited, as each successive year's work 
will then be ready for issue on New Year's Day. Members are askt to realise the fact that 
the Society has now 50 years' work on its Lists, — at its present rate of production, — and 
that there is from 100 to 200 more years' work to come after that. The year 2000 will not 
see finisht all the Texts that the Society ought to print. 

Before his death in 1895, Mr. G. N". Currie was preparing an edition of the 15th and 16th 
century Prose Versions of Guillaume de Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, with 
the French prose version by Jean Gallopes, from Lord Aldenham's MS., he having generously 
promist to pay the extra cost of printing the French text, and engraving one or two of the 
illuminations in bis MS. But Mr. Currie, when on his deathbed, charged a friend to burn 
all his MSS. which lay in a corner of his room, and unluckily all the E. E. T. S.'s copies of 
the Deguilleville prose versions were with them, and were burnt with them, so that the 
Society will be put to the cost of fresh copies, Mr. Currie having died in debt. 

Guillaume de Deguilleville, monk of the Cistercian abbey of Chaalis, in the diocese of 
Senlis, wrote his first verse Pelerinaige de V Homme in 1330-1 when he was 36. 1 Twenty-five 
(or six) years after, in 1355, he revised his poem, and issued a second version of it, and this 
is the only one that has been printed. Of the prose representative of the first version, 1330-1, 
a prose Englishing, about 1430 a.d., was edited by Mr. Aldis Wright for the Roxburghe Club 
in 1869, from MS. Ff. 5. 30 in the Cambridge University Library. Other copies of this prose 
English are in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Q. 2. 25 ; Univ. Coll. and Corpus Christi, 
Oxford 2 ; and the Laud Collection in the Bodleian, no. 740. A copy in the Northern dialect 
is MS. G. 21, in St. John's Coll., Cambridge, and this is the MS. which will be edited for the 
E. E. Text Society. The Laud MS. 740 was somewhat condenst and modernised, in the 17th 
century, into MS. Ff. 6. 30, in the Cambridge University Library: 3 "The Pilgrime or the 
Pilgrimage of Man in this World," copied by Will, Baspoole, whose copy "was verbatim 
written by Walter Parker, 1645, and from thence transcribed by G. G. 1649 ; and from thence 
by W. A. 1655." This last copy may have been read by, or its story reported to, Bunyan, 
and may have been the groundwork of his Pilgrim's Progress. It will be edited for the E. 
E. T. Soc, its text running under the earlier English, as in Mr. Herrtage's edition of the 
Gesta Bomanorum for the Society. In February 1464, 4 Jean Gallopes — a clerk of Angers, 
afterwards chaplain to John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France — turned Deguilleville's first 
verse Pelerinaige into a prose Pelerinage de la vie humaine. 5 By the kindness of Lord Alden- 
ham, as above mentiond, Gallopes's French text will be printed opposite the early prose 
northern Englishing in the Society's edition. 

The Second Version of Deguilleville's Pelerinaige de V Homme, A.D. 1355 or -6, was englisht 
in verse by Lydgate in 1426. Of Lydgate's poem, the larger part is in the Cotton MS. 
Vitellius C. xiii (leaves 2-308). This MS. leaves out Chaucer's englishing of Deguilleville's 
ABC or Prayer to the Virgin, of which the successive stanzas start with A, B, C, and run all 
thro' the alphabet ; and it has 2 main gaps, besides many small ones from the tops of leaves 
being burnt in the Cotton fire. All these gaps (save the ABC) will be fild up from the Stowe 
MS. 952 (which old John Stowe completed) and from the end of the other imperfect MS. 
Cotton, Tiberius A vii. The British Museum French MSS. (Harleian 4399, 6 and Additional 

J He was born about 1295. See Abbs' Goujet's Bibliothequefrangaise, Vol. IX, p. 73-4.— P. M. 
2 These 3 MSS. have not yet been collated, but are believed to be all of the same version. 
8 Another MS. is in the Pepys Library. 

4 According to Lord Aldenham's MS. 

5 These were printed in France, late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. 

6 15th cent., containing only the Vie humaine. 

Anglo-Saxon Psalter's. More Money wanted. Saints' Lives. 5 

22,937* and 25, 594 2 ) are all of the First Version. Lydgate's text is in the press for the 
Society, edited by Dr. Furnivall. 

Besides his first Pelerinaige de Vhommc in its two versions, Deguilleville wrote a second, 
"de l'ame separee du corps," and a third, "de nostre seigneur Iesus." Of the second, a prose 
Englishing of 1413, The Pilgrimage of the Soivle (with poems by Hoccleve), exists in the 
Egerton MS.615, 3 at Hatfield, Cambridge (Univ. Kk. 1. 7, Caius), Oxford (Univ. Coll. and 
Corpus), and in Caxton's edition of 1483. This version has 'somewhat of addicions ' as Caxton 
says, and some shortenings too, as the maker of both, the first translator, tells us in the MSS. 
Caxton leaves out the earlier englisher's interesting Epilog in the Egerton MS. This prose 
englishing of the Sowle will be edited for the Society by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner after that of 
the Man is finisht, and will have Gallopes's French opposite it, from Lord Aldenham's MS., 
as his gift to the Society. Of the Pilgrimage of Jesus, no englishing is known. 

As to the MS. Anglo-Saxon Psalters, Dr. Hy. Sweet has edited the oldest MS., the 
Vespasian, in his Oldest English Texts for the Society, and Mr. Harsley has edited the 
latest, c. 1150, Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter. The other MSS., except the Paris one, being 
interlinear versions, — some of the Roman-Latin redaction, and some of the Gallican, — Prof. 
Logeman has prepared for press, a Parallel-Text edition of the first twelve Psalms, to start the 
complete work. He will do his best to get the Paris Psalter — tho' it is not an interlinear 
one — into this collective edition ; but the additional matter, especially in the Verse-Psalms, 
is very difficult to manage. If the Paris text cannot be parallelised, it will form a separate 
volume. The Early English Psalters are all independent versions, and will follow separately 
in due course. 

Through the good offices of the Examiners, some of the books for the Early-English Ex- 
aminations of the University of London will be chosen from the Society's publications, the 
Committee having undertaken to supply such books to students at a large reduction in price. 
The profits from these sales, after the payment of costs arising out of the issuing of such Texts 
to Students, will be applied to the Society's Reprints. Five of its 1866 Texts, and one of its 
1867 (now at press), still need reproducing. Donations for this purpose will be welcome. 
They should be paid to the Hon. Sec, Mr. "W. A. Dalziel, 67 Victoria Rd., Finsbury Park, 
London, N. 

Members are reminded that fresh Subscribers are always wanted, and that the Committee 
can at any time, on short notice, send to press an additional Thousand Pounds' worth of work. 

The Subscribers to the Original Series must be prepared for the issue of the whole of the 
Early English Lives of Saints, sooner or later. The Society cannot leave out any of them, 
even though some are dull. The Sinners would doubtless be much more interesting. But in 
many Saints' Lives will be found valuable incidental details of our forefathers' social state, 
and all are worthful for the history of our language. The Lives may be lookt on as the 
religious romances or story-books of their period. 

The Standard Collection of Saints' Lives in the Corpus and Ashmole MSS. , the Harleian 
MS. 2277, &c. will repeat the Laud set, our No. 87, with additions, and in right order. (The 
foundation MS. (Laud 108) had to be printed first, to prevent quite unwieldy collations.) The 
Supplementary Lives from the Vernon and other MSS. will form one or two separate volumes. 

Besides the Saints' Lives, Trevisa's englishing of Bartholomceus de Proprietatibus Rerum, 
the mediaeval Cyclopaedia of Science, &c, will be the Society's next big undertaking. Dr. 
R. von Fleischhacker will edit it. Prof. Napier of Oxford, wishing to have the whole of 
our MS. Anglo-Saxon in type, and accessible to students, will edit for the Society all the 
unprinted and other Anglo-Saxon Homilies which are not included in Thorpe's edition of 
jElfric's prose, 4 Dr. Morris's of the Blickling Homilies, and Prof. Skeat's of jElfric's Metrical 
Homilies. Prof. Kolbing has also undertaken for the Society's Extra Series a Parallel-Text 
of all the six MSS. of the Ancren Riwle, one of the most important foundation-documents of 
Early English. Mr. Harvey, too, means to prepare an edition of the three MSS. of the 
Earliest English Metrical Psalter, one of which was edited by the late Mr. Stevenson for the 
Surtees Society. 

i 15th cent., containing all the 3 Pilgrimages, the 3rd being Jesus Christ's. 

2 14th cent., containing the Vie humaine and the 2nd Pilgrimage, de I'Ame : both incomplete. 

3 Ab. 1430, 106 leaves Oeaf 1 of text wanting), with illuminations of nice little devils— red, green, tawny 
&c. — and damnd souls, fires, angels &c. 

* Of these, Mr. Harsley is preparing a new edition, with collations of all the MSS. Many copies of 
Thorpe's book, not issued by the iElfric Society, are still in stock. 

Of the Vercell Homilies, the Society has bought the copy made by Prof. G. Lattanzi." 

6 The Original Series of the " Early English Text Society." 

In case more Texts are ready at any time than can be paid for by the current year's in- 
come, they willbe dated the next year, and issued in advance to such Members as will pay advance 
subscriptions. The 1886-7 delay in getting out Texts must not occur again, if it can possibly 
be avoided. The Director has in hand for future volunteer Editors, copies of 2 or 3 MSS. 

Members of the Society will learn with pleasure that its example has been followed, not 
only by the Old French Text Society which has done such admirable work under its founders 
Profs. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, but also by the Early Russian Text Society, which was 
set on foot in 1877, and has since issued many excellent editions of old MS. Chronicles &c. 

Members will also note with pleasure the annexation of large tracts of our Early English 
territory by the important German contingent under General Zupitza, Colonel Kolbing, volun- 
teers Hausknecht, Einenkel, Haenisch, Kaluza, Hupe, Adam, Holthausen, Schick, Herzfeld, 
Brandeis, &c. Scandinavia has also sent us Prof. Erdmann ; Holland, Prof. H. Logeman, 
who is now working in Belgium ; France, Prof. Paul Meyer — with Gaston Paris as adviser ; 
— Italy, Prof. Lattanzi ; Hungary, Dr. von Fleischhacker ; while America is represented by 
the late Prof. Child, by Dr. Mary Nbyes Colvin, Profs. Mead, Perrin, McClintock, Triggs, &c. 
The sympathy, the ready help, which the Society's work has cald forth from the Continent 
and the United States, have been among the pleasantest experiences of the Society's life, a 
real aid and cheer amid all troubles and discouragements. All our Members are grateful for 
it, and recognise that the bond their work has woven between them and the lovers of language 
and antiquity across the seas is one of the most welcome results of the Society's efforts. 


Half the Publications for 1866 (13, 14, 15, 18, 22) are out of print, but will be gradually 
reprinted. Subscribers who desire the issue for 1866 should send their guineas at once to the 
Hon. Secretary, in order that other Texts for 1866 may be sent to press. 

The Publications for 1864-1897 (one guinea each year, save those for 1866 now halj 
out of print, two guineas) are : — 

1. Early English Alliterative Poems, ab. 1360 a.d., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 16s. 1864 

2. Arthur, ab. 1440, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 4s. „ 

3. Lauder on the Dewtie of Kyngis, &c, 1556, ed. P. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. ,, 

4. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, ab. 1360, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. ,, 

5. Hume's Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue, ab 1617, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. 1865 

6. Lancelot of the Laik, ab. 1500, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 8s ,, 

7. Genesis & Exodus, ab. 1250, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 8s. ,, 

8. Morte Arthure, ab. 1440, ed. E. Brock. 7s. ,, 

9. Thynne on Speght's ed. of Chaucer, a.d. 1599, ed. Dr. G. Kingsley and Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 10s. ,, 

10. Merlin, ab. 1440, Part I., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 2s. 6d. 

11. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c, 1552, Part I., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. ,, 

12. "Wright's Chaste Wife, ab. 1462, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. Is. ,, 

13. Seinte Marherete, 1200-1330, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne : to be re-edited by Prof. Herford, M.A., Ph.D. 1866 

14. KyngHorn, Floris and Blancheflour, &c.,ed. Rev. J. R. Lumby, B.D. ,, 

15. Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. F. J. Furnivall. 

16. The Book of Quinte Essence, ab. 1460-70, ed. F. J. Furnivall. Is. [Inprint.] ,, 

17. Parallel Extracts from 45 MSS. of Piers the Plowman, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. Is. [Inprint] ,, 

18. Hali Meidenhad, ab. 1200, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne. 

19. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c, Part II., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. 6d. [Inprint.'] 

20. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. Is. [In print.] ,, 

21. Merlin, Part II., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. [Inprint.] 

22. Partenay or Lusignen, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

23. Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, 1340, ed. Rev. Dr. R.Morris. 10s. 6d. [Inprint.] ,, 

24. Hymns to the Virgin and Christ ; the Parliament of Devils, &c. , ab. 1430, ed. F. J. Furnivall. [At Press. 1867 

25. The Stacions of Rome, the Pilgrims' Sea-voyage, with Clene Maydenhod, ed. F. J. Furnivall. Is. ,, 

26. Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse, from R. Thornton's MS. (ab. 1440), ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. 2s. , , 

27. Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum, a ryming Dictionary, 1570, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 12s. ,, 

28. William'sVisionofPiersthePlowman,1362A.D. ; Text A, Part I., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 6s. ,, 

29. Old English Homilies (ab. 1220-30 a.d.). Parti. Edited by Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 7s. ,, 

30. Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 2s. 

31. Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest, in Verse, ab. 1420 a.d., ed. E. Peacock. 4s. 1S6S 

32. Early English Meals and Manners : the Boke of Norture of John Russell, the Bokes of Keruynge, 

Curtasye, and Demeanor, the Babees Book, Urbanitatis, &c. , ed. F. J. Furnivall. 12s. 

33. The Knight de la Tour Landry, ab. 1440 a.d. A Book for Daughters, ed. T. Wright, M.A. 8s. ,, 

34. Old English Homilies (before 1300 a. d.). Part II., ed. R. Morris, LL.D. 8s. 

35. Lyndesay's Works, Part III. : The Historie and Testament of Squyer Meldrum , ed . F. Hall .2s. 

The Original Series of the "Early English Text Society." 7 

Merlin, Part III. Ed. H. B. Wheatley. On Arthurian Localities, by J. S. Stuart Glennie. 12s. 1669 

. Sir David lyndesay's Works, Part IV., Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits. Ed. F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. ,, 

. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, PartH. TextB. Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. 6d. ,, 

39. Alliterative Romance of the Destruction of Troy. Ed. D. Donaldson & G. A. Panton. Pt. I. 10s. 6d. ,, 

40. English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, 13S9 a.d. Edit. Toulmin Smith and Luey T. Smith, 

with an Essay on Gilds and Trades-Unions, by Dr. L. Brentano. 21s. 1870 

41. William Lauder's Minor Poems. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 3s. ,, 

42. Bernardus De Cura Rei Famuliaris, Early Scottish Prophecies, &c. Ed. J. R. Lumby, M.A. 2s ,, 

43. Ratis Raving, and other Moral and Religious Pieces. Ed. J. R. Lumby, M.A. 3s. , , 

44. The Alliterative Romance of Joseph of Arimathie, or The Holy Grail : from the Vernon MS. ; 

with W. de Worde's and Pynson's Lives of Joseph : ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 5s. 1S71 

45. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, edited from 2 MSS., with an 

English translation, by Henry Sweet, Esq., B. A., Balliol College, Oxford. Part I. 10s. ,, 

46. Legends of the Holy Rood, Symbols of the Passion and Cross Poems, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. ,, 

47. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part V., ed. Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 3s. ,, 
4S. The Times' Whistle, and other Poems, by R. C, 1616'; ed. by J. M. Cowper, Esq. 6s. ,, 

49. An Old English Miscellany, containing a Bestiary, Kentish Sermons, Proverbs of Alfred, and 

Religious Poems of the 13th cent., ed. from the MSS. by the Rev. R. Morris, LL.D. 10s. 1872 

50. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. H. Sweet, M.A. PartH. 10s. ,, 

51. The Life of St Juliana, 2 versions, a.d. 1230, with translations ; ed. T. O. Cockayne <fe E. Brock. 2s. ,, 

52. PaUadius on Husbondrie, englisht (ab. 1420 a.d.), ed. Rev. Barton Lodge, M.A. Parti. 10s. ,, 

53. Old-English Homilies, Series II., and three Hymns to the Virgin and God, 13th-century, with 

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54. The Vision of Piers Plowman, Text C : Richard the Redeles (by William, the author of the Vision) 

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55. Generydes, a Romance, ab. 1440 a.d., ed. W. Aldis Wright, M.A. Part I. 3s. ,, 

56. The Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of Troy, in alliterative verse ; ed. by D. Donaldson, Esq., 

and the late Rev. G. A\ Panton. Part II. 10s. 6d. 1S74 

57. The Early English Version of the " Cursor Mundi" ; in four Texts, edited by the Rev. R. Morris, 

M.A., LL.D. Part I, with 2 photolithographic facsimiles. 10s. 6d. ,, 

58. The Blickling Homilies, 971 a.d., ed. Rev. R. Morris, LL.D. Part I. 8s. ,, 

59. The " Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part II. 15s. 1875 

60. Meditacyuns on the Soper of our Lorde (by Robert of Brunne), edited by J. M. Cowper. 2s. 6d. ,, 

61. The Romance and Prophecies of Thomas of Erceldoune, from 5 MSS. ; ed. Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 10s. 6d. ,, 

62. The "Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part III. 15s. 1S76 

63. The Blickling Homilies, 971 a.d., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part II. 7s. „ 

64. Francis Thynne's Embleames and Epigrams, a.d. 1600, ed. F. J. Furnivall. 7s. ,, 

65. Be Domes Dsege (Bede's De Die Judicii), Ac, ed. J. R. Lumby, B.D. 2s. ,, 

66. The " Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part IV., with 2 autotypes. 10s. 1877 

67. Notes on Piers Plowman, by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, M. A. Parti. 21s. „ 

68. The "Cursor Mundi," in 4 Texts, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part V. 25s. 1878 

69. Adam Davie's 5 Dreams about Edward II., &c, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 5s. ,, 

70. Generydes, a Romance, ed. W. Aldis Wright, M.A. Part II. 4s. 

71. The Lay Folks Mass-Book, four texts, ed. Rev. Canon Simmons. 25s. 1879 

72. Palladius on Husbondrie, englisht (ab. 1420 a.d.). Part II. Ed. S. J. Heritage, B.A. 15s. ,, 

73. The Blickling Homilies, 971 a. d., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Part III. 10s. 1880 

74. English Works of Wyclif, hitherto unprinted, ed. F. D. Matthew, Esq. 20s. 

75. Catholicon Anglicum, an early English Dictionary, from Lord Monson's MS. a.d. 1483, ed., with 

Introduction & Notes, by S. J. Herrtage, B.A. ; and with a Preface by H. B. Wheatley. 20s. 1SS1 

76. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, in MS. Cott. Jul. E 7., ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, M.A. Part I. 10s. 

77. Beowulf, the unique MS. autotyped and transliterated, edited by Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 25s. 1882 

78. The Fifty Earliest English Wills, in the Court of Probate, 13S7-1439, ed. by F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 7s. ,, 

79. King Alfred's Orosius, from Lord Tollemache's 9th century MS., Part I, ed. H. Sweet, M.A. 13s. 1SS3 
Extra Volume. Facsimile of the Epinal Glossary, 8th cent., ed. H. Sweet, M.A. 15s. 

80. The Early-English Life of St. Katherine and its Latin Original, ed. Dr. Einenkel. 12s. 1884 

81. Piers Plowman : Notes, Glossary, &c. Part IV, completing the work, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, M.A. 18s. 

S2. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E 7., ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, M.A., LL.D. Part II. 12s. 1885 
83. The Oldest English Texts, Charters, &c, ed. H. Sweet, M.A. 20s. 

S4. Additional Analogs to ' The Wright's Chaste Wife,' No. 12, by W. A. Clouston. Is. ISs'o 
85. The Three Kings of Cologne. 2 English Texts, and 1 Latin, ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 17s. 

56. Prose Lives of Women Saints, ab. 1610 a.d., ed. from the unique MS. by Dr. C. Horstmann. 12s. 

57. Early English Verse Lives of Saints (earliest version), Laud MS. 108, ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 20s. 18S7 

58. Hy. Bradshaw's Life of St. Werburghe (Pynson, 1521), ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 10s. 

59. Vices and Virtues, from the unique MS., ab. 1200 a.d. , ed. Dr. F. Holthausen. Part I. 8s. 18SS 

90. Anglo-Saxon and Latin Rule of St. Benet, interlinear Glosses, ed. Dr. H. Logeman. 12s. 

91. Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, ab. 1430-1450, edited by Mr. T. Austin. 10s. 

92. Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter, from the Trin. Cambr.MS.,ab. 1150 A.D.,ed. F. Harsley, B.A. Pt. I. 12s. 1S89 

93. Defensor's Liber Scintillarum, edited from the MSS. by Ernest Rhodes, B.A. 12s. 

S The Extra Series of the " Early English Text Society." 

94. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E 7, Part III. , ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 12s. 1890 

95. The Old-English version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, re-ed. by Dr. Thomas Miller. Part I, § 1. ISs. ,, 
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96. The Old-English version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, re-ed. by Dr. Thomas Miller. Pt. I, § 2. 15s. 1S91 

97. The Earliest English Prose Psalter, edited from its 2 MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. Parti. 15s. ,, 

98. Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., Part I., ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 20s. 1892 

99. Cursor Mundi. Part VI. Preface, Notes, and Glossary, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. ,, 

100. Capgrave's Life of St. Katharine, ed. Dr. C. Horstmann, with Forewords by Dr. Furnivall. 20s. 1893 

101. Cursor Mundi. Part VII. Essay on the MSS., their Dialects, &c, by Dr. H. Hupe. 10s. ,, 

102. Lanfranc's Cirurgie, ab. 1400 a.d., ed. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. Pari^I. 20s. 1894 

103. The Legend of the Cross, from a 12th century MS., &c, ed. Prof. A. S. Napier, M.A., Ph.D. 7s. Gel. ,, 

104. The Exeter Book (Anglo-Saxon Poems), re-edited from the unique MS. by I. Gollancz, M. A. Part I. 20s. 1895 

105. The Prymer or Lay-Folks' Prayer-Book, Camb. Univ. MS., ab. 1420, ed. Henry Littlehales. Part I. 10s. ,, 

106. R. Misyn's Fire of Love and Mending of Life (Hampole), 1434, 1435, ed. Rev. R. Harvey, M.A. 15s. 1896 

107. The English Conquest of Ireland, a.d. 1166-1185, 2 Texts, 1425, 1440, Pt. I., ed. Dr. Furnivall. 15s. 

10S. Child-Marriages and -Divorces, Trothplights, &c. Chester Depositions, 1561-6, ed. Dr. Furnivall. 15s. 1897 

109. The Prymer or Lay-Folks' Prayer-Book, ab. 1420, ed. Henry Littlehales. Part II. 10s. „ 

110. The Old-English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, ed. Dr. T. Miller. Part II, § 1. 15s. 1S98 

111. The Old-English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, ed. Dr. T. Miller. Part II, § 2. 15s. ,, 

112. Merlin, Part IV : Outlines of the Legend of Merlin, by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 15s. 1S99 

113. Queen Elizabeth's Englishings of Boethius, Plutarch &c. &c, ed. Miss C. Pemberton. 15s. ,, 

114. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, Part IV and last, ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 15s. 1900 

115. Jacob's Well, edited from the unique Salisbury Cathedral MS. by Dr. J. W. Brandeis. Part I. 15s. ,, 


The Publications for 1867-1895 (one guinea each year) are: — 

I. William of Palerne; or, William and the Werwolf. Re-edited by Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 13s. 1867 

II. Early English Pronunciation with especial Reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A. J. Ellis, 
F.R.S. Part I. 10s. 

III. Caxton's Book of Curtesye, in Three Versions. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 5s. 1868 

IV. Havelokthe Dane. Re-edited by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. ,, 

V. Chaucer's Boethius. Edited from the two best MSS. by Rev. Dr. R. Morris 12s. ,, 

VI. Chevelere Assigne. Re-edited from the unique MS. by Lord Aldenham, M.A. 3s. ,, 

VII. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part II. 10s. 1869 

VIII. Queene Elizabethes Achademy, &c. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. Essays on early Italian and German 
Books of Courtesy, by W. M. Rossetti and Dr. E. Oswald. 13s. ,, 

IX. Awdeley'sFraternityeof Vacabondes, Harman's Caveat, &c. Ed. E. Viles & F. J. Furnivall. 7s. Gel. ,, 

X. Andrew Boorde's Introduction of Knowledge, 1547, Dyetary of Helth, 1542, Barnes in Defence of the 
Berde, 1542-3. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 18s. 1870 

XI. Barbour's Bruce, Part I. Ed. from MSS. and editions, by Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 12s. ,, 

XII. England in Henry VIII.'s Time : a Dialogue between Cardinal Pole & Lupset, by Thorn. Starkey, 
Chaplain to Henry VIII. Ed. J. M. Cowper. Part II. 12s. (Part I. is No. XXXII, 1878, 8s.) 1871 

XIII. A Supplicacyon of the Beggers, by Simon Fish, 1528-9 a.d., ed. F. J. Furnivall ; with A Suppli- 
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XIV. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Part III. 10s. )( 

XV. Robert Crowley's Thirty-One Epigrams, Voyce of the Last Trumpet, Way to Wealth, fee, a.d. 
1550-1, edited by J. M. Cowper, Esq. 12s. 1872 

XVI. Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe. Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 6s. ,, 

XVII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 a.d., with 4 Tracts (1542-48), ed. Dr. Murray. Part I. 10s. ,, 

XVIII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 a.d., ed. Dr. Murray. Part II. Ss. 1873 

XIX. Oure Ladyes Myroure, a.d. 1530, ed. Rev. J. H. Blunt, M.A. 24s. ,, 

XX. Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail (ab. 1450 a.d.), ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part I. Ss. 1874 

XXI. Barbour's Bruce, Part II., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 4s. ,, 

XXII. Henry Brinklow's Complaynt of Roderyck Mors (ab. 1542) : and The Lamentacion of a Christian 
against the Citie of London, made by Roderigo Mors, a.d. 1545. Ed. J. M. Cowper. 9s. ,, 

XXIII. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part IV. 10s. „ 

XXIV. Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M. A., Ph.D. Partll. 10s. 1S75 

XXV. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Parti. 20s. ,, 

XXVI. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part II. 14s. 1876 

XXVII. Bp. Fisher's English Works (died 1535). ed. by Prof. J. E. B. Mayor. Part I, the Text. 16s. 

XXVIII. Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part III. 10s. 1877 

XXIX. Barbour's Bruce. Part III., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 21s. ,, 

XXX. Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M. A., PhD. Part IV. 15s. 1878 

XXXI. The Alliterative Romance of Alexander andDindimus, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 6s. ,, 

XXXII. Starkey' s" England in Henry VIII's time." Pt. I. Starkey'sLife and Letters, ed. S. J. Heritage. Ss. ,, 

Works 'preparing for the " Early English Text Society." 9 

XXXIII. Gesta Romanorum (englisht ab. 1440), ed. S. J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. 1879 

XXXIV. The Charlemagne Romances : — 1. Sir Ferumbras, from Ashm. MS. 33, ed. S. J. Herrtage. 15s. ,, 

XXXV. Charlemagne Romances :— 2. The Sege off Melayne, SirOtuell, &c, ed. S. J. Herrtage. 12s. 1880 

XXXVI. Charlemagne Romances:— 3. Lyf of Charles the Grete, Pt. I., ed. S. J. Herrtage. 16s. ,, 

XXXVII. Charlemagne Romances :— 4. lyf of Charles the Grete, Pt. II., ed. S. J. Herrtage. 15s. 1881 

XXXVIII. Charlemagne Romances : — 5. The Sowdone of Babylone, ed. Dr. Hausknecht. 15s. ,, 

XXXIX. Charlemagne Romances :— 6. RaufColyear, Roland, Otuel, &c, ed. S.J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. 1882 
XL. Charlemagne Romances : — 7. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Parti. 15s. ,, 
XLI. Charlemagne Romances : — 8. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Pt. II. 15s. 1883 
XLII. Guy of Warwick : 2 texts (Auchinleek MS. and Caius MS.), ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part I. 15s. ,, 
XLIII. Charlemagne Romances: — 9. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Pt. III. 15s. 1884 
XLIV. Charlemagne Romances : — 10. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Miss Octavia Richardson. Pt. I. 15s. ,, 
XLV. Charlemagne Romances : — 11. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Miss O. Richardson. Pt. II. 20s. 1S85 
XLVI. SirBevisofHamton, from the Auchinleek and other MSS., ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. Part I. 10s.,, 
XLVII. The Wars of Alexander, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 20s. 1SS6 
XL VIII. SirBevisofHamton, ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. Part II. 10s. ,, 
XLIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleek and Caius MSS.), Pt. II., ed. Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1887 
L. Charlemagne Romances : — 12. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Part IV. 5s. ,, 
LI. Torrent of Portyngale, from the unique MS. in the Chetham Library, ed. E. Adam, Ph.D. 10s. ,, 
LII. Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1578 (ed. 1, 1564). Ed. M. & A. H. Bullen. 10s. 18S8 
LIII. Vicary's Anatomie of the Body of Man, 1548, ed. 1577, ed. P. J. & Percy Furnivall. Parti. 15s. ,, 
LIV. Caxton's Englishing of Alain Chartier's Curial, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall & Prof. P. Meyer. 5s. ,, 
LV. Barbour's Bruce, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. Part IV. 5s. 1889 
LVI. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Pt. V., the present English Dialects. 25s. ,, 
LVII. Caxton's Eneydos, a.d. 1490, coll. with its French, ed. M. T. Culley, M.A. & Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 13s. 1S90 
LVIII. Caxton's Blanchardyn & Eglantine, c. 14S9, extracts from ed. 1595, & French, ed. Dr. L. Kellner. 17s. „ 
LIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleek and Caius MSS.), Part III., ed. Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1891 
LX. Lydgate's Temple of G)ass, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. J. Schick. 15s. ,, 
LXI. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, I., from the Phillipps and Durham MSS., ed. F. J. Furnivall, Ph.D. 15s. 1S92 
LXII. The Chester Plays, re-edited from the MSS. by the late Dr. Hermann Deimling. Part I. 15s. 

LXIII. Thomas a Kempis's De Imitatione Christi, englisht ab. 1440, & 1502, ed. Prof. J. K. Ingram. 15s. 1S93 

LXIV. Caxton's Godfrey of Boloyne, or Last Siege of Jerusalem, 1481, ed. Dr. Mary N. Colvin. 15s. 

LXV. Sir Bevis of Hamton, ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph. D. Part III. 15s. 1S94 

LXVI. Lydgate's and Burgh's Secrees of Philisoffres, ab. 1445—50, ed. R. Steele, B.A. 15s. 

LXVII. The Three Kings' Sons, a Romance, ab. 1500, Part I., the Text, ed. Dr. Furnivall. 10s. 1895 

LXVIII. Melusine, the prose Romance, ab. 1500, Part I, the Text, ed. A. K. Donald. 20s. 

LXIX. Lydgate's Assembly of the Gods, ed. Prof. Oscar L. Triggs, M.A., Ph.D. 15s. 1S9G 

LXX. The Digby Plays, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 15s. 

LXXI. The Towneley Plays, ed. Geo. England and A. W. Pollard, M.A. 15s. 1897 

LXXII. Hoccleve's Regement of Princes, 1411-12, and 14 Poems, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 15s. 

LXXIII. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, II., from the Ashburnham MS., ed. I. Gollancz, M.A. [At Press. 

LXXIV. Secreta Secretorum, 3 prose Englishings, by Jas. Yonge, 142S, ed. R. Steele, B.A. Part I. 20s. 189S 

LXXV. Speculum Guidonis de Warwyk, edited by Miss R. L. Morrill. 10s. 

? Melusine, the Prose Romance, ab. 1500, Part II., Introduction by A. K. Donald. 10s. 1899 

? Promptorium Parvulorum, c. 1440, from the Winchester MS., ed. Rev. A. L. Mayhew, M.A. Part I. 20s. 


Besides the Texts named as at press on p. 12 of the Cover of the Early English Text 
Society's last books, the following Texts are also slowly preparing for the Society : — 


Thomas Robinson's Life and Death of Mary Magdalene, from the 2 MSS. ab. 1620 A.D. {Text in type.) 

The Earliest English Prose Psalter, ed. Dr. K. D. Buelbring. Part II. 

The Earliest English Verse Psalter, 3 texts, ed. Rev. R. Harvey, M.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Poems, from the Vercelli MS., re-edited by I. Gollancz, M.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Glosses to Latin Prayers and Hymns, edited by Dr. F. Holthausen. 

Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E 7, Part IV, ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 

All the Anglo-Saxon Homilies and Lives of Saints not accessible in English editions, including those of the 

Vercelli MS. &c, edited by Prof. Napier, M.A., Ph.D. 
The Anglo-Saxon Psalms; all the MSS. in Parallel Texts, ed. Dr. H. Logeman and F. Harsley,B.A. 
Beowulf, a critical Text, &c, edited by a Pupil of the late Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 
Byrhtferth'sHandboc, edited by Prof. G. Hempl. 

The Rule of St. Benet : 5 Texts, Anglo-Saxon, Early English, Caxton, &c. (Editor wanted.) 
The Seven Sages, in the Northern Dialect, from a Cotton MS., edited by Dr. Squires. 
The Master of the Game, a Book of Huntynge for Hen. V. when Prince of Wales. {Editor wanted ) 

10 Works preparing for the u Early English Text Society." 

Ailred's Rule of Nuns, &c, edited from the Vernon MS., by the Rev. Canon H. E. Bramley, M.A. 

Lonelich's Merlin (verse), from the unique MS., ed. by Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. 

Merlin (prose), Part IV., containing Preface, Index, and Glossary. Edited by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 

Early English Verse Lives of Saints, Standard Collection, from the Harl. MS. 

Early English Confessionals, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhaeker. 

A Lapidary, from Lord Tollemache's MS., &c, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhaeker. 

Early English Deeds and Documents, from unique MSS., ed. Dr. Lorenz Morsbach. 

Gilbert Banastre's Poems, and other Boccaccio englishings, ed. by a pupil of the late Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

Lanfranc's Cirurgie, ab. 1400 a.d., ed. Dr. R. von Fleischhaeker, Part II. 

William of Nassington' s Mirror of Life, from Jn. of Waldby, edited by J. T. Herbert, M.A. 

A Chronicle of England to 1327 A.D., Northern verse (42,000 lines), ab. 1400 A.D., ed. M. L. Perrin, B.A. 

More Early English Wills from the Probate Registry at Somerset House. (Editor Wanted.) 

Early Lincoln Wills and Documents from the Bishops' Registers, &c, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 

Early Canterbury Wills, edited by William Cowper, B.A. , and J. Meadows Cowper. 

Early Norwich Wills, edited by Walter Rye, and F. J. Furnivall. 

The Cartularies of Oseney Abbey and Godstow Nunnery, englisht ab. 1450, ed. Rev. A Clark, M.A. 

The Macro Moralities, edited from Mr. Gurney's unique MS., by Alfred W. Pollard, M.A. 

A Troy-Book, edited from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. E. Wulfing. 

Alliterative Prophecies, edited from the MSS. by Prof. Brandl, Ph. D. 

Miscellaneous Alliterative Poems, edited from the MSS. by Dr. L. Morsbach. 

Bird and Beast Poems, a collection from MSS., edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Scire Mori, &c, from the Lichfield MS. 16, ed. Mrs. L. Grindon, LL.A., and Miss Florence Gilbert. 

Nicholas Trivet's French Chronicle, from Sir A. Acland-Hood's unique MS., ed. by Miss Mary Bateson. 

Stories for Sermons, edited from the Addit. MS. 25,719 by Dr. Wieck of Coblentz. 

Early English Homilies in Harl. 2276 &c, c. 1400, ed. J. Friedlander. 

Extracts from the Registers of Boughton, ed. Hy. Littlehales, Esq. 

The Diary of Prior Moore of Worcester, a.d. 1518-35, from the unique MS., ed. Henry Littlehales, Esq. 

The Pore Caitif, edited from its MSS., by Mr. Peake. 


Bp. Fisher's English Works, Pt. II., with his Life and Letters, ed. Rev. Ronald Bayne, B.A. [At Press. 

John of Arderne's Surgery, c. 1425, ed. J. F. Payne, M.D., and Anderson, F.R.C.S. 

De Guilleville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, edited by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner. 

Vicary's Anatomie, 1548, from the unique MS. copy by George Jeans, edited by F. J. & Percy Furnivall. 

Vicary's Anatomie, 1548, ed. 1577, edited by F. J. <fc Percy Furnivall. Part II. [At Press. 

A Compilacion of Surgerye, from H. de Mandeville and Lanfrank, a.d. 1392, ed. Dr. J. F. Payne. 

William Staunton's St. Patrick's Purgatory, &c, ed. Mr. G, P. Krapp, U.S.A. 

A Parallel-text of the 6 MSS. of the Ancren Riwle, ed. Prof. Dr. E. Kolbing. 

Trevisa'sBartholomseus de Proprietatibus Rerum, re-edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhaeker. 

Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1564, 1573, 1578. Ed. A. H. and M. Bullen. Pt. II. 

The Romance of Boctus and Sidrac, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

The Romance of Clariodus, re-edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Amadas, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Degrevant, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. Luick. 

Robert of Brunne's Chronicle of England, from the Inner Temple MS., ed. by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 

Maundeville's Voiage and Travaile, re-edited from the Cotton MS. Titus C. 16, &c, by Miss M. Bateson. 

Avowynge of Arthur, re-edited from the unique Ireland MS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Guy of Warwick, Copland's version, edited by a pupil of the late Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

The Sege of Jerusalem, Text A, edited from the MSS. by Prof. Dr. E. Kolbing. 

Liber Fundacionis Ecclesie Sancti Bartholomei Londoniarum : englisht ab. 1425, ed. Norman Moore, M.D. 

Awdelay's Poems, re-edited from the unique MS. Douce 302, by Dr. E. Wulfing. 

William of Shoreham's Works, re-edited by Professor Konrath, Ph.D. 

The Wyse Chylde and other early Treatises on Education, Northwich School, Harl. 2099 &c, ed. G. Collar, B.A. 

Caxton's Dictes and Sayengis of Philosophirs, 1477, with Lord Tollemache's MS. version, ed. S. I. Butler, Esq. 

Caxton's Book of the Ordre of Chyualry, collated with Loutfut's Scotch copy, ed. F. S. Ellis, Esq. 

Lydgate's Court of Sapience, edited by Dr. Borsdorf. 

Lydgate's Lyfe of oure Lady, ed. by Prof. Georg Fiedler, Ph.D. 

Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, englisht from the French, edited by Dr. Sieper. 

Lydgate's Dance of Death, edited by Miss Florence Warren. 

Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund, edited from the MSS. by Dr. Axel Erdmann. 

Richard Coer de Lion, re-edited from Harl. MS. 4690, by Prof. Hausknecht, Ph.D. 

The Romance of Athelstan, re-edited by a pupil of the late Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

The Romance of Sir Degare, re-edited by Dr. Breul. 

Mulcaster's Positions 1581, and Elementarie 1582, ed. Dr. Th. Klaehr, Dresden. 

Caxton's Recuyell of the Histories of Troye, edited by H. Halliday Sparling. 

Walton's verse Boethius de Consolatione, edited by Mark H. Liddell, U. S. A. 

The Gospel of Nichodemus, edited by Ernest Riedel. 

The Society is anxious to hear of more early Dialect MSS. John Lacy's copy, in the 
Newcastle-on-Tyne dialect, 1434, of some theological tracts in MS. 94 of St. John's College, 
Oxford, is to be edited by Prof.'McClintock. More 'Hampoles-in the Yorkshire dialect will 
follow. The Lincoln and Jforfolk "Wills,, already, copied by or for Dr. Furnivall, unluckily 
show but little traces of dialect. * 

More members (to and Editors (to bring brains) are wanted by the Society. 




The Universi ty of N. C._ 


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Cardinal Pole anti Stomas SLttpset, lecturer 
in Efjetortc at ©xfortu 



[Beprinted 1898.] 


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§ 6. THE LAWYERS ... 



















§ i. 

The fierce passions which agitated men's minds during the reign 
of Henry VIII. scarcely fitted them to chronicle with calmness and 
without bias the condition of the country. Party spirit ran high in 
every direction ; on the king's marriages, on his supremacy, on matters 
of faith, on politics. Under these circumstances it is of the first 
importance, in considering this period of our history, that authorities 
should be tested, whether they wrote to serve party ends, or under a 
sense of cruel personal wrongs, or whether they wrote for the love 
of truth, and with the hope of ameliorating the condition of the 
suffering and oppressed. 

One trustworthy record we have, one which has ever been 
appealed to as authentic, as giving us an unbiassed statement of the 
miseries which were endured by the poor, and of the pomp and 
wastefulness of the rich. I refer to the Utopia. The Dialogue 
now published is hardly of less interest and less importance than 
More's Ideal Republic. Its unimpassioned statements respecting 
men, its judge-like suggestions for improvement, its keen appreciation 
of what would profit the country, and make men wiser, happier, 
and better, give it a value which few works of the time possess. 

Many of the controversial writings of this period are disfigured 
by such unsparing abuse of foes that we can hardly be too chary in 
receiving their testimony as matters of fact. Whether the country 
was that happy Arcadia which some would have us believe, or that 
"hell upon earth" which others describe it, cannot be ascertained 


from the fierce invectives of many of the writers whose names are at 
times, advanced in evidence. This question is more likely to be 
solved by a reference to such works as the Utopia and the Dialogue 
between Pole and Lupset, than to the Complaint of "Boderick 
Mors." Not that I wish to undervalue Brinklow's book, which gives 
another side of the question. As in many other cases, it is probable 
that truth lies between the two. More and Starkey may have 
touched many evils with a gentle hand, and many more they may 
have left untouched ; but those they do lay bare, have a semblance 
of truthfulness which it is not easy to gainsay. 

No writer, that I know of, has described our country as the 
blissful abode of the poor ; but it is to be hoped there were some 
happy spots, where, as a rule, the poor had plenty, and where 
liberty and religion prevailed. Such spots there may have been. It 
is certain that there were larger tracts where these blessings were 
not found — where oppression, hatred, envy, and unredressed wrongs 
urged men to rebellion — where the small farmer and the agricultural 
labourer were evicted by wholesale — where the villages and towns 
were allowed to fall into ruin, the churches only being kept, because 
they would shelter the sheep which now covered the land. Fathers 
and mothers were compelled to beg, daughters were driven to Bankside, 
and sons to the gallows. No poor-houses, the sweating sickness de- 
stroying men by thousands ; the poor lying and dying, untended 
and uncared for, by the sides of the ditches, corrupting the air 
around. No Edile to watch over the cities, and keep the filth from 
accumulating in the narrow streets, and no Censor to control the 
morals, which were in keeping with the dwellings of the people. 

The times were out of joint. The clergy were accused of being 
superstitious, idle, and vicious. The lawyers were guilty of bribes, 
and of perverting justice. And Justice herself, unrelenting in hang- 
ing, by twenty at a time, men who must steal or starve, was blind to 
the miseries, and deaf to the cry of the poor, when the rich man was 
the oppressor. Such are some of the topics touched upon in this 
book. 1 

1 See Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, in the Reign of Henry 
VIII. By J. S. Brewer, M.A., vol. ii. cclxxii. 


§ 2. 

The decay of villages and towns, the destruction or desecration 
of churches, and the wide-spread poverty among the poor, are among 
the more prominent subjects discussed in this work. How far this 
decay and depopulation extended, and in how far the writers upon 
these subjects are to be trusted, it is difficult to determine. "When 
we find it stated that the number of parishes in England was esti- 
mated at 52,000/ we do not wonder that Mr Froude should consider 
calculations based upon such an assertion as " of the most random 
kind." 2 But large as the number is, it is confirmed by another 
writer. A Tract now preserved in the Lambeth Library, and to 
which I shall have to refer hereafter, says, " There is in England 
towns and villages to the number of 50,000 and upward;" and I 
suspect that by giving a little wider meaning to the sentence, 
and a meaning which this writer probably had in his mind, we shall 
find that there were in England, if not 52,000 parish churches, yet 
that there were 52,000 towns, villages, and hamlets, averaging at 
least ten houses in each. Even now these hamlets are known in 
many parts by a distinct name, and are separate parishes in all things 
to those who dwell in or near them, except that they have no 
church, and are not separately rated to the poor. 

That the decay in the country was extensive there can be no 
doubt whatever. The proofs are numerous in the literature of the 
time ; and the statements of various writers are confirmed by the 
Statute Book. Many are the Acts of Parliament which were called 
into existence by it, or in which it is referred to. 3 Many of the 
places enumerated as having fallen into decay had been fortified ; 
but fortified or unfortified, the evil was confined to no particular 
locality or county, it was general. 4 

1 There are within your realm of England 52,000 parish churches. And 
this standing that there be but ten households in every parish, yet are there 
520,000 households. — Supplication of Beggars. Fox, iv. 659. Townsend's ed. 

2 Froude, Hist. i. 3. 

3 See 4 Hen. VII. c. 16 ; 6 Hen. VIII. c. 5 ; 7 Hen. VIII. c. 1 ; 25 Hen. 
VIII. c. 13 ; 27 Hen. VIII. c. 1 ; 32 Hen. VIII. c. 18, 19. 

4 The names are York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Coventry, Bath, Chichester, 
Salisbury, Winchester, Bristol, Scarborough, Hereford, Colchester, Rochester, 


' The cause of this decay is generally attributed to sheep-farming 
and the enclosure of lands. Wherever the finest wool was grown, 
there noblemen and Abbots enclosed all the land for pasture. They 
levelled houses and towns, and left nothing standing except the 
church, which they converted into a sheep-house. They turned all 
dwelling-places and all glebelands into a wilderness. 1 The pre- 
amble to 25 Hen. VIII. c. 13, confirms the picture drawn by Sir 
Thomas More. It asserts that divers subjects of the king bad daily 
studied how they might get into as few hands as possible, great 
multitude of farms, as well as plenty of cattle and sheep, converting 
such lands as they obtained to pasture, " whereby they had pulled 
down churches and towns, and enhanced the old rates of the rents 
of the possessions of this realm, or else brought it to such excessive 
fines that no poor man is able to meddle with it." It was asserted 
that since the reign of Henry VII. in some places all the town was 
decayed ; that in Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Northampton- 
shire, were many landowners who cared nothing for tillage, or the 
breeding and rearing of cattle ; that where the land had been tilled 
it was now encumbered with sheep, and the cottages destroyed. 

It was calculated, as we have seen, that there were 50,000 towns 
and villages in England : it was further calculated that for every 
town and village on an average there was one plow less since the 
year 1485. This would make a total loss of 50,000 plows, each of 
which, it was estimated, was able to maintain six persons, " that is 
to say, the man, the wife, and four others in the house, less and 
more." This made it appear that 300,000 persons, " who were wont 
to have meat, drink, and raiment, uprising and downlying, paying 
scot and lot to God and the king," had been deprived of their 
means of support. " And now they have nothing, but go about in 
England from door to door, and ask their alms for God's sake. And 

Portsmouth, Poole, Lynne, Faversham, Worcester, Stafford, Buckingham, 
Pomfret, Grantham, Exeter, Ipswich, Southampton, Great Yarmouth, Oxford, 
Great Wycomb, Guildford, Estredforde (?), Kingston-on-Hull, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Beverley, Bedford, Leicester, Berwick, Shafton, Sherborne, Bridport, 
Dorchester, Weymouth, Plymton, Barnstaple, Tavistock, Dartmouth, Laun- 
ceston, Liskeard, Lowestwithiel, Bodmin, Truro, Helston, Bridgwater, Taunton, 
Somerson, Bchester, Maldon, and Warwick. 
1 Utopia, p. 41. 


because they will not "beg some of them do steal, and then they be 
hanged. And thus the realm doth decay." 1 

Later on Latimer and Bernard Gilpin brought forward the same 
charges. They described the covetous engrossers as extortioners and 
violent oppressors, through whose covetousness villages decayed and 
fell down, 2 and thousands of poor were driven to beg. The Ballads 3 
give a similar cry : — 

" Envy waxeth wondrous strong, 
The rich doth the poor wrong ; 
God of his mercy suffereth long 
The devil his works to work. 
The towns go down, the land decays ; 
Of cornfields, plain lays 4 -; 
Great men maketh now-a-days 
A sheepcot of the church. 

" The places that we right holy call, 
Ordained for Christian burial, 
Of them to make an ox's stall 
• These men be wondrous wise. 
Commons to close and keep ; 
Poor folk for bread to cry and weep ; 
Towns pulled down to pasture sheep : 
This is the new guise 5 ." 

Notwithstanding all the efforts which had been made to check this 
decay, though Bight Beverend Bathers had declaimed against it, and 
Acts of Parliament had declared it an offence, the evil still went on ; 
and so late as the 39th Eliz. another Act was passed against the 
decaying of houses and husbandry. To this Act no further reference 
is necessary. Enough has been adduced to show that the decay 
and depopulation were realities, and not a party cry, and that they 
pressed with great severity upon the poor. 

1 See a dateless Tract, entitled Certayne causes gathered together, wherein 
is shewed the decaye of England, etc., Lambeth Library. 

2 Latimer's Sermons, p. 33, ed. 1869 ; B. Gilpin's Sermon before Ed. VI. 
p. 33, ed. 1630. 

3 Now-a-days, Ballads from Manuscripts, vol. i., edited by F. J. Furni- 
vall, Esq., 1868. 

4 Lays, grass lands. s Guise, fashion. 


§ 3. 

Sheep-farms, untilled lands, and enclosures are terms which are 
met with everywhere in connection with these times. In the pre- 
ceding section something has "been said upon these topics, as they are 
so closely allied that these are generally adduced as the causes of 
decay and depopulation. The fineness of the English wool soon 
attracted huyers, and, as a natural result, its price went up in the 
markets. Landowners and land-holders were not slow to perceive 
the advantages to he gained hy converting arable lands into pasture. 
A ready market, and high prices for wool ; little or no attention re- 
quired ; one shepherd to he kept in place of the many men required 
to grow corn — no wonder that it "became the rage to enclose lands 
on all sides — that men who were compared to Mmrods, cormorants, 
and plagues, found means to enclose thousands of acres within a 
single fence — that hushandmen, by trickery or hy fraud, 1 were thrust 
out of their own — that they were compelled to part with what little 
they had of this world's goods — that men and women, hushands and 
wives, orphans and widows, weeping mothers and young children, 
" small in substance, hut many in number," were driven from their 
homes without a resting-place "before them. No wonder the " poor 
seely souls " fell to hegging or to stealing ; either of which courses 
was almost certain to end at the gallows. 2 

By this change in farming, in some parishes where, from time out 
of mind, two hundred persons had lived in comfort, the numher was 
diminished, hushandry was not followed, churches were destroyed, 
Christian people "buried, hut unprayed for ; cities and market towns 
were ruined, and the necessaries of life made scarce and dear. 3 
Eighteen years later, and the shadows of this picture seem deeper. 

1 Lever, quoted by Mr Froude (v. 112), exclaims, ' Oh. merciful Lord, what 
a number of poor, feeble, blind, halt, lame, sickly — yea, with idle vagabonds 
and dissembling caitiffs mixed with them — lie and creep begging in the miry 
streets of London and Westminster. It is the common custom with covetous 
landlords to let their housing so decay, that the farmers shall be fain for small 
regard or coin to give up their leases, that they taking the ground into their 
own hands may turn all into pasture. So now old fathers, poor widows, and 
young children lie begging in the streets.' 

2 Utopia, p. 41 ; B. Gilpin, p. 33. 3 Preamble, 7 Hen. VIII. c. 1. 


Again it is " the lands are put to pasture, and not to tillage, towns 
and churches are pulled down, old rents are enhanced, or brought to 
fines so excessive that no poor man can meddle therewith. The 
prices of corn, cattle, "wool, pigs, geese, poultry, eggs, are almost 
doubled, and a marvellous number are unable to provide meat, 
drink, and clothes, and are so discouraged that they fall daily to 
theft, or pitifully die of hunger and cold. 1 

But we need not confine ourselves to Acts of Parliament to show 
the extent of the miseries resulting from sheep-farming and en- 
closures. The ground was " marvellously fruitful, but in con- 
sequence of the abundance of cattle, and the numerous graziers, a 
third part of it was left uncultivated. Everywhere a man might see 
parks paled and enclosed, and full of animals of the chase." 2 Latimer 
probably understood the question as well as any man of his day. He 
had risen from the small homestead, and, when standing before the 
King and his Court, the condition of the people was rarely absent 
from his mind. "If," said he, "the King's honour standeth in the 
great multitude of people, then these graziers, enclosers, and rent- 
rearers, are hinderers of the King's honour. For where there were a 
great many of householders and inhabitants, there is now but a shep- 
herd and his dog : so they hinder the King's honour." 3 The statutes 
had failed in the object for which they had been enacted. They 
were good, the meetings and sessions were numerous ; but in the 
end of the matter there came nothing forth. 4 The Act against pull- 
ing down farm houses was evaded by repairing one room for the use 
of a shepherd ; a single furrow was driven across a field to prove 
that it was still under the plough ; the cattle owners, to escape the 
statutes against sheep, held their flocks in the names of their sons or 
servants ; the high ways and the villages were covered in conse- 
quence with outcast families who were wholly reduced to beggary. 5 

In 1549 the rebellion broke out. How it was suppressed we 
need not say here. In the following year Eobert Crowley published 
his Way to Wealth, a few words from which will give the wrongs, 
real or fancied, which made men rebel. If, he says, I should demand 

1 Preamble, 25 Hen. VIII. c. 13. 2 Polidore Vergil, B. i. p. 5, Camden Soc. 
3 Sermons, p. 40. 4 Latimer's Sermons p. 41. s Froude, Hist. v. p. 111. 


of the poor man what he thinks the cause of sedition : I know his 
answer. The great farmers, the graziers, the rich butchers, the men 
of law, the merchants, the gentlemen, the knights, the lords, and I 
cannot tell who. Men that have no name, because they are doers in 
all things that any gain hangeth upon — men without conscience — 
men utterly devoid of God's fear — yea, men that live as if there were 
no God at all ! They would have all in their own hands ; would 
leave nothing for others ; would be alone on the earth ; men that 
would eat up men, women, and children are the causes of sedition. 
They raise our rents, and enclose our commons. We cannot stay 
in the country, but we must be their slaves ; and to go to the 
cities we have no hope. "We must needs fight it out, and die like 
men. 1 Some had fought, and had died like men ; and Miles Cover- 
dale, translator of the Bible, and future Bishop of Exeter, had 
preached a thanksgiving sermon among their bodies as they lay with 
stiffening limbs, and faces upturned to the stars. 2 

Wrong triumphed in the land. The religious houses were sup- 
pressed ; the fountain of charity was dried up ; the country was in 
the agonies of a change which must work its weal or its woe ; and the 
poor wept, begged, stole, rebelled, and died — often "like men." 

§ 4. 

" Valiant beggars," " sturdy vagabonds," and thieves were another 
source of trouble to the country, and an evidence of its unprosperous 
condition. Laws had been made, but had failed in their object, 3 
but the failure is not to be attributed to the " foolish pity of them 
that should have seen the laws executed." 4 The causes of this exces- 
sive number of idle, wandering, houseless poor are to be looked for 
in the wholesale evictions which followed on the introduction of sheep- 
farming, and to the numbers who returned from the wars maimed 
and lame. 5 The ranks of the idle and unoccupied were also increased 
from the trains kept by noblemen. When a servant fell ill, he was 
thrust out of doors, because gentlemen preferred an idle servant to a 
sick man. When the master died it frequently happened that the 

1 The Way to Wealth, etc. 2 Froude, Hist, v. 191. 3 Utopia, p. 51. 
4 Froude, Hist. v. 68. 5 Utopia, p. 38. 


heir was unable or unwilling to keep so great a retinue as his prede- 
cessor, and then the servants were cast upon the country — some in 
their prime, some past it. Unable or unwilling to work, they either 
starved manfully or played the thieves. 1 

"When Sir Thomas More wrote (1516), the religious foundations 
were in a position to do much to relieve the necessities of the poor, and, 
on the whole, they seem to have performed this part of their duty, if 
not with that nice discrimination upon which the charitable people 
of our day pride themselves, yet with a liberality that saved many 
from perishing. Thirty years later, when the Supplication of the 
Poor Commons appeared, this resource of the destitute had been sud- 
denly taken aAvay. The religious houses had been suppressed, their 
estates had been given away or divided, and the small tenants ex- 
pelled from their holdings to add still more to the idle and the 
vicious. It was thought when Henry turned out the monks, that 
the " poor commons " would be the gainers by the change. "But 
alas, they failed of their expectation, and are now in more penury 
than ever they were." Although the monks got the devotions of the 
charitable, " yet the poor impotent creatures had some relief from 
their scraps, but now they have nothing. Then had they hospitals 
and almshouses to be lodged in, but now they lie and starve in the 
streets. Then was their number great, but now much greater." In- 
stead of sturdy monks, sturdy extortioners had stepped in, who so 
oppressed the " poor commons " that many thousands who had be- 
fore lived honestly and well, bringing up their children in profitable 
employment, were now constrained to beg, borrow, or rob. Their 
children grew up in idleness ; the submissive " to bear wallets," the 
sturdy " to stuff prisons, and garnish gallows-trees." 2 

From this it is clear that the evils under which the poor groaned 
in More's time, were fearfully aggravated when Henry's "hoar 
hairs were a token that nature made haste to absolve the course of 
his life." 3 The "little finger" of the earlier days had grown into 

1 Utopia, p. 38. 2 The Supplication of the Poore Commons, 1546. 

3 Supplication, etc. Henry seems to have been no exception to the pre- 
mature ravages which time made upon men at this period. " In that age life 
wasted and waned apace. Men were old and worn out at 60. Lewis XII. 
did not live to complete his 54th year, and was a wreck, not merely by the 


the " loins " of the later, and the " whips " had changed into " scor- 
pions." Honest households were made followers of less honest 
men's tables. Honest matrons were brought to the' needy distaff to 
gain their bread. Men children of good hope in the liberal sciences 
were driven out as day labourers, to support their parents' decrepit 
age and abject poverty. Forward and stubborn children shook off 
the yoke of obedience, and, after a brief life of wickedness, died the 
death of felons. Modest, chaste, and womanly virgins were compelled 
to single servitude, or to marry perpetual miserable poverty — while 
the immodest and the wanton became "Sisters of the Bank," 1 
finally lying and dying in the streets, full of plagues and full of 
penury. 2 

That those who had introduced so much misery and crime should 
be energetic in its punishment is no more than might be expected ; 
and we find that hanging was of the commonest occurrence. Though 
twenty were hanged at one time upon a single gallows, and though 
few escaped, yet in every place thieves were plentiful. A few thought 
the punishment too severe for men to whom no other means of gain- 
ing a livelihood were open, and suggested employing them in quarries 
and mines, for the sake of giving the criminal work, and saving his 
life ; but by the majority death was judged the only cure. 3 

§ 5. 

The morality of the clergy is a question which it is unnecessary 
to dwell upon here. Often as they are mentioned and often as their 

report of his enemies, but by bis own admissions to Suffolk and others. Francis 
I. died at 53 ; Maximilian at 60 ; Charles V. at 59. Wolsey, who passed for 
' an old man broken with the storms of state,' even before his fall, died at 
55. More remarkable still, Henry VII., whose portraits show indications of 
extreme age in the wasted face and neck, the long bony fingers and feebleness 
of their grasp, died at the early age of 52, completely worn out in mind and 
body. The fearful excitement through which they had passed told heavily 
upon them ; like men who had struggled and buffeted for life in a stormy sea, 
and saved it only to drag out a few weary years on dry land." — Letters and 
Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII., v. 2, p. i. note. 

1 Banksidb, infamous for its stews. See Latimer's Sermons, p. 81, and 
Ballads from Manuscripts, i. p. 25, note. 2 Crowley's Informacion. 

3 Utopia, pp. 37, 48. For further information see Ballads from MSS., vol. i. 
passim ; and for the means employed by the Protector Somerset, and the rings 
which the slaves of private persons were to wear on their necks, arms, or legs, 
see the same vol. pp. 121 — 123. See also Froude, Hist. v. pp. 68, 69. 


failings are pointed out, there is but one reference 1 to the shocking 
charges which have been so frequently brought against them. But 
then the reference is made in such a manner, and received so much 
as a "well-known truth, that this absence of specific charges must not 
be taken as a proof that the clergy were free from the faults under 
notice, but rather as confirmatory of the general opinion concerning 
them. The little attention bestowed upon the subject in the Dialogue 
must be held as a sufficient excuse for its being only hinted at here. 
Those who are anxious to know more may consult Mr Furnivall's 
Introduction to Ballads from Manuscripts, where they will find a 
mass of evidence collected in support of the charge. 

From Starkey's work we gather that the Bishops kept trains of 
idle serving-men, thus following the example of the temporal lords ; 
that priests were idle and unprofitable ; that they were too many in 
number, 2 but too few in goodness ; that they were selfish, and cared 
only for the wool of the flock ; that they were ignorant, 3 vicious, and 
superstitious. It is asserted that the admission of priests and friars 
at an early age was an evil ; that celibacy ought to be abolished ; 
that priests and prelates were non-resident — all these charges we can 
have no difficulty in admitting : they were part and parcel of the 

Latimer was unsparing in his remarks upon the shortcomings 
of bishops. He declared that ever since they had been made lords 
the plough stood still, no work was done. They hawked, they 
hunted, they carded, they diced ; thus following the example of the 
highest in the realm in practices which descended to the meanest. 

1 p. 200. 

2 Your realm is overcharged through the great multitude of chantry 
priests, soul priests, canons residentiaries in Cathedral churches, prebendaries, 
monk pensioners, morrow-mass priests, unlearned curates, priests of guilds and 
fraternities, or brotherhoods, riding chaplains, and such other idle persons, 
[who] are wasters, spoilers, and robbers. — A Supplication to Our Sovereign 
Lord, etc., 1544. 

3 Many . . . having neither learning nor other godly qualities, apt, meet, 
or convenient to be in spiritual pastors, be now admitted to have cure of souls. 
And some such that did never know what is a soul, nor yet be able to have 
care over one soul, be now admitted to have charge over a hundred and many 
more, to the increase of all ignorance, and all popish blindness. — A Supplica- 
tion to Our Sovereign Lord. 


Their neglect of preaching was a natural result of their lordly living, 
and their employment in duties which were the proper work of lay- 
men. If a person were admitted to view hell, and the devil were to 
show him the unpreaching prelates who had there found their home, 
he would see as many as would reach to Calais — he would see no- 
thing hut unpreaching prelates. 1 But Latimer could say a good word 
when he deemed that good word deserved ; and one such may fitly 
come in here, hecause it hears witness to certain good qualities which 
Pole undoubtedly possessed. " I never," he says, " remember that 
man [Cardinal Pole] methinks, hut I remember him with a heavy 
heart. A witty man, a learned man, a man of a noble house, so in 
favour that — if he had tarried in the realm, and would have con- 
formed himself to the king's proceedings, I heard say, and I believe 
it verily, that he had been Bishop of York at this day. He would 
have done much good in that part of therealm, for those quarters have 
always had great need of a learned man and a preaching prelate. A 
thing to be much lamented, that such a man should take such a way." 2 
The custom of pluralities was another source of complaint against 
the clergy. In 1529 an Act 3 was passed to put an end to the abuse 
and remove the scandal, but the exceptions made the Act nugatory. 
Spiritual men of the King's Council might keep three livings ; chap- 
lains to # the Queen and members of the royal family might keep two 
each. An Archbishop and a Duke might keep six chaplains; a 
Marquis and an Earl might keep five, and each of these chaplains was 

1 Sermons, p. 114. Compare 

Quevedo, as he tells his soher tale, 

Ask'd, when in Hell, to see the royal jail : 

Approved their method in all other things, 

" But where, good sir, do you confine your kings ? " 

"There," said his guide — "the group is full in view." 

" Indeed I " replied the Don — " there are hut few." 

His black interpreter the charge disdain'd — 

" Few, fellow 1 — there are all that ever reign'd." 

Cowpei : Table Talk, 11. 94—101. 

2 Sermons, p. 133. It is most likely that Pole would have made a "preaching 
prelate " had his fortune been to be placed among the clergy of his own country. 
As a matter of fact he was not ordained a priest until his elevation to the 
Archiepiscopal See. — Hoolt's Lives of the Archbishops, iii. pp. 11, 310. And, if 
he preached before, his powers as a preacher seem to have been quite unknown, 
lb. 527. 3 21 Hen. VIII. c. 13. 



-entitled to retain two benefices ; and so on, until we wonder why the 
Act was passed at all. The clergy were to preach in their parishes 
at least four times a year, but when the chaplains had availed them- 
selves of their privileges and the graduates of the Universities had 
claimed the immunities due to them, nonresidence and neglect of 
preaching were still the rule, 1 and still gave rise to the complaints 
and sarcasms of the people. 

Of the bestowal of church preferment upon the young we need 
only quote Pole as an example. At seventeen years of age he was 
nominated to the prebend of Eoscombe, and when he was nineteen to 
that of Gatcombe Secunda, both in the Cathedral of Salisbury ; and at 
the age of eighteen he received the deanery of Wimborne Minster. 2 

But this was not all. It was complained that surveyors, alche- 
mists, and goldsmiths received benefices which ought to have been 
given to godly and learned men. The Church was charged with en- 
couraging superstition, with advocating the invocation of saints, -with 
placing before the works of mercy the giving to churches and images ; 
with teaching that the clergy could not err ; and the story of their 
elevating the blood of a duck to be honoured instead of the blood 
of Christ, " the winking Eood of Boxley," and the " Holy whore of 
Kent," were cast in their teeth. They were called ravenous wolves ; 
they were accused of selling their congregations, and of caring for 
nothing but the yearly rents which were raised from their parishes. 3 


If men of religion were a scandal to their profession, men of law 
were not slow to follow the example. If prelates cared not who 
sank or swam, so long as their incomes were sure ; and if priests 
only cared enough for the flock to secure the fleece ; judges and 
others connected with the law paid no regard to justice ; lucre and 
favour ruled all ; " matters were ended as they Avere friended : " 
causes which might have been concluded in three days occupied as 
many years ; the covetous and greedy minds of the advocates, the 
' cormorants ' of the law courts, destroyed ail law and all good 

1 Supplication of the Poor Commons. 2 Letters and Papers, &c, ii. No. 3943. 
3 A Supplication of the Poor Commons. 


policy. That the Spiritual Courts had failed was not to be won- 
dered at. That the laws were too numerous, too confused, and ill- 
understood, are subjects upon which nothing need be said. But 
that the administration of the law was infamous is a statement which 
requires a little consideration. 

The Utopians had but few laws themselves, and reproved other 
nations for the innumerable books of laws and expositions of laws 
which they possessed. It was considered contrary to all right and 
justice that men should be bound to laws so numerous that no man 
could read them, and so obscure that no man could understand 
them. From Utopia all attorneys, proctors, and Serjeants were 
banished, as men who craftily handled matters and disputed with 
subtlety. There every one was allowed to plead his own cause 
before the judge, and to tell him his story instead of telling it to his 
man of law. Thus there were fewer words, and the judge could 
easily weigh the statements of a man who had not been instructed 
with deceit. 1 There can be little doubt but that Sir Thomas More 
was here describing the laws and lawyers of his own time. Earlier 
in. his book he introduces a lawyer to ridicule his method of plead- 
ing, but if we smile at the humour of the author, we cease to wonder 
that justice was delayed, and that Wolsey should have to complain 
in open court of the gross ignorance of the legal profession. 2 

, In consequence of the delays and expense of law, clients aban- 
doned their rights, rather than incur the vexation and the cost. 
Perjury, it was said, was permitted in chancery for the sake of gain, 
and men were tossed from court to court. To prevent appeals one 
writer suggests that none but men of known ability should be 
elevated to the bench, and that appeals should be abolished. The 
courts were too numerous, and were " filthily administered." The 
Court of the Marshalsea and the Court of Augmentation were de- 
clared to be standing evidences of the mercy of God, else fire would 
have descended from heaven and destroyed them. 3 The judges were 

1 Utopia, p. 128. 

2 Lives of the L. Chancellors, i. 506 (2nd ed.). Wolsey intended to 
found an institution to encourage the systematic study of all branches of the 
law. Had his fall and death been delayed, the " twins of learning " would 
most likely have been increased. 3 Mors' Complaint, chap. xi. 


accused of being drunkards, whoremongers, and covetous persons, 
from whom it was hopeless to look for justice. Their partiality, 
their "suppressing the poor," their aiding the rich for lucre, their 
condemnation of the innocent while allowing the guilty to go free, 
"brought down the vengeance of God upon all places. 1 

Bribery was an accusation commonly brought against the lawyers. 
Latimer charges them with following assizes and sessions nominally 
to serve the King, but really to gain their own selfish ends. Money 
was heard everywhere among the judges, and many were the devices 
to make bribery wear an honest face, or to screen it from the ob- 
servation of men. If a man were rich, he soon saw the end of his 
matter ; if poor, he might go home in tears for any help the judge 
would give him. 2 The devil was said to be pretty well occupied on 
the bench, inducing judges to bribe, to lay heavy burdens on poor 
men's backs, to make them commit perjury, and to bring into the 
place of judgment all impiety and all iniquity. 3 They meddled with 
pitch, and were defiled with it. As pitch pollutes the hand that 
touches it, so bribes bring perversion of justice. 4 "We have seen that 
if a mortal were admitted to the infernal regions, unpreaching pre- 
lates would extend as far as the eye could reach; but if the same 
mortal were favoured with a sight of the bribing judges, he would 
see so many that there was scarcely room for any others. 5 The sturdy 
bishop must have been consoled with the thought that they became 
the " Devil's Own " at last. 

Severe remedies were proposed for these evils. One suggested 
that judges and pleaders who received bribes should lose the right 
hand ; 6 and another that they who delayed a suit should pay 
the costs of both parties ; 7 but, while a sense of honour was un- 

1 Lamentation of a Christian against the City of London, etc., 1545. 

2 Sermons, p. 72. 3 Sermons, p. 113. 

4 Sermons, p. 151. Bernard Gilpin says : And being thus tormented, and 
put from their right at home, they (the poor) come to London a great number, 
as to a place where justice should be had, and there they can have none. 
They are suitors to great men, and cannot come to their speech ; their servants 
must have bribes, and that no small ones. All love bribes The law- 
yers . . . laugh with the money which maketh others to weep ; and thus are 
the poor robbed on every side without redress, and that of such as seem to have 
authority thereto. — Sermon, &c., pp. 29, 30. 5 Sermons, p. 173. 

6 Mors' Complaint, chap. ix. 7 See p. 191 of this volume. 



known, these suggestions for punishment, and these denunciations of 
the crime, were of little advantage. The proposal to admit only the 
honest and virtuous to practise in the law courts sounded well, but 
where were the honest and virtuous to be found ] and the suggestion 
that only gentlemen having " either land, office, or fee to maintain 
themselves withal," should be admitted, was simply Utopian. 

If such men could have been found, the chaos of laws might have 
been reduced to order; the "subtlety of Serjeants " and the liberty 
of judges might have been controlled ; the "statutes of the kings " 
might have been regulated ; barbarous and tyrannical laws might 
have been repealed ; and obsolete or harsh and oppressive institutions 
might have been swept away. But these honest, virtuous, and 
self-denying men were not then to be found ; and, until they were, 
until the nobility had received, what they so much needed, a moral 
and intellectual education, none of these things could be brought 
about. "While men studied rather to bring up good hounds than 
wise heirs, it was scarcely possible that the profession of the law 
should be other than it was — infamous. 


Living as Pole did in an atmosphere of learning, mixing at 

Oxford before his departure from England, and during his whole life 

on the Continent, among the most renowned scholars of the day, we 

should naturally expect to find him depicted as anxious to impress 

upon his countrymen the advantages of a good education. In this 

we are not deceived. He points out that among the principal ill 

customs tolerated in England, was the education of the nobles, who 

were commonly brought up in hunting, hawking, dicing, carding, 

eating, and drinking — in short, in all kinds of vain pleasures. 

Severe as are his remarks, there was much truth in what he said. 

The nobles in great numbers grew up without any scholarship 

worthy of the name. 1 But the times in which they lived must have 

sharpened their wits in no small degree, else Henry and Elizabeth 

could not have been surrounded by such men as the reader will call 

to mind. 

1 Hallam, Lit. Europe, i. 261, ed. 18(50. 


The remedies proposed, viewed in the light of modern times, 
seem remarkable. As Latin and Greek were deemed the foundation 
of all good learning, the young were to spend their early years in 
these studies. But, to permit of this, good schools were required. 
Further than this, it is recommended that several small schools 
should be united under one competent master. It was well under- 
stood that three or four small schools, with an income not large 
enough to maintain an efficient master, must all he failures. Join 
such schools, allow their endowments to go into one common fund, 
then an " excellent " master could he obtained, and the school would 
flourish. From such schools the universities were to be replenished. 
Such scholars as the master and other learned men appointed as 
examiners should judge fit for the honour, should go to one of the 
universities, there to be instructed in the liberal sciences, and be 
made preachers of the doctrine of Christ. 

Learning without virtue was held to be pernicious ; but though 
the studies in grammar-schools and universities were confused, and 
resulted in a paucity of learned men, morality was altogether de- 
spised. If the universities were left unreformed, learning would 
fail. It is a matter for regret that the methods to bring about this 
reformation were deemed to require one or two more books, which 
seem never to have been written. The clergy were in the same 
condition as the nobility. They were not brought up in virtue and 
learning, nor were their attainments tested before they were admitted 
to the priesthood, and they could not. except with disadvantage, 
preach that to the people of which they themselves were ignorant. 
Commonly they could only patter over matins and mass, mumbling 
words which they did not understand. Alter these things, educate 
your nobles and clergy, and a true commonwealth will follow. 

If Pole held these opinions at the time when this Dialogue was 
written, he had not departed from them when he came as a Legate 
to his native land. In 1556 appeared the "Eeformatio Angliae ex 
Decretis Reginaldi Poli," in which, among other things, bishops are 
exhorted to live soberly, chastely, and piously. And, lest their 
moderation should be attributed to avarice, they are advised to use 
the whole of their surplus income in maintaining Christ's poor, in 


the education of boys and young men, and in other pious works. In 
the Articles which he drew up for the Visitation of his Diocese, but 
which death did not allow him to hold, the twentieth, "touching 
lay people," was, " Whether the common schools be well kept, and 
that the schoolmasters be diligent in teaching, and be also catholic 
and men of good upright judgment, and be examined and approved 
by the ordinary." In the " Eeformatio," already alluded to, he 
charged many ecclesiastical persons with involving themselves in 
low and discreditable employments, with neglecting the study of 
learning, and with doing nothing consistent with their order; and 
decreed that they should apply themselves to study and learning, 
and to do other things suitable to their individual character. Eegu- 
lations were also made for the greater efficiency of schools attached 
to cathedrals and religious houses. 1 


In how far does this fyook accurately represent the opinions of • 
Pole 1 Starkey was at one time his intimate friend — do the acts of 
the Cardinal's after life agree with the sentiments expressed here 1 
The answer is that, generally speaking, they do. The repudiation of 
Catharine of Arragon, and the marriage with Anne Boleyn, soured 
Pole's whole after life, and made him, who might in his young days 
have held the highest honours in the State, an outlaw, a rebel, and a 
plotter against his country. He ought not to be blamed for refusing 
the Archbishopric of York. The chance of his marriage with Mary 
may have had something to do with it, but is it not possible that 
his high soul rebelled against the simoniacal act 1 It cannot be 
doubted that the offer was made to buy over Pole's learning and 
influence to the project of the King. The offer was not accepted, and" 
Pole's continued residence on the continent, where the events of 
England seem to have reached him often through conspirators, who 
would colour events which needed no colouring, only tended to 
widen the breach between him and the King. This will account for 
one difference between Pole's sentiments as depicted by Starkey and 
his feelings as described by himself. In the Dialogue Henry is 
1 Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, iiL pp. 306, 307, 429. 


spoken of as a prince whose " prudence and wisdom " are " lively 
law and true policy." In the "De Unitate" the King is compared 
to the worst tyrants of antiquity, even with Lucifer himself. 

Another subject, in which the reality of after life differed from 
this Dialogue, is sufficiently marked to call for brief notice. !Nb 
opinion is advanced with more persistency than that respecting 
the necessity of giving the people the services of the Church in 
their own native tongue. It was ordained to be said in the 
church for the edifying of the people, from which it follows that 
either the service must be said in English or the people must be 
taught Latin. It was considered not only expedient but necessary, 
that all divine sesvice should be celebrated in English. More than 
this : the Gospel also ought to be translated. If these things were 
done, if all public and private prayers were put into English, instead 
of being the destruction of religion, as some thought, more fruits of 
the Christian religion would be seen ; and men would do for love 
what human law could not compel them to do. 

Mixing with company which will have to be described hereafter, 
there can be little doubt that at one period these were Pole's real 
opinions ; but when his life had been embittered by disappointments, 
and when he had seen the lengths to which men went during the 
reign of Edward VI., not much surprise need be felt that his feelings 
on some things became changed. Lupset is made to say, " Translate 
the Bible, and conduct divine service in English, and we shall see 
as many errors here as there are in Germany — we shall have diversity 
of sects in religion in plenty." The diversities had come. And when 
the Cardinal prepared for his Visitation, the fifteenth article to be 
inquired of the clergy was, " Whether any of them do say the divine 
service, or do minister the sacraments in the English tongue, contrary 
to the usual order of the Church 1 " This seems to betray an inten- 
tion of prohibiting such practices where they were found to exist. 
But in the question of translating the Scriptures no change is evident. 
In 1555 a legatine council was commenced for the reformation of 
the Church. "What passed in the council we do not know. The 
result was published in a number of decrees. 1 Among other works 
1 Reformatio Anglise, etc. 


proposed, a translation of the New Testament was ordered. 1 In this 
Pole seems to have remained faithful to his early opinions. 

Pole may perhaps he classed among the Eeformers of the Church, 
hut he remained to the last a faithful supporter of the papal su- 
premacy — he never seems to have doubted on that head. " Tu es 
Petrus " was ever hefore him. But in other respects he was a re- 
former. The doctrine of justification hy faith was received hy him 
in its entirety. Of Luther he is made to speak with moderation. 
Henry ahhorred Luther, and it would have heen rash in Starkey to 
have said more than he has said ; hut from other sources, from 
Pole's employment hy Paul III. as one of the Cardinals and prelates 
appointed to confer upon a reformation of the Church, and the 
Concilium de emendanda ecclesia, we learn what his opinions were. 
After this he was appointed to the Council of Trent, which gave a 
death-hlow to all hopes of reform, and from it Pole withdrew as soon 
as he could. 

His companions, his friends, on the Continent, were always 
among the most saint-like and the "best. ~No narrow-minded higot, 
no immoral man, ever seems to have found favour with Pole. The 
Court of Leo X. was at once profligate, polite, and learned, hut of 
religion there seems to have heen the smallest amount. AVhile the 
common people were sunk in heathenish superstitions, a tendency 
opposed to religion was observahle in the higher classes, and one 
could not he considered accomplished who had no trace of heterodoxy 
in his opinions of Christianity. 2 From such unpromising elements 
rose the Oratory of Divine Love, a society which hound its members 
to morality of life and a better observance of divine worship. 
" When Eome was sacked, when Florence had become a despotism, 
when Milan was a battle-field," Venice became the home of many 
distinguished men. 3 Whether Pole joined the Oratory of Divine 
Love does not appear, — he certainly became intimate with some of 
its illustrious members during his visits from Padua to Yenice. 

Bembo, famous in Italian as well as in Latin literature ; Caraffa, 
hard, passionate, and inexorable, now a reformer, but afterwards, as 

1 Hook, Archbishops, iii. 302, note, N.S. 
* Eanke's History of the Popes, p. 22, ed. 1859. 3 Hook, Abps, iii. 53, N.S. 


Paul IV., Pole's persecutor and tormentor; Gregorio Cortese, the 
patristic scholar ; Priuli, Pole's attached friend during twenty-six 
years ; Marco of Padua, noted for his profound piety ; Contarina, 
who was ignorant of nothing that man could discover, who wanted 
nothing that God has revealed to man, and who laboured earnestly 
to bring peace to the Church ; Lampridio, the philologist ; Beccatelli, 
Pole's secretary and biographer; Dudithius, his translator; Peter 
Martyr, the Protestant leader, and sometime Oxford Professor of 
Divinity ; — these were some of the more important men among whom 
Pole was received as a friend. All believers in the doctrine of justi- 
fication by faith, all impressed with the absolute need of a reforma- 
tion in the Church, they only differed in the matter of the supremacy. 
But when the Trentine Council had denned certain doctrines, then 
their relation towards each other was altered. 

Of the angelic Yittoria Colonna; of Giovanni Matteo Giberti; 
of Giovanni Morone, imprisoned and examined before the Inquisi- 
tion ; of Marco Antonio Flaminio, whose works were prohibited in 
the Index Expurgatorius of Paul IV. ; of Pietro Carnasecchi, who 
died a martyr, nothing need be said here. Pole was the friend of all, 
and it will cause little surprise that a man who had been on intimate 
terms with these, should, when the opportunity offered, be accused 
as a heretic. Such was the fate of Pole. At the end of 1549, when 
there was a probability of his elevation to the papacy, Cardinal 
Caraffa based a charge of heresy against him on account of his 
leniency to the Lutherans. When Julius III. was elected, this 
charge was withdrawn, but in 1557, when Pole was Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the charge was revived, and he was summoned before 
the Inquisition to clear himself or be condemned. Political events 
occurred to distract the attention of the Pope, and Pole did not 
appear to answer the charge ; but it was not withdrawn : the citation 
was never revoked, and Pole died a reputed heretic. 1 

In the Dialogue the right to depose a tyrant is clearly asserted ; 
in the " De Unitate " the right to rebel is frequently affirmed, and if 
the King will not listen to the remonstrances of the people, he him- 

1 Hook, and Ranke, passim. 


self should be deposed. Further, it is maintained that, in conferring 
the crown, the people reserved to themselves the right to depose the 
elected monarch, if he violated the constitution or encroached upon, 
the rights of the subject. 1 There are other points of agreement 
which need only to be mentioned. In the Dialogue Pole is made to 
advocate the appointment of abbots and priors for three years only. 
"When he became Archbishop of Canterbury, and was restoring the 
old religion, the Benedictines were again placed in possession of 
Westminster Abbey, and Feckenham was appointed abbot for three 
years. Here he would have the incomes of bishops divided into 
four parts : (1) to rebuild ruined temples and churches ; (2) to 
maintain poor youths in study ; (3) to be given to poor maids and 
others; (4) to maintain the bishop and his household. In the 
" Decrees," issued by him, 2 he recommends a similar course to the 
bishops — expenses of themselves and dependents, expenses to meet 
the burdens of the Church, the rearing up and nurture of Christ's 
poor, and the education of youth. 

The following words might almost have been copied from the 
Dialogue : — " He [Pole] is accustomed to say that he must be 
prudent, and wait for a suitable opportunity. This sounds well; 
but the favourable time and opportunity will never come, now that 
so many people seek in such various ways to deny the benefits and 
glory of Christ. When will he declare himself ] " 3 Compare these 
expressions with, " They who without regard of time and place will 
set themselves to handle matters of State, may be compared," etc. (p. 
22). " To attempt the handling of matters of State, without regard 
of time or place, seems to me great madness and folly" (p. 23). 
" Whenever the prince shall call me, I shall be ready ; but I must 
tarry my time — I will tarry my time" (p. 214). Lupset is wisely 
made to say, " Some men so curiously and narrowly ponder time 
and place, that in all their lives they neither find time nor place " 
(p. 23). And so it was with Pole. 

1 Hook, Archbishops, iii. p. 73, 90, N.S. 

2 Keformatio Anglise ex Decretis, etc. 

3 Vergerio, quoted in Hook, Abps, iii. 154, N.S. 


On the whole this Dialogue may be taken as fairly representing 

Pole's opinions. In some important matters he changed, hut in the 

main he seems to have remained faithful to what is here put into his 



I have thus touched upon what seem the chief points of this 
hook. The others must he left to the reader's own curiosity. The 
dry discussion on perfection, on the opinions of ancient philosophers, 
the dignity of man, the liberty of the will, the good of individuals, 
the origin of civil life and forms of government, and other matters of 
a similar kind, is not very interesting, and the reader may skip the 
first two chapters of the Dialogue without loss. 

The MS. from which this work has been edited was discovered 
by the Kev. Professor Brewer, in the Eecord Office. I have not 
seen it. It was copied for me by Mr W. Morris "Wood, and all the 
difficult passages carefully examined by Mr E. Brock. To these 
gentlemen and to Mr Furnivall my best thanks are due. 

The language is more awkward in appearance than diffic\dt to 
read. As a rule, the y's in the middle of a word may be taken for i's, 
and those in the last syllable of words may be ignored. 

The old punctuation, and the sentences, so long and so involved, 
rendered it at times difficult to catch the author's precise meaning. 
I have repunctuated the book throughout, and, to make it more 
readable, I have shortened the sentences considerably. I have also 
adopted a uniform use of capitals. In the MS. no rule whatever is 

The abstract which follows gives, in modern English, the most 

interesting points of the book, and it will, it is hoped, prove of some 

benefit to the general reader. 

J. M. Cowper, 

Davington Hill, 

January, 1871. 


§ 10. 


Lupset having known and been familiar with Pole for a long 
time, has desired to commune with him, and is glad that at last he 
has found him at leisure at Bisham, where the memory of his an- 
cestors may perchance move him to the purpose which Lupset has in 
view. Pole owns that he has leisure, and inquires what it is which 
makes Lupset so earnest. 

Lupset answers (p. 2, par. 3) that the matter is great, and con- 
cerns the whole order of Pole's life. He has often wondered that 
Pole, after so many years of study spent abroad, and with such ex- 
perience of mankind, has not applied himself earnestly to politics, 
that his friends and countrymen might at last receive the benefit of 
this learning and experience. All men are born to communicate to 
others the gifts which they themselves have received ; Plato, Lycur- 
gus, and Solon need not be mentioned as men who influenced cities, 
countries, and nations for good. A man who is so infatuated with 
the pleasure of his own studies, that he entirely neglects the service 
of his country, is greatly to blame, and is censured as one who 
regards not the duties to which he is bound by nature. Of this dis- 
regard of duty many men accuse Pole, telling him that, since he has 
been so carefully brought up by his country, he ought now to devote 
himself to advancing the good of the nation. To this he is as much 
bound as the child is to maintain his father who, by sickness and age, 
is unable to support himself. Pole, drowned in the pleasure of letters 
and private studies, gives no ear to his country, which earnestly calls 
to him for some aid. Lupset urges him to wake out of this dream ; 
to remember his country ; to look to his friends, and to consider the 
duties which he is bound to fulfil. 

Pole owns Lupset's purpose is good, and that it is no small 
matter of which he has been speaking. It is, he says, a good thing 
and a noble virtue to help one's country and friends, but Lupset 
must remember the common saying, "He was never good master 


that never was scholar; nor never good capta/n that never was 
soldier;" and he thinks it better to learn to rule himself hefcre attempt- 
ing to govern others. He never heard of a mariner able to govern a 
great ship who could not first manage a little boat ; and so, when he 
has had sufficient experience in ruling himself, and can, in the 
opinion of others, do that well, then he may not refuse to consider 
the needs of his country, and endeavour to rule others. Still he 
thinks there is much doubt in the view taken by Lupset. He will 
be glad to do his best, and follow that in which consists the perfec- 
tion of man ; but whether this perfection lies in active life and the 
administering of the affairs of the country, or whether it lies in con- 
templation and knowledge, he is not at all sure. The perfection of 
man is to be found in his mind — in reason and intelligence ; and the 
knowledge of God and of Nature should be the end of man's life. 
Consequently ancient philosophers forsook the meddling with the 
affairs of the State and devoted themselves to study. It seemed better 
to them to know the secrets of Nature than to understand the order 
and rule of cities and towns ; better to know the laws which Nature 
has planted in the heart of man, than the laws which have been de- 
vised by the wit of man. Therefore, granting him to be competent to 
interfere in politics, he doubts whether it were best to do so or not. 

Lupset (p. 5, par. 5) says no man doubts his ability, and Pole's 
talking of his inability is only an excuse. He is surprised that Pole 
should refer to ancient philosophers after so many years of study in 
the school of Aristotle, who clearly teaches that man's perfection 
stands in active and contemplative life united ; one is the end of the 
other. This may be seen by common experience ; all endeavours in 
matters of the commonwealth have for their end the quietness and 
tranquillity of the people ; and to this end every honest man ought to 
look when he undertakes affairs of State. First he should make him- 
self perfect, and then communicate this perfection to others. Virtue 
that is not published for the good of others is of little avail; it is like 
treasure confined in coffers. All gifts of God and Nature must be 
applied to the common profit ; by doing thus man follows the nature 
of God, who gives to every creature a part of His goodness. 

It is not enough for a man to get knowledge and virtue as the 

cxxvm /Opinions op philosophers. 

old philosophers r^id, taking no pleasure in anything else, and de- 
spising the politic life of man. A man must study to communicate 
/his virtues to others — this is the end of civil life and the true ad- 
j lxvmistration of the commonwealth. This the ancient philosophers 
avoided, ever delighting in their own private studies. Notwithstand- 
ing this, Lupset will not affirm that they did nothing in thus abstain- 
ing from public affairs. Perhaps they found themselves unfit, per- 
haps they were learning first to rule themselves. However this may 
have been, they were deceived. Learning and a knowledge of man's 
nature may be very pleasant, but they are not to be preferred to 
justice and policy. Who would not, if he might know all the secrets 
of Nature, leave all to help his country by prudence and policy 1 

That which is best is not of all men at all times to be followed. 
A sick man had better seek health for himself than study to procure 
good for his country. Aristotle says it is better for a man in poverty 
to study to get riches than philosophy ; and yet philosophy of itself 
is to be preferred to riches. And although high philosophy is a 
greater perfection of the mind, yet the interfering with matters of the 
commonwealth is more necessary, and ought ever to be chosen first, 
as the chief means by which we attain to the other. All prudence 
and policy tend to bring the country to quietness and civility ; that 
each man, and so the whole, may at last attain to that perfection 
which is due to the dignity of mankind. As the body is most perfect 
when it can beget its like, so the mind is most perfect when it com- 
municates its virtues to the benefit of others. Then is it most like to 
the nature of God, whose infinite virtue is most perceived in that He 
communicates His goodness to all His creatures. And so it is not to 
be doubted that the ancient philosophers who avoided public life 
were as greatly to be blamed as those who evaded their duty. Thus, 
continues Lupset, if you will follow these philosophers, you will not 
follow that which you most desire ; that is to say, the best kind of 
life, and that which is most suited to the nature of man. 

Pole (p. 8, par. 6) says Lupset has well satisfied his doubts, but 
inasmuch as what he has advanced is^founded on what may be con- 
sidered doubtful grounds, he has brought him into another uncer- 
tainty. Man is born, Lupset has said, to civil and politic life, but to 


Pole it seems just the contrary ; for if to live under a prince or coun- 
cil in cities and towns is politic order and civil life, it seems plain 
man was not born thereto, in that he lived many years without any 
such policy. And further, during this time he lived more virtuously 
and more according to the dignity of his nature than he now does in 
politic order and civility. Even in our own days we see men who 
live out of cities and towns and have fewest laws to govern them, live 
better lives than those do who reside in goodly cities and are govern- 
ed by many laws. In great cities are most vice, most subtlety and 
craft ; and in the country most virtue and simplicity. In cities and 
towns you may see what adultery, murder, vice, usury, craft, and 
deceit ; what gluttony and pleasure there are, in consequence of the 
society of men. In the country these are avoided, because men do 
not live together after the "civility" advocated by Lupset. Pole 
concludes that, if this is civil life, it seems to him man was not born 
thereto, but rather to live in the wild forest, as men are said to have 
lived in the golden age. 

Lupset complains that Pole has misunderstood him : this is not 
the civil life he meant. "What he intended by civil life was the 
living together in good order, one ever ready to do good to another, 
and all conspiring together, as it were, in virtue and honesty. This 
is the true civil life. If men so abuse the society of men in cities and 
towns, we may not cast them down, driving the inhabitants to live 
in the forest as men did before. The fault is neither in cities nor in 
laws, but it is in the malice of man, who abuses what was given to 
him for his good, and turns it to his own destruction, as he does with 
almost everything that God and Nature have given him. He abuses 
his health, strength, and beauty ; his wit, learning, and policy ; his 
meat and drink ; and, in short, almost everything. Yet these things 
are not to be cast away, nor to be taken from the use of man. The 
society of man is not to be accused as the cause of these disorders, 
but rather such great, wise, and politic men as flee from office and 
authority, by whose wisdom men might be kept in order. These men 
are to be blamed ; for as men at the first were won from rudeness to 
civil life by the persuasion of wise men, so by like wisdom they can 
be kept therein. Therefore, concludes Lupset, you, Master Pole, had 


better apply your mind to restore this civil order, and to maintain 
this virtuous life in cities and towns. 

Pole says (p. 10, par. 8) he won't cavil, but Lupset must hear 
him doubt yet a little further. The assertion that civil life is a con- 
spiracy together in virtue and honesty, not only places the matter in 
greater doubt, but brings all into uncertainty and confusion. The 
Turk will say his life is most natural and politic. The Saracen, that 
his agrees best with man's dignity. The Jew will affirm his law to 
be above all other laws, as received from God's own mouth ; and the 
Christian believes his law and religion most agreeable to reason and 
nature, as being confirmed by the Divinity of God. Thus it seems 
all stands in the judgment and opinion of man, and no one, by Lup- 
set's definition, can certainly affirm what is politic and civil life. 

Lupset says this is a cause of no small doubt among some, because 
there are men who hold that the only difference between virtue and 
vice rests in opinion only. He will try to prove that virtue stands 
by nature, and then will try to show how the contrary opinion came 
into men's minds. Man, he says, excels all other creatures in dignity, 
and is set by Providence to rule all things in the earth. The old 
philosophers called him an earthly god, and lord of all other beasts 
and creatures, every one of which is subdued to his use. Then con- 
sider his works, the cities, castles, and towns which he has built ; 
the laws, statutes, and ordinances which he has devised ; the arts and 
crafts which he has invented ; the labour he has bestowed upon the 
earth to make it yield fruits for his sustenance : all these show man's 
dignity and prove his nature to be divine. And as he excels in dig- 
nity, so his virtues correspond. They are established by nature, and 
are common to all mankind, as are equity and justice, temperance and 
courage. Nature also inclines man to live in civil order, and has 
rooted in him a reverence to God, whereby He is honoured as the 
Governor and Euler of the world. These and other virtues are 
planted in the heart of man by Nature, and are not conceived by any 
vain opinion. And although some nations do live as though they 
had forgotten their natural dignity, yet few or none of them there are 
who do not consider that they have fallen from their original excel- 
lency, and ever strive against their manner of living. This rule is 


called " the universal and true law of nature," and is common to all 

But here Lupset goes on to note (p. 15, par. 9) that Nature, as in 
so many other things, requires the diligent aid of man in these 
virtues and this natural law, else will they soon become corrupt. 
There are so many dangers to them that, except there is some good 
provision for their culture, they can never bring man to perfection. 
Wherefore all nations have certain customs and laws for the mainten- 
ance and advancement of these virtues. These customs and laws are 
known as civil law. Civil law is far different from the universal law 
of nature in that it varies in every country and almost in every city 
and town. It rests wholly in the consent of man, and changes 
according to time and place. The law of nature is unchangeable. It 
is the foundation of civil law, which must ever be referred to it. 
Civil law is but a means to bring man into obedience to the law of 
nature, from which all spring, as brooks and rivers from fountains and 

To be obedient to the civil law, so long as it is not contrary to 
the laws of God and Nature, is always a virtue ; but to it all men are 
not bound. "With us it is esteemed a virtue to abstain from flesh on 
a Friday, but the Turks take no notice of such a custom. With us 
it is a virtue for priests to live chaste ; with the Greeks it was not. 
And so in many other customs it is evident that to be obedient to 
the laws is a certain virtue, but that kind of virtue which rests en- 
tirely in the opinion of man. So it is plain that virtue stands partly 
in nature and partly in opinion, and not in opinion only. Those who 
affirm the contrary do not comprehend the order of Nature ; they 
cannot conceive the dignity of man ; they do not discern the power 
of natural law. 

Thus, continues Lupset (p. 18, par. 9), you have heard my opinion 
of the cause of these errors. They who maintain that there is no dif- 
ference between virtue and vice, except opinion only, measuring 
man's dignity by his deeds, and seeing he so commonly follows vice, 
affirm that there is no virtue, but that men agree to call that virtue 
which is not virtue at all. This is as much as to say that by nature 
there is no virtue because most men follow vice. Thev do not con- 


sider the frailty of man, his negligence, his ill education; but of 
the effect they judge all to stand in the opinion of man. And, 
although different nations differ in policy, each judging its own to be 
best, yet in those things which naturally pertain to man's dignity 
they agree. All think God should be honoured ; all are bound 
to aid one another ; all find it convenient to live in civil life. How- 
ever civil laws may differ, so long as men keep this natural law, so 
long they live well, and will, in the end, be saved. This is the 
opinion of some wise men, but we may safely leave it to the secret 
judgment of God. The diversity of sects and laws need not trouble 
us, it most likely belongs to the nature of man, as much as does di- 
versity of language. Notwithstanding this diversity, civil life may 
be defined as " a politic order of a multitude, conspiring together in 
virtue and honesty," to which man is ordained. This is the end of 
man's life ; to this every man ought to refer his thoughts and deeds ; 
every man ought to aid this, and endeavour to set it forth. 

Pole answers (p. 21, par. 10) that he never had any doubt of the 
matter which Lupset has been urging, but it has pleased him to hear 
the same so confirmed that no man may call it in question. If it is 
good to help one, it is much better to help many ; for a man in 
so doing approaches nearest to the nature of God. Let it be agreed 
that every man ought to advance the good of the commonwealth, yet 
there is another thing to be considered : at some times and in certain 
places this is not to be attempted by a wise man ; as in time of ty- 
ranny, or where rulers are only intent on private gain. Among such 
a wise man's counsel would be laughed at. In such cases it is no 
wonder that wise men have abstained from interfering. Some by at- 
tempting to do good have been exiled, some imprisoned, and some 
put to death. If Plato had found a noble prince in Sicily he would 
have shown greater fruits of his wisdom. If Tully had not lived 
during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, Eome would have 
profited more by him. If Seneca had lived tinder Trajan, instead of 
under Nero, his virtues would have been otherwise esteemed. So it 
is evident virtue cannot always show its light. Plutarch compares 
such as will not regard time and place, to men who being in the dry 
and seeing others in the rain, must needs go out and get wet them- 


selves without doing any good to anybody. Those whc run to courts, 
where every man speaks of the commonwealth in order to obtain 
something for himself, are soon corrupted with the same opinions. 
It is hard to be daily among thieves without becoming a thief. Every 
man, for the most part, becomes like those with whom he associates. 
"Wherefore to attempt to handle matters of State without regard 
of time and place is madness and folly 

Lupset thinks there is some truth in this, but so much regard to 
time and place is not needed as some seem to judge. So carefully 
they consider time and place that in all their lives they find neither 
the one nor the other. This is frantic folly, and has caused the de- 
struction of many commonwealths. It has caused much tyranny, 
which might have been avoided if wise men had left such foolish respect 
for time and place. There can be no doubt that in our time we have 
a most wise prince, whose one aim is the good of his country, and 
that now is Pole's time to promote his country's good. 

Pole says he is bound now, and promises to allow no occasion for 
helping the State to pass by. And now, because such a noble prince 
is on the throne, and the time is ripe, and he has leisure, he will de- 
vise something touching the order of the commonwealth, more especi- 
ally as Parliament is now assembled. He proposes (p. 25, par. 14) 
to discuss (1) "What is the true commonwealth, in what it consists, 
and when it most flourishes. (2) To examine into the decay of our 
country, with its faults and disorders. (3) To devise a remedy for 
this decay. 

Lupset agrees, but warns Pole to beware of Plato's example, 
whose order of commonwealth is but a dream which can never 
be brought to effect. 


Pole commences by urging Lupset to be carefully attentive, and to 
express his mind freely wherever he thinks the arguments used are 
weak ; he also bids him doubt, because doubting brings the truth to 
light. He thinks that if men knew for certain what the common- 
wealth is they would not neglect it as they do ; for now every man 
has it in his mouth, but few have it in their hearts. This evidently 


comes of false opinion, because no man willingly hurts himself. 
This he trusts to make clear. 

Lupset questions the truth of what Socrates says about ignorance 
being the source of all vice, and wishes to examine this assertion. It 
is commonly said that those who do wrong do so against their own 
conscience. Every man knows he should be virtuous, yet men are 
not virtuous; and every man knows he should study the public 
good, yet every one seeks his own profit. Hence it appears vice 
should be attributed to malice rather than to ignorance. Besides, we 
cannot have free-will without a knowledge of good and evil. 

Pole says this seems to be a controversy not only between the 
common people and the learned, but also between Aristotle and 
Plato ; but the controversy is more one of words than anything else. 
Aristotle says the mind at first is like a clean tablet, ready to receive 
any impressions. At first it has no knowledge of truth, but after- 
wards by experience and learning the will is formed. If the will be 
persuaded that good is ill, and ill good, it will choose the ill and 
leave the good. But if the opinion is confirmed with right reason 
it will choose the good ; if it be weak it will choos*e the ill. Socrates 
was wont to say if the mind were instructed with sure knowledge it 
would never err. Aristotle says that they who have this opinion of 
good, in however slight a degree, always feel " a grudge of conscience " 
when they do wrong. But Plato calls this wavering knowledge 
ignorance. There is nothing in the controversy between them but 
words only. If man had a sure knowledge of good he would never 
leave it. If the reason be commonly blinded with any persuasion, it 
is hard to resist it ; and on this account men take away the liberty 
of the will, and say it is driven by strong opinion to do this or that ; 
but without doubt, instruction and wise counsel may bring the will 
out of captivity. But pleasure and profit so blind reason, that it is 
hard to overcome a wrong persuasion. This is the cause of the 
destruction of all commonwealths, when every man, blinded by 
pleasure or profit, leaves the best and takes the worst. Pole con- 
cludes that Socrates is right, and that ignorance is the fountain of all 
ill, vice, and misery, in public as well as in private life. 

Lupset thinks that, if this is true, men are not so much to blame. 


If they knew better they would do better. But Pole (p. 31, par. 5) 
denies it. Ignorance does not excuse errors of life, but rather makes 
a man more worthy of punishment. " He that kills a man drunk, 
sober shall be hanged." A man is himself the cause of this ignor- 
ance, because if he had listened to the wise and prudent he would 
not have been so led by it. Lupset here asks to return to their pur- 
pose, that they may the easier avoid this ignorance, this fountain 
of all iU. 

Pole agrees, and says that the prosperity of the individual and 
the prosperity of a country rest in the same thing ; and if we can 
find out what that thing is, we can ascertain what is that which in 
every city or country we call the true commonwealth. Lupset sees a 
doubt here. If the common good rise from the individual good, then 
every man should strive to advance the individual good ; and so that 
which just before has been said to be the destruction of the common- 
wealth must by this reasoning promote its prosperity. 

Pole (p. 33, par. 9) denies this, and says the two agree very well 
— over much regard of private gain ever destroys the common, just 
as a moderate regard to the one will promote the other. If every 
man would cure one we should have a true commonwealth. But 
now, when so many are blinded with the love of themselves, it is 
necessary for those who have any regard for the public good to correct 
this inordinate self-love, just as physicians have to attend on those 
who give themselves to inordinate diet. If men were temperate, 
physicians would not be needed. Many things are necessary to the 
well-being of every man, but only three need be mentioned; in 
health, strength, and beauty " stands the first point required to the 
weal of every particular man." The second point of man's well- 
being is riches, for without riches he will be troubled with infinite 
cares and miserable thoughts. And to riches must be added children 
and friends. The third and most important point is "the natural 
honesty and virtue of the mind." If a man have health and riches, 
he is counted happy, though he never even dream of virtue. But 
the virtues of the mind surpass all bodily virtues and all worldly 
treasure. Of what use are health, strength, and riches to a man who 
cannot use them 1 To such they are destruction. Health is to be 


studied for the mind's sake. Riches are to satisfy bodily -wants, and 
to help the needy and the miserable. But virtue alone can show the 
right use of both health and riches, and it is the chief point of all. 
Then religion must be added, and the man who is in possession of 
health, strength, beauty, riches, and religion, is in a prosperous state. 
Lupset (p. 39, par. 12) says Pole has spoken well, but he fears 
that if the prosperity and happiness of man rest in these things, but 
few are prosperous, few happy. A man may be as perfect as St Paul, 
yet if he fall into sickness or poverty he is not in a prosperous con- 
dition. Besides, it is contrary to the opinion of wise men, who have 
ever held that virtue keeps a man from misery and places him in 
felicity. And to this agree the doctrine and practice of Christ, who 
called them blessed who were in adversity, and chose His disciples 
from the simple and poor. Pole confesses that these remarks are 
to the purpose, and promises not to let them pass unexamined. Some 
say man consists of soul only, and that it is this whereby he is man 
and not a beast. Others say he is made up of the union of body 
and soul, and this he thinks is correct. Felicity in the highest 
degree can only spring from virtue and worldly prosperity ; because 
then man is without any impediment of. body or mind ; for these 
should nourish together. It cannot be doubted that a man confirmed 
by perfect and sure hope may attain to the happiness of the world 
to come, though troubled with adversity here. But because worldly 
prosperity is so full of peril it is commonly said it is hard to have 
heaven here and hereafter. Christ said they who have their Tiearts 
fixed on the love of riches, and they who are drowned in pleasures 
may attain to the life to come ; but He does not exclude the upright 
in mind. Some, perceiving their own weakness, retire from the 
world altogether, and it is not amiss of them ; but they are like 
mariners who never leave the haven for fear of storms. He who in 
dangerous prosperity governs his mind well and keeps it upright, is 
more perfect and deserves more praise than he who runs into a 
religious house. To return : though a man troubled with adversity 
may by patience attain heaven, and as riches do not exclude him, the 
most prosperous state is that where virtue and worldly prosperity are 
combined. To this Lupset agrees, but asks whether there can be 


degrees of felicity 1 He cannot see how they -who have virtue and 
worldly prosperity can he happier than those who have virtue alone. 

Pole's reply (p. 45, par. 15) to this is, if man he the soul only, 
then virtue alone gives him high felicity ; if he he soul and hody it 
does not. But many other things are required hy reason whereof 
felicity admits of degrees. Lupset agreeing, Pole goes on to compare 
the State to a man. The people are . the hody ; civil order and law 
the soul. The good of every country arises from three things : 
(1) Prom the number of people ; if they he too many or too few 
there is poverty. The population must he suited to the place. They 
must also he healthy and strong ; and a man's hody is strong when 
every part does its duty quickly and well. The king may be com- 
pared to the heart ; officers appointed hy princes to the head, eyes, 
ears, and other senses ; craftsmen and warriors to the hands ; 
plowmen to the feet. And all these must he in due proportion, 
else will there he deformity. (2) There must he friends, riches, 
and abundance of necessaries. Poverty is the mother of envy, 
malice, dissension, and many other mischiefs. The country must 
also have friends among those living near. (3) There must he 
good laws put into effect hy the rulers. "Without these all other 
advantages are of no avail ; necessaries and people are useless if the 
latter will not ohey order — they will only he ahused to the destruc- 
tion of the commonwealth. 

Lupset here (p. 51, par. 20) asks Pole to define what he means 
hy "policy," "civil order," and "politic rule," terms which have 
"been often used. Pole promises to satisfy him on these points. 
There was a time when man had no cities, no religion, hut wandered 
ahroad in fields and woods like the beasts. So he continued till 
certain men of wit and policy, with eloquence and philosophy, con- 
sidering his nature and dignity, persuaded him to forsake his rude- 
ness and follow order and civil life, huilding cities in which he 
might defend himself from wild "beasts. Then ordinances and laws 
were devised, rude and imperfect like the people themselves, hut 
improving as time went on. There were various kinds of govern- 
ment, some by a king, some by a council, and some hy the whole 
body of the people, as was found suitahle. The form of government 


is immaterial so long as they who are in authority study to promote 
the public good. But when they look to their own pleasure and 
profit this good order is turned into tyranny, there is no politic rule, 
no civil order. The end of all politic rule is to induce people to live 
virtuously. "Without these — civil order and politic rule— there can 
he no true commonwealth ; for as in man there only are quietness 
and felicity where mind and body agree, so in a country there only 
can be perfect civility where all the parts agree, each doing his duty ; 
rulers administering justice, people yielding all humble service. 
Thus when each does his duty, all may attain a high felicity. As 
the health of a man (p. 57, par. 21) stands not in the health of 
one member but of all, so a true commonwealth does not stand in 
the prosperity of one part but in all the parts together. "Where the 
prince is chosen by free election, that is deemed by some to be the 
best form of government. Increase of population and multitude of 
cities and towns are sure signs of prosperity ; and where these are 
seen we may rest assured there is a true commonwealth. 

Lupset (p. 59, par. 22) expresses himself satisfied with the 
exj^lanation given, but regrets it because hitherto he has thought 
Christendom has had in it a true commonwealth. Now he perceives 
it lacks many things. He thinks much depends on fortune. Pole 
says that although the state of Christendom is not perfect, it is the 
best that has been or ever shall be established ; it is the nearest to 
perfection and most convenient to man, and tends towards the 
attainment of everlasting life. He thinks much depends upon 
fortune, which has great power in all worldly affairs ; for who does 
not see how riches and health, authority and dignity, are rendered 
uncertain by fortune 1 Yet the happiness of a country does not 
absolutely depend upon it. It is no imperfection to a man or to 
a commonwealth that many outward things are often altered by 

Lupset does not like to see such power given to fortune, but Pole 
says it can no more deprive a man of happiness than clouds can prevent 
the shining of the sun. A man may suffer from adversity here, yet 
if he live virtuously and honestly, God will give him felicity here- 
after. But still he thinks man cannot have the highest felicity if he 


lack worldly prosperity. Lupset is comforted (p. 64, par. 28) by 
hearing Pole confess that all men may get to heaven at last. Pole 
says he has no donbt about it, and that he differs in this from the 
"common sort of men." "We must regard the future life as well as 
the present, and use our prosperity well. Pole concludes by repeat- 
ing much that he has said before, that public good should be in a 
man's heart as well as in his mouth ; that it should be the end of all 
his thoughts ; that as a mariner who brings his vessel safely into 
port preserves his own life and the lives of others — so in the State, 
if a man saves others he saves himself also. Lupset professes him- 
self satisfied, and doubts not that if men would well consider what 
has been said there would be more regard to the commonwealth here 
than there is. But he fears it is almost impossible to found such a 
commonwealth in England as Pole bas described. Pole now proposes 
to spy out common faults, and at last find means to restore our com- 


Pole commences by repeating that, after denning a true common- 
wealth, it is expedient to examine into the faults and disorders 
which hinder its prosperity. Lupset thinks little diligence is re- 
quired in this, as it is easier " to spy two faults than amend one." It 
is by no means hard to see tbe faults which prevail in our own 
country. No man can deny that there is great decay when he sees 
the ruinous condition of cities, castles, and towns, and the poverty 
of the inhabitants ; or when he looks at the ground which used to 
be well tilled, but now lies waste; or when he considers the 
manners of the people and their order of living, which are as far 
from what they ought to be as good from ill, as vice from virtue. 
All these evils are as clear as the day. Pole does not admit that all 
is so clear, or that it requires so little diligence ; without care wrong 
conclusions may easily be drawn. He then goes on (p. 71, par. 7) 
to speak of the faults which he perceives in the tody politic. First 
he notices the lack of people. This he considers to be evident by 
observing how much better cities and towns were inhabited in times 
past than they are now. Many houses are in ruins, and many with- 


out inhabitants. Further ; many villages have utterly decayed, and 
where Christian people were nourished, now you only find wild 
beasts; where many houses and churches once stood, there is no- 
thing but sheepcots and stables. This condition of things is not 
confined to one or two places ; it prevails generally throughout the 
realm. This decay of cities, towns, and villages plainly shows, a 
scarceness of men. Then crafts have declined, and much land lies 
waste and untilled ; which things could not he if there were no lack 
of people. The ground is not barren, as some men think ; it only 
requires the labour of man to render it fruitful. 

Lupset does not agree. He thinks (p. 74, par. 12) that the ruin 
of cities and towns, the decay of crafts, and the barrenness of the 
ground, do not argue a lack of population, but idleness. Eb matter 
how populous a country may be, if the people are idle there must 
be ruin and decay. He considers that, so far from having too few 
people, we have too many, and that this is the cause of the scarcity 
of food, for want of which many die, or live very wretchedly. Pole 
asks him to compare the country now with what it has been or with 
other countries which are naturally not more fruitful than ours, and 
yet sustain more people. Then he must confess to a lack of people. 
The country, he maintains, has been more populous than it is now. 
Referring to Trance, Italy, and Spain, he says they, in a like or less 
space than ours, sustain more people than England does, which is 
easily seen by the number of their cities, castles, and towns. He 
owns that we have many idle people, more than any country in the 
world, but we must not attribute the ruin and decay to them. It is 
true that if they were well occupied we should be better off than we 
are ; but, putting idle and diligent together, we have not so many as 
we ought to have, and as the land, well tilled, would sustain. As to 
scarcity of food, it does not prove over great numbers, it only proves 
the negligence of those we have. But there is another disease more 
grievous than this which has been mentioned. A great part of the 
people we have (p. 76, par. 15) are either idle or ill occupied, and 
but few exercise themselves in doing that which would maintain the 
commonwealth. Look at the idle rout kept by noblemen, bishops, 
and others. Look at the priests, monks, friars, and canons, with all 


their idle train, and you "will find many who are only burdens on 
the earth. They are like the drone bees in a hive which only con- 
sume the honey gathered by the diligent bee. 

Lupset (p. 77, par. 16) thinks the earth is so fruitful that with 
little labour she will nourish mankind, as she does beasts, birds, and 
fishes, and that if a few people busy themselves " the rest may live 
in triumph, at liberty and ease." Pole accuses him of speaking as 
though he fancied man born to idleness, which is not true. Man 
was born to labour, and not to live as an unprofitable weight and 
burden on the earth. It is not necessary that all should be tillers of 
the ground : some must be priests, some gentlemen to govern the 
rest, and others to be servants, but all in due proportion. Of these 
classes there are too many, especially of those who are in the service 
of gentlemen and lords. You will not find so many in any other 
country of the world. Lupset takes this for great praise, because if 
there were no yeomanry we should be in a shrewd case ; in them 
stands the chief defence of England. But Pole maintains that " in 
them stands the beggary of England." Still, if they were exercised 
in feats of arms they might be suffered. But they pay so little at- 
tention thereto that in time of war it is necessary for plowmen and 
labourers to take weapons in hand, else we should not long enjoy 
England ; so little confidence is placed in the yeomanry. As of 
priests, friars, and monks we have too many, so have we of 
yeomanry, and they make the politic body unwieldy and heavy. 

Not much less mischievous than the idle are the ill occupied (p. 
80, par. 21). By these Pole means such as are busied in making or 
procuring things which minister only to the pleasures of others ; 
such as ornamenting wearing apparel, procuring new kinds of meats 
and drinks ; singing men, " curious descanters, and devisers of new 
songs, which tend only to vanity." To these he adds all merchants 
who export necessaries and import only " trifles and conceits." All 
such are ill occupied and unprofitable. Lupset thinks Pole too severe, 
and that he would take away all pleasure and all ornaments. Pole 
answers that he would not take away all pleasure from man, but he 
would banish all the ill occupied of whom he has spoken, and with 
them all their vain pleasures and ornaments, bringing in, in their 


place, the true pleasure of man, and the true ornaments of the 

Another disease (p. 82, par. 25) which gives much trouble to the 
State is the jealousy which exists between classes. Laymen " grudge 
against" spiritual men, the commons against the nobles, subjects 
against rulers. This is so evident that no arguments are needed. It 
is like a pestilence. Again, there is a want of proportion (p. 83, 
par. 29) ; one part is too great, another too little ; one part has too 
many, another too few. There are too many priests, but too few 
good clerks ; monks and friars are too many, good religious men too 
few. Too many proctors, too few good judges. Exporters of neces- 
saries too many, importers of what is good too few. Servants, crafts- 
men, and makers of trifles too many, occupiers and tillers of the 
ground too few ; making in our body politic a monstrous deformity. 
The country is also weaker than it has been in times past, and less 
able to defend itself from enemies. There never were so few good 
captains as now, never so few exercised in deeds of arms, as may 
easily be seen by those who will compare the present with the past, 
when our enemies dreaded and feared us. These are the faults which 
are common to the whole body. 

Pole now (p. 85, par. 33) proposes to speak of particular faults, 
or faults which pertain to particular classes. Princes, lords, and 
bishops look chiefly to their own pleasure and profit ; few regard the 
good of the commons. Princes and lords seldom look to the good of 
their subjects ; they only care about receiving their rents and main- 
taining their pompous state. For the rest they care not whether the 
people " sink or swim." Bishops only study how they may get the 
wool, leaving the simple sheep to wander in the forest and be de- 
voured by wolves. Judges and ministers of justice are ruled by 
lucre, " and matters are ended as they are friended." These faults 
are seen in spiritual and temporal rulers : none regard their office and 
duty, and they can only be compared to a man in a frenzy. Plow- 
men, labourers, craftsmen, and artificers are negligent and slow, by 
reason whereof come much dearth and penury. The waste ground, 
the scarcity of food, the dearth of manufactures show great negli- 
gence. If plowmen were diligent, there would be less waste ground ; 


if artificers were industrious, manufactures would not be so scarce 
and so dear. The truth is, the English are more given to idle 
gluttony than any people in the world. Thus Pole, having declared 
the general and particular faults of the body politic, proposes to seek 
out what is required for its prosperity ; and this he thinks will not 
be hard because there is no man so blind as not to see the poverty 
of this realm. Lupset is surprised at such a statement, as our country 
has ever been esteemed rich. In our wool, lead, tin, iron, silver, and 
gold, and in all things necessary to the life of man, our country may 
be compared with any other. Pole answers him that he speaks like a 
man of the old world. Undoubtedly our island has been the most 
wealthy in Christendom, and tbat not many years ago, but it is 
much altered. Where riches and liberality were, you will now find 
wretchedness and poverty ; where there was abundance, you will 
now find scarceness. No one can doubt this who sees the multitude 
of beggars and the fewness of people. In no other country will you 
find so many beggars as we have in England. All classes, the plow- 
man, the artificer, the merchant, the gentleman, yea, princes, lords, 
and prelates, cry that they lack money. Look at the dearth of corn, 
of cattle, and of food : it cannot be denied that a common dearth 
argues a great lack. We must confess to the penury of our common- 
wealth. Lupset does not think this well proved. Beggars do not 
prove poverty, but idleness ; and as for the complaints of all 
classes, men so esteem money that had they ever so much they 
would still complain, and many would even feign poverty. If we 
examine into the matter he thinks we shall find England richer than 
any other country about us, for in France, Italy, and Spain it can- 
not be denied that the commons are poorer than they are with us. 
Then as to the dearth of necessaries, it is the same in all places. 
When God sends seasonable weather we have enough ; when He 
chooses to punish us we have lack. Pole grants that other countries 
may be poorer than ours, but this he maintains does not affect the 
question. Ours is certainly poorer than it ought to be, and the 
scarcity does not arise from the common ordinance of God. Lupset 
agrees in this, and says " some have too much, some too little, and 
some never a whit." 


Pole now (p. 92, par. 43) refers to outward things required for 
the maintenance of the commonwealth, and sees great faults, in the 
ouilding and clean keeping of cities, castles, and towns. Man has 
no care for the future, each only regards his own pleasure, This, 
Lupset says, is quite true. When he travelled in France and 
Flanders he thought he was in another world, the cities and towns 
were so well built, and so clean kept, every city seeming to strive 
which should be best built and kept cleanest. But here in England 
the people seem' to study how the cities, towns, and castles may 
soonest fall into ruin and decay. Every gentleman lives in the 
country, few inhabit cities and towns. He goes on (p. 93, par. 46) 
to complain that the merchants export such necessaries as cattle, 
corn, wool, tin, lead, and other metals, and bring in, in their place, 
only such tilings as tend to the destruction of our people. Such as 
" delicate wines, fine cloths, says and silks, beads, combs, girdles and 
knives, and a thousand such trifling things," which could either be 
well spared or our own people might be employed in making them. 
This he considers a great hurt to the clothmakers of England ; the 
wines, he says, impoverish many gentlemen, and cause much drunk- 
enness and idleness among the poor. As men are so prone to 
pleasure it would not be amiss to restrain the use of this wine. He 
would have some for the use of the nobles, but even here moderation 
would be good. And so of silks and says, it is convenient to have 
some for the use of the nobility. Here he notes another disorder, 
which is, that now hardly any man will wear home-made cloth, but 
every man must have his fustians and silks from abroad, which 
causes many crafts to fall into decay. Then as to excess of diet, there 
never was such feasting and banquetting, and so many kinds of 
meats as there are now, " and specially in mean men's houses." Now 
a gentleman must fare as well as lords and princes used to fare. And 
this they take for an honour. It is a dishonour, it is a detriment to 
the commonwealth, a nourisher of idleness, and a cause of sickness. 
It is a common proverb that "many idle gluttons make victuals 
dear." Complaint has been made of the ill building, yet men build 
beyond their degree — a mean man will have a house fit for a prince. 
Pole does not object to this, because it is a great ornament, if they 


build with timber and stone obtained at home, and do not gild and 
daub the posts with gold (p. 95, par. 52). Lupset says many build 
more than they or their heirs can keep in repair, and so places fall 
into ruin. Pole holds that the greatest fault is "in consuming of 
gold upon posts and walls." 

Another fault which Lupset notices is in the extensive enclosure 
of arable land ; where there used to be corn and fruitful fields now 
is but pasture, by "reason whereof many villages and towns are in a 
few days ruinate and decayed." Pole says this has been a fault many 
- a day, but not so great a one as it appears. Our food does not con- 
sist of corn and fruits of the ground only, but also in cattle, and we 
cannot breed and rear these without pasture. This enclosing is also 
for sheep, by the profit of which the wealth of the country is much 
increased. Lupset says we pay too much regard to the nourishing 
of sheep. Commonly they die of scab and rot in great numbers, and 
this because they are fed on pastures which are too fat for them. 
As to other cattle he thinks too little attention is given to breeding 
them. Generally they are killed early or sold to those who do not 
intend to rear them. And so, although we have overmuch pasture, 
we have too few beasts which are profitable to man. And then 
these pasture farms get into the hands of a few rich men, to the ex- 
clusion of the poor from their means of living, and the worse tilling 
of the ground. Pole says it remains now to note the disorders and 
ill government which will be found in the country. This will re- 
quire diligence, and will be found more difficult than the subjects 
which have been discussed before. 


Pole commences by stating that it is well known this country 
has been governed for many years by princes who have judged that 
all things pertaining to the State have depended only upon their will 
and fancy, and that whatever they purposed was to be allowed with- 
out resistance from any private subject. It is commonly thought that 
a prince possesses arbitrary power. This has ever been a source of 
great destruction, not only to England, but to all other countries 
where similar opinions prevail. It is as true as the Gospel that no 


country can prosper which is ruled by a prince who succeeds to the 
throne, not by election, but by birth. Those who succeed in this 
way are rarely worthy to have such high authority. Lupset begs 
Pole to be careful, as what he is saying may sound like treason. 
Would he have a king with no more authority than one of his lords ? 
It is generally held that the king is superior to all laws ; that he 
may loose and bind as he will. Pole answers that this is a disease, 
which, when examined, will be found to be the root of many others. 
It is the highest form of government to be governed by a prince and 
to obey him if he excel all others in wisdom and virtue, but it is 
most pestilent and pernicious, and full of peril if he is not. As our 
princes are not chosen from the most worthy he thinks it is not 
expedient to commit to them such authority as is due to "singular 
virtue and most perfect wisdom " only. It is better to restrain the 
authority of the prince and commit it to a common council or par- 
liament, because such prerogative given to one man is the ruin of all 
laws and policy, just as the dispensations of the Pope have been the 
destruction of the law of the Church. This is easily seen, because 
there are few laws and statutes made by parliament which, by pro- 
clamation and license of the king, are not abrogated. Till this is 
redressed it will avail but little to make good laws. It is a great 
fardt for one man to be able to dispense with laws and to excuse the 
breakers of the laws ; and to make leagues and peace with other nations. 
It is indeed to open the gate to all tyranny ; it is the destruction of 
all civility, and turns order and rule upside down. One cannot com- 
pass as much as the wit of many, as it is commonly said, "many 
eyes see better than one." 

Lupset (p. 104, par. 4) marvels much at Pole's statements, 
because it seems that he would allow the state of a prince without 
the authority of one. If a prince cannot moderate all things accord- 
ing to his pleasure he must very often call parliament together, and 
this would give great trouble to the commons. Pole says, in answer 
to this, if kings were chosen for their virtues and fitness to rule, then 
they might have this authority ; but they come by succession, and are 
ruled by affection, and draw all things to their lust. Such authority 
he maintains to be pernicious and hurtful, and a great destruction to 


our country, as has been perceived many times by our forefathers, and 
would be now, only we " have a noble and wise prince who is ever 
ready to submit to his council, nothing abusing his authority." Lupset 
confesses to seeing a fault here, but how is it to be redressed 1 Pole 
says he will see when time and place require it ; and then repeats 
what has been said about kings by succession being a fault, and that 
they generally abuse their power. Lupset hardly knows what to say. 
When he hears Pole's reasons they seem like truth ; but when he 
considers the nature of our people, "succession of blood, and not by 
election," seems very expedient ; as the end of all law is to keep the 
citizens in unity and peace. If kings were chosen by election he 
thinks civil war would ensue, because every man would be king, 
every man would think himself as worthy as another. Our people 
are of such a nature that they would be sure to abuse such liberty if 
they had it. Pole asks (p. 107, par. 9) what can be more contrary to 
reason than for a whole people to be ruled by a man who commonly 
lacks all reason 1 Look at the Eomans, Lacedemonians, and Greeks, 
they chose their rulers by free election. This succession by inheritance 
was brought in by tyrants and barbarous princes, and is contrary to 
nature and reason. This is more evidently seen in private families, 
where, if the son be prodigal or vicious, the father is not bound to 
make him his heir. Much more ought this to be admitted in a realm ; 
if the prince be unworthy to succeed his father, another should be 
chosen by free election. Still, as our people are now affected, and as 
the state of the country is, " ill it is to take our prince by succession, 
and much worse by free election." In all which Lupset agrees. 

A similar fault, but not so great, Pole says exists in the succession 
of private men (p. 108, par. 11). By law the eldest brother succeeds, 
to the exclusion of all others from the inheritance. To utterly 
exclude the younger children from all share in the property seems to 
be far out of order. Reason and nature require that children of the 
same father and mother should have a portion of the patrimony. 
Utterly to exclude them diminishes the love between father and child, 
and increases envy and hatred between those whom nature has bound 
together. Lupset cannot understand what Pole means. It seems as 
though he would subvert the whole policy of the realm. Such things 

cxlviii PROVISION FOR younger sons. 

as make to the honour of our country he esteems faults. Pole asks 
him, then, to give a little of his mind on this subject, which Lupset 
proceeds to do hy assuming that laws were made for the people, and 
not the people for the laws ; and therefore that all such laws as keep 
the people in good order are to be allowed. Those who made this 
law of inheritance well considered the sturdy nature of Englishmen, 
who, without heads and rulers, would be without all order. Conse- 
quently they ordained that in every great family the eldest should 
succeed " to maintain a head," who by authority should better restrain 
the rudeness of the people. It is certain that, if the lands were 
equally divided amongst brothers, in a few years head families would 
decay ; and then the people, deprived of heads and rulers, would 
soon disturb the good order which during many ages has prevailed. 
If you deprive the nobles of their great possessions, nobles and 
commons would be so confounded that there would be no difference 
between them. Lupset cannot grant that this law of inheritance is 
contrary to nature, because the disposition of worldly goods does not 
always rest in the free-will of man, but may be regulated by the law 
so as to maintain good policy. Pole says though these reasons seem 
to be strong they are not hard to answer ; there is, however, some 
truth in them. The rudeness of our people makes rulers necessary, 
and in great families this order of succession might remain. But 
surely some provision should be made for the younger brothers, so 
that they need not depend wholly upon the courtesy of their eldest 
brother, whose love is often so cold that he leaves them in poverty. 
If the law were confined to princes, dukes, earls, and barons, it would 
be all very well, but it becomes intolerable when it is applied to 
"gentlemen of mean sort." We might take example from the 
Eomans, who divided their heritages equally. The mischief sprang 
from a certain pride by which every Jack would be a gentleman, and 
every gentleman a knight or a lord. Lupset says Pole has well 
declared his mind on this subject, and he cannot but acknowledge a 
"misorder." In Prance, Planders, and Italy, they do make a pro- 
vision for the younger brothers. He has ever thought the entailing of 
lands to be an error, and thinks it would be well to discuss it now, as 
it causes many heirs to regard neither learning nor virtue, because 


they are sure to be inheritors of a great portion of entailed land. 
Pole reminds him that the law does not command the entailing of 
lands, it only permits it. Lupset replies that herein is the error. In 
great families it might be permitted, but in base families it ought not 
to be allowed, as it produces much inequality, and much hatred and 
malice. This Pole admits. 

Pole then goes on to speak of another custom (p. 114, par. 19), 
deserving as much reproof as the last-named. If a man who holds 
his lands by knight's service dies, leaving his heir under age, his 
lands fall into the hands of the lord, who has also the ward and 
tuition of the heir. It is unreasonable to commit him to one who 
is not related to him, and who is not bound to render any account to 
any man, especially as the guardian may marry the heir to whom he 
thinks best. Lupset thinks the custom just and reasonable, and 
refers to its origin. Pole says he cannot be persuaded that the 
custom is good. He does not deny that they who gave lands to their 
servants might make conditions of ward and marriage ; but we must 
look higher, and consider the nature of the commonwealth ; and 
Lupset, owning the custom " smelleth a little of tyranny," confesses 
it is a great error. 

The next fault which Pole notices (p. 117, par. 25) is that in case 
a man have a suit in a shire and wishes to trouble his adversary he 
can remove his cause by writ to Westminster, by which the unjust 
cause frequently prevails in consequence of the inability of the other 
party to follow him thither. - Lupset maintains that the fault lies in 
the party so removing the cause and not in the law, which he defends, 
because in the shire matters are so bolstered by affection and power, 
that justice cannot be had there. The law, Pole says, is to blame in 
allowing the appeal without just cause, and in this Lupset agrees. 
The next fault is " concerning the process in suits and causes," 
Matters remain unsettled for two, three, or four years, which ought to 
be finished in fewer days. " Hungry advocates and cormorants of the 
■court " study to delay causes, but the law is to blame by allowing 
them to stop process for trifles. 

Another error is in the punishment for theft (p. 119, par. 33), 
which is too severe : for every little theft a man is hanged. Lupset 


says with all its strictness it is not sufficient to deter others from 
theft. If a punishment even more severe could be devised he thinks 
it ■would be well, for theft disturbs all quiet life. Pole thinks the 
punishment ought to be moderated. The punishment for treason is 
too severe — heirs and all the children lose their lands, and creditors 
are defeated of their debts. Lupset thinks the traitor ought to suffer 
in his body, goods, children, and friends, that others may beware. 
Pole goes on to note the liberty which is given in accusing any one 
of treason. Light causes of suspicion ought not to be admitted. 

Lupset calls attention to the use of the French tongue in our 
laws, and considers it ignominious and dishonourable to our nation. 
To this Pole adds church I'aw in Latin, and then proceeds to ,the 
faults in the spirituality. First he refers to the authority of the 
Pope, who takes upon himself to dispense with the laws of God and 
man for money. And as for the authority given to St Peter, it was 
nothing like that which popes usurp ; and the power of dispensation 
was given by man, not to the Pope alone, but to him and his College 
of Cardinals. The power given by God extends to the absolution of 
sin only. In abusing his power the Pope destroys the whole order 
of the Church. Prom this same ground spring also the Appeals to 
Pome, which are a dishonour to our country, and require so controlling 
that every trifling cause should not be referred thither. The payment 
of annates is unreasonable, as they only go to maintain the pride 
of the Pope, and cause war and discord among Christian princes 
(p, 126, par. 61). Lupset thinks they were devised to maintain the 
majesty of the See of Rome and to defend the Church ; but Pole 
ansAvers that the majesty of the Church stands in its purity, and that 
Christian princes ought to defend it. Appeal to the Court of Arches 
and Probate in the Archbishop's court are also faults, and the cause 
of many disorders. Other spiritual faults are, the early age at which 
a man is admitted to the priesthood; the admission of youths to 
religion ; and the celibacy of the clergy. 

Pole now (p. 128, par. 77) proposes to examine the customs "which 
seem to repugne to good civility." The principal of these is the 
education of the nobility. They are brought up to hunting, hawking, 
gambling, eating, and drinking ; and nothing else is thought fit for 


a gentleman. Then each must keep a court like a prince, and have 
his idle train to follow him. In this stands the beggary of England. 
If they are not clothed in silks and velvets, and if they have not 
twenty different dishes at meals, they think they lack honour. Lupset 
cannot deny these things, hut adds that a knight or a mean gentleman 
here has as great a number of idle men as a great lord in France ; 
where, instead of wasting their estates in this manner, they marry 
their children and friends therewith, and keep the younger members 
from dishonour and shame. 

Pole then looks at the customs of the spirituality ; the bishops, 
abbots, and priors, and the " great sort of idle abbey lubbers," fit only 
to eat and to drink; the election of bishops, abbots, and priors 
(p. 131, par. 91); the defective education and vicious lives of 
churchmen; non-residence of the clergy (p. 133, par. 101); the per- 
formance of service in Latin, and the singing thereof, which is 
more to the pleasure of the ear than the comfort of the heart. 
Lupset thinks Pole inclined to imitate the Lutherans, who have all 
their service in the vulgar tongue ; but he would not follow them. If 
we have the Gospel put into our own language we shall have as many 
errors and sects as there are in Germany. Pole says Lupset seems- 
to be afraid of following in Luther's steps, which he will not do, 
although Luther and his disciples are not so wicked that they err in 
all things. Pole will not so abhor their heresy that he will fly from 
the truth. He approves their manner of conducting service because 
he thinks it right and true. Divine service is to be said for the 
edifying of the people. If this is true, it must either be said in a 
language which they understand, or they must be taught the language 
in which the service is said. But this is not possible. Therefore 
he thinks it is necessary that not only should divine service be 
conducted in English, but that the Gospel should be translated 
also. As for the errors that people run into, it is not because 
the Gospel is in the vulgar tongue, but it is because they lack 
good teachers. He maintains that the custom is bad by which 
we have not the Bible in our language, and the service said in a 
tongue which the people do not understand. If Augustine, Jerome, 
and Ambrose could hear our "curious cantering" in churches "they 


would drive it into taverns, comedies, and common plays." Lupset 
acknowledges that it is necessary to have all laws, religious and 
civil, and divine service also, in our own mother tongue. 

The privileges of the clergy are next called in question by Pole 
(p. 138, par. 107), who inquires whether it is convenient that priests 
guilty of crime should never be cited before a secular judge? 
Lupset's reply is that he would make an allowance for the dignity of 
the priesthood, a phrase which Pole declares he cannot understand. 
If they do amiss, they ought to receive a more severe punishment. 
They ought to be honoured for their virtues only. If privileges are 
granted, every " idle lubber " who can either read or sing will make 
himself a priest, not because he loves religion, but because under the 
pretence of religion he may indulge in all lusts without fear of 
punishment. Lupset does not know what answer to make, especially 
as in the spiritual courts they have no punishments suitable to the 
crimes which are committed. The privilege now is pernicious, but 
was convenient in the early Church. Is the exemption of religious 
houses and colleges from their bishops reasonable? is the next 
inquiry made by Pole, and Lupset grants it is not. A similar answer 
is returned to questions on the privileges of sanctuary, by which 
murderers, thieves, and fraudulent debtors escape the punishment due 
to their crimes. 

Having mentioned all the " misorders " which have come to his 
remembrance, Pole proposes to adjourn for two or three days. 




Pole opens this second part of the dialogue by referring to the 
difficulties -which lie in their way. To speak of faults and deficiencies 
in the commonwealth has been an easy task when compared with 
that of finding remedies. Under these circumstances, he proposes to ask 
wisdom from God. To this Lupset readily agrees, remarking that 
if old authors and poets called upon their gods, much more ought 
members of the Christian flock to call upon God who has promised 
to hear them. They then retire to heai- a Mass in honour of the 
Holy Ghost. Then Pole (p. 145, par. 7) describes the course to be 
taken, and after recapitulating part of what has been said, goes on to 
speak of the great lack of people, and to propose the only remedy — 
" natural procreation," to be brought about by marriage. If man 
would but follow reason there would be no difficulty ; but after a trial 
of thousands of years, it has been found that " by instruction and 
gentle exhortation " man cannot be brought to perfection ; and that 
the fear of punishment is the only thing which will bring him to 
consider his proper dignity. How then can the " gross and rude 
people " be allured to follow that which shall be deemed necessary 1 
How can they be induced to marry ? He thinks " by privilege and 
pain." Lupset here breaks in with an idea, to Avhich he hardly dare 
give utterance; that is, that "the law of chastity ordained by the 
church " which binds so many people, is a great hindrance to the in- 
crease of the population (p. 148, par. 12). This law might, in his 
estimation, be relaxed with advantage. Pole thinks the law was 
useful when first instituted, but now he confesses it is not so, and 
would at least allow all secular priests to marry. "With regard to 
" monks, canons, friars, and nuns," he thinks there ought to be 
Abbeys, to which, after lawful proof of chastity, they might retire. 
This liberty to retire from the world he considers a great comfort to 
many feeble and weary souls who have been oppressed with the 
vanities of the world, but he quite agrees that secular priests ought to 


Another hindrance to the increase of population lies in the multi- 
tude of serving men, who spend all their lives in service, and never 
have the means to marry. An ordinance that no gentleman shoidd 
be allowed to keep more than he can " set forward to some honest 
fashion of living and lawful matrimony," would cure this. Many 
now cannot marry because of poverty (p. 150). To remedy this, 
houses should be built in the wild and waste places, and given with a 
portion of land to their servants for a nominal rent. By this means, 
many would be induced to marry, and the country would gain not 
only in population, but the waste grounds would be well tilled. 
Besides this, he would recommend the custom of the Eomans for imi- 
tation, and grant special privileges and exemptions to all who had five 

The penalties to be incurred by such as abstained from marriage 
are next considered (p. 151). They should never bear any honours, 
or any office in the city or town where they live ; they should pay 
an income tax of one shilling in the pound yearly on all amounts 
coming in " either by fee, wages, or land ; " and every man who was 
worth more than five pounds in movable goods should pay three- 
pence in the pound. The money thus obtained should be distributed, 
partly to those who had more children than they could well keep, 
and partly in endowments for poor damsels and virgins. When 
a bachelor dies one half of his goods shall go for the above pur- 
poses; and the whole of a priest's at his death. This Pole con- 
siders to be a " singular remedy for the slenderness for our politic 

The second disease to be considered is idleness (p. 152, par. 15). 
Though the body be weak and slender, yet is it " bollen and swollen 
out with all humours." The cause of the disease must be removed 
before we can cure the disease itself; and the cause lies in the 
ill bringing up of youth. As the young grow up hoping to live 
pleasantly in service with some nobleman or other, an ordinance 
should be made, compelling every man to place his children to learn- 
ing or to some craft at the age of seven years ; and the curate of the 
parish should have chief authority to see the law obeyed. To en- 
courage " arts and crafts," every man who excelled in his calling 


should "be rewarded by the liberality of the prince. As for such as 
delighted in idleness and followed no trade at all, they should be ban- 
ished. It avails but little to increase the population if idleness 
is not done away. Lupset thinks the remedy a short one, and tells 
Pole he must show more at large how the youth are to be brought up 
in arts and crafts. But Pole says that is not his purpose ; it would 
require a whole book. He intends only to touch on general points, 
and leave the rest to those in authority. 

Those who are busy to no purpose are next to be considered. 
Such as merchants and craftsmen, who are occupied about vain plea- 
sures, singers, players upon instruments, and many who are called re- 
ligious men, but are not. If they were well brought up the root of 
this disease would be cut away. These " artificers of vanity " must 
perish if the idle did not maintain them. Our rulers must give heed 
to this good education of youth, for it is the foundation of all reme- 
dies for political diseases, and without it nothing can avail. 

But human nature is weak and given to pleasure. It would be 
well, therefore, to make a law forbidding merchants to bring into the 
country such things as allure only to pleasure and pastime ; among 
which wine is the cause of much harm, and the quantity imported 
must be limited to what is required " for the pleasure of noblemen 
.and them which be of power." Exports, also, must be regulated, and 
must be limited to such things as we have in abundance ; the mer- 
chants bringing in, in return, only such things as cannot be made in our 
own country. Officers similar to the Eoman Censors should be ap- 
pointed to carry out these regulations : — to see that men are well and 
usefully employed, and to superintend the education of youth. Lup- 
set thinks all this very good, but reminds Pole that he has left 
unnoticed half the ill-occupied persons — such as live in monasteries 
and abbeys. 

Of religious persons Pole says a great many are unprofitable 
(p. 156, par. 19) ; but he would not have them and their monasteries 
taken away : he would have only some good reformation made. He 
would not allow youths to be in them at all, but only such men 
as are moved by a fervent love of religion. If this gap were stopped 
religious men would be fewer in number, but better in life. But as 


this is not the place to discuss this matter, he defers it for the present,, 
and proceeds to consider the discord and division Avhich are so rife. 
He considers this the very foundation of ruin, and cites Italy as an 
example in his own day. He considers that this pestilence in the 
commonwealth arises from a " lack of common justice and equity. 
One party has too much, and the other too little, of such things as 
should he equally distributed among citizens." To keep the body 
politic united provision must he made that every man may follow his 
trade, and that one trade shall not interfere with another : "for this 
causes much malice, envy, and debate, both in city and town, that 
one man meddles in the mystery and craft of another." One man is 
not contented with his own profession or manner of living, but 
directly he sees another better off than himself, he leaves his own 
business for the other. A penalty must be incurred by such men, 
and they must be constrained to follow their own trade. If they are 
seditious and despise this order, they must be banished or punished 
with death. "This compelling of every man to do his office and 
duty " would " conserve much this body in unity and concord," and 
in time remove all divisions. 

Pole then goes on to the next disease, which he has called a de- 
formity (p. 159). It has been observed that there is a Avant of pro- 
portion in the members, — some being too numerous, some too few. 
As of plowmen and tillers of the soil, there are too few ; of courtiers 
and idle servants, too many ; too few good artisans, too many super- 
stitious priests ; and so of many other orders. The cause of this is 
the natural inclination which man has to pleasure, quietness, and ease, 
so that men choose the easiest trades, and those in which there 
is the most hope of gain. " To correct this fault this must be a chief 
mean — in every craft, art, and science, some to appoint, expert in 
the same, to admit youth to the exercise thereof ; not suffering every 
man without respect to apply themselves to every craft and faculty." 
The officers thus appointed should judge for what a youth's wits fit 
him, and to that place him. Then if a man did not apply himself 
with diligence to his craft, the officers should appoint him to some 
other ; and so this politic body should grow to a marvellous beauty. 
Lupset is pleased with this proposal, and sees that, if it were put in 


practice, every man would be following the business for which he 
Avas suited. 

The weakness of the body next engages Pole's attention (p. 160, 
par. 21), by which he judges the country is not well able to defend 
itself from outward enemies. This he attributes to the neglect 
of martial exercises by the nobility and their servants. He would 
prohibit all unprofitable games and idle exercises, and compel them 
to apply themselves to such feats of arms as are necessary for the de- 
fence of the realm, with the same diligence that husbandmen apply 
to the cultivation of the ground. In every city and town he would 
have a place set apart for this purpose, as the Romans did, and the 
Swiss now do. Even in villages, when the people were assembled, 
he would not have such exercises forgotten. It is certain that this 
custom has been neglected for many years, and that, in consequence, 
the people are less valiant, and more given to pleasure than they 
were. "We cannot continue without war, and unless the people are 
trained to arms we shall be in danger of losing our country. If the 
remedies mentioned are well applied, the particular diseases of the 
commonwealth will soon be cured. Lupset thinks Pole ought to 
have dwelt more on the means of cure ; but Pole says his intention 
was only "to touch certain general things," leaving the rest to the 
prudence of those who are in authority. If he were to enter into par- 
ticidars too much time would be required. 

If Ave could find means to cure the head (p. 162, par. 25), all 
other disorders would soon be healed. Plato in his commonwealth 
desired above all things to see good rulers, because then laws would 
not be needed. Lupset thinks Plato only dreamed. A common- 
wealth such as his avlII never be seen, unless God should send angels 
to make a city. Pole reminds Lupset that the rulers he looks for are 
not such as Plato or the Stoics describe. If men could be found to 
seek the public good above all things, they would be sufficient ; and 
our country is not so barren of good men but some might be found, 
especially if attention were paid to the education of the young. The 
one thing needed is a good prince. Lupset says this rests with God 
only, Avhich Pole grants, adding, however, that God requires diligence 
to be used in all things pertaining to man's happiness, — without this- 


diligence man can nave nothing perfect. Of all creatures man 
is most perfect ; to him was given reason by which to govern him- 
self. But with reason God gave him certain affections and vicious 
desires, which, without care, overrun reason, and reduce man to the 
level of the brutes. If he had so much reason that these vicious 
desires could not prevail, he would have been as an angel, and the 
world would have been without the nature of man. Some men have 
more light than others, and this is why one man is wiser than another, 
and one nation more prudent than another. But none are so rude 
that they cannot subdue their affections. Every man, when he fol- 
lows reason, and whole nations, when they live in civil order, are 
governed by the providence of God. When they are without good 
order they are ruled by tyranny. God does not provide tyrants 
to rule. Man cannot make a ivise prince out of a fool, nor make him 
just who takes pleasure in tyranny. But he can elect him that 
is wise and just, and can depose a tyrant ; and if we would cure this 
frenzy we must not have princes by succession. Let us amend this 
fault, and we need care little for others. To say that God chooses 
tyrants to punish people is against religion and reason ; we might as 
well say He compels a man to follow his evil inclinations. If we at- 
tribute tyranny, which is the greatest of all evils, to God, we must at- 
tribute all ill to the Fountain of all goodness ; which is flat impiety. 
There is no need to remove tyranny in our days, because we have 
such an excellent prince ; but after his death parliament should 
choose the man who is most apt for the office and dignity of king. 
If we determine that the heir shall succeed, we must join to him 
.a council, not of his choosing, but chosen by a majority in parlia- 
ment. Lupset objects to this on account of the labour which would 
devolve upon the parliament. 

Pole now unfolds Ms plan of this council (p. 169, par. 35). The 
Great Parliament should only assemble to elect a prince, or for some 
other urgent cause. But the authority of parliament should ever re- 
main in London to repress sedition and defend liberty. This au- 
thority should rest in a council of fourteen, and its duty should be to 
see that the king and his council do not violate the laws ; to call the 
Great Parliament when necessary ; and to " pass all acts of leagues, 


•confederation, peace, and war." Everything else should he under the 
rule of the king and his council ; hut without his proper council, he 
should do nothing. The king's council should consist of ten : two 
hishops, four lords, and four men learned in the law. Then, though 
we took our prince hy succession, this council " should deliver us 
from all 'tyranny, setting us in true liberty." All inferior officers 
would he called to account, and the people would he cured of that 
negligence which allows the land to He untilled, and crafts to he " so 
ill occupied." If the Statute of Enclosure were put in force, and pas- 
ture land turned into arable, as it was before, there would he ahund- 
•ance and prosperity. All drunkards and gamhlers — those who 
*', lay the ground of misery and mischief, as well as the doers thereof," 
would he punished. Gluttony and idle games, which lead to adul- 
tery and rohhery, would he removed ; and poverty, which comes of 
neglect, would give place to plenty. 

Pole again reverts to the necessity of restricting imports and 
exports (p. 172). Wool must not he carried out of the country, hut 
must be made up into cloth at home. At first our cloths would not 
he so good as those made ahroad, hut there are merchants who will 
undertake to make English cloths equal to foreign in a few years, if 
the prince will help them. This would he of great "benefit to Eng- 
land, hecause they who now fetch our wool would he glad to fetch 
our cloth, and our people, now " wretched and poor," would find em- 
ployment. The same may be said of our lead and tin. Merchants 
carry out the metal, and hring it in again made into vessels. The 
merchants must not hring in such things as we can make at home. 
Wine, velvets, and silks they may hring in, hut only in limited 
quantities. The Statute of Apparel must be revived ; taverns pro- 
hibited ; unreasonable dues on imports of necessaries aholished — 
more than half of these dues go to the king ; — English vessels em- 
ployed rather than foreign ones ; and farmers must rear more cattle ; 
for by their neglect there is a dearth of food. 

Another evil which Pole points out (p. 175) lies in the enhancing 
of rents. If the farmers pay high rents they must sell dear ; "for he 
that huys dear may sell dear also justly." To remedy this he would 
have all rents lowered to what they were " when the people of Eng- 


land flourished;" for now, by ill government and the avarice of 
rulers, they are brought almost to the misery of France. All kinds 
of food are dearer than they were, and consequently craftsmen sell 
their wares dearer. If the things noted concerning merchants, 
labourers, and farmers were remedied, we should have abundance 
again ; this miserable poverty would soon be taken away ; lusty beg- 
gars and thieves would be but few or none at all; and as for those whi 
are impotent they could easily be nourished, either after the manner 
lately devised in Flanders, or by the charity of the people. 

Lupset thinks something is required besides abundance ; we 
must have " all common ornaments " if we will have a perfect State. 
Pole's reply is that these ornaments, such as goodly cities, castles, and 
towns, will soon follow, with magnificent houses, and fair temples, 
and churches. To provide these he would have men lay by a certain 
sum yearly, according to their ability. It would be well if officers 
were " appointed to have regard of the beauty of the town and coun- 
try, and of the cleanness of the same, which should cause great 
health," and prevent the pestilence, which is such a frequent scourge. 
If cities are to be restored and made as beautiful as they are in other 
countries, our gentlemen must build houses in them and live tbere, 
and see to their management, instead of living " sparkled in the 
fields and woods, as they did before there was any civil life known." 
By such means we should have all ornaments suitable to " our coun- 
try, which will not suffer to be so ornate and so beautiful ... as Italy, 
France, and Germany" (p. 178). 


Lupset commences by asking Pole to proceed with his remedies 
to keep the body in health. Pole answers that the diseases being 
cured health must of necessity follow. In health much depends upon 
temperance, and sober men generally have healthy and wealthy 
bodies. If we can but correct the faults in our policy, prosperity 
will be sure to follow. Of this Venice is an example : it has con- 
tinued in one order over a thousand years ; and the people, in con- 
sequence of their temperance, are as healthy and wealthy as any on 
earth. "We must be compelled by the law to follow the temperance 


of these men, then there need be no fear for oiu* prosperity ; especially 
if we remove all faults from our policy. The ruin of countries 
always follows some tyranny, or some sedition in consequence of 
some disorder in the government. Tyranny, he goes on to say, 
is the root .of all sedition, and the ruin of civil life, and we must 
above all things see that it has no place with us. A country 
(Jiat is oppressed with tyranny, however splendid and populous its 
cities may be, is most miserable. As no prince can be found who 
will regard justice above all other things, Ave must be careful that by 
no prerogative he usurp by authority such a tyranny as acts of parlia- 
ment have given under the pretence of majesty. The laws, not the 
prince, must govern the State. On this account wise men, consider- 
ing the nature of princes, affirm that a mixed State is the best, be- 
cause when one has authority and he chances to be corrupt, the rest 
must suffer. To avoid this the authority of the prince must be 
moderated, and how to do this must now engage our attention. 

Our ancestors, considering this tyranny, and wishing to avoid it, 
instituted the office of Constable of England to counterpoise the 
•authority of the prince. They gave the Constable authority to call 
parliaments if he judged the king were inclined to tyranny. But 
because the princes did not approve of having one in such high 
authority the office has been suppressed. As this is so, Pole thinks 
(p. 182) it would be better to give the authority held by the 
Constable to several rather than to one, the Constable being head of 
this council, which should represent the whole body of the people. 
Here follows a repetition of what is said about the Council of the 
Great Parliament and the King's Council of Ten (p. 169, par. 35). 

The mode of election again appears (p. 184, par. 5) to demand 
attention. Lupset thinks the old families should elect the prince, 
else war and sedition would ensue. But Pole quotes Venice as an 
example of good order. If our king's power were limited there would 
be less ambition than there is now. The power the prince possesses 
■often brings on civil war. The best way is to elect the prince, but 
as " we are barbarous," " in the second place and not as the best," it is 
" convenient to take him by succession." In all which Lupset con- 


Among other faults Pole observes (p. 186) one in bringing up 
the nobility. Generally even when their parents are alive they are 
brought up without any care, and when they are orphans the case is 
much worse, for they frequently fall into the hands of such guardians 
as only endeavour to spoil them of their property, or else to marry 
them to suit their own designs. These things must be remedied. 
The old laws must be abrogated ; guardians must render a strict ac- 
count of all properties received, and of the care they have bestowed 
upon the education and training of the ward. There is not in any 
country any regard paid to the training of youth in common disci- 
pline and public exercise. - Every man engages a private tutor to 
educate his children in letters, but feats of arms and chivalry are 
utterly neglected. Some ordinance ought to be made for the joining 
of the two, as we have in our " universities, colleges, and common 
places to nourish the children of poor men in letters ; whereby 
comes no small profit to the realm." It is most necessary that 
certain places should be appointed for the bringing up of the chil- 
dren of the nobility together, and to these they should be compelled 
to send their children. To teach them, wise and virtuous men 
should be appointed. The pupils should be instructed in learning 
and feats of arms, fit for such as should hereafter be captains and 
governors. It would be a noble institution, and much good would 
spring from it ; and without it our realm will never approach per- 
fection. Our fathers were liberal in building abbeys and monasteries, 
for the exercise of a monastic life, and they have advanced virtuous 
living. Their example we ought to follow in building places, or else 
in changing some that we have, such as "Westminster and St Alban's, 
for the training of the nobility. There are over many of these re- 
ligious houses, and if they were converted to this use, the nobles 
might there learn the discipline of the commonwealth. Now the 
nobles think they were bom only to spend the lands their ancestors 
provided, never looking to anything but pleasure. Here Pole would 
have them learn what they are and what position they are likely to 
occupy, and carefully prepare themselves for it. At void times they 
should " exercise themselves in feats of the body and in chivalry," 
which are useful in times of war and peace. Then they would be 


worthy of their narae, they would be nobles indeed, and true lords 
and masters, and the people would gladly obey them. Lupset thinks 
it would be a noble institution, and hopes he may live to see it put 
in .effect. It would soon bring forth Plato's commonwealth, or rather 
the institution of Christian doctrine, if there were men to instruct 
them in the sum of the G-ospel. That, Pole says, is to be under- 
stood ; " that is the head discipline and public " which he spoke of 
before. If this were done it would profit more than the monks have 
done in very many years ; and youths, " as stars, should light in all 
parts of the realm," and put in effect that of which the monks have' 
only dreamed. 

Lupset refers again to wards (p. 189, par. 11), abuses in which 
matter would be remedied by this institution; and not only for 
wards, but also for all the nobility, whose education is generally 
neglected, because more is thought of hawks and hounds than of 
children — " they study," Pole says, "more to bring up good hounds 
than wise heirs." He then refers again to appeals to London, which 
must be abolished ; the nobility should see that justice is done 
among their servants and subjects, and only causes which they can- 
not decide must be removed. In cases of appeal the party con- 
demned must pay the costs. This would end controversies and re- 
store confidence and quietness. Severe penalties must be imposed 
upon such advocates as induce their clients to bring unjust causes, 
and upon those who attempt to prolong them. Lupset says there is 
no denying that the covetous minds of the lawyers is the great cause 
of long suits, and as a remedy he would admit none to practise 
except such virtuous and honest men as have enough private means 
to maintain themselves. But is there not another cause of long suits ? 
To this Pole answers (p. 192, par. 14) yes, "and that is the fountain 
and cause of the whole matter." Our law is confused, it is infinite. 
The subtlety of one serjeant destroys the judgment of many wise 
men. The judgments of years are infinite and of little authority. 
The judges are not bound to follow them, but they judge as the 
Serjeants instruct them, or according to circumstances. To remedy 
this we must do as Justinian did with the Roman law. Statutes 
made by kings are too numerous, as were the constitutions of the- 


Emperors. He would have the laws reduced to a small number, 
which should be written in English or Latin. If they were in 
Latin then students of civil law might study the Roman laws where 
they would find much more to their advantage than in the Old 
French. Besides, the laws themselves are barbarous, and many of 
them must be abrogated. This is the only remedy for faults already 
mentioned. If the nobility were instructed in the laws as they 
ought to be, our country would soon be in as prosperous a condition 
as any other — perhaps in a better condition. If two things were 
effected — the Civil Law of Eome adopted for our Common Law, and 
the nobility in youth compelled to study it — there would be no need 
to seek for particular remedies for the disorders in the realm, for 
public discipline would easily redress all. Lupset thinks it woidd be 
hard to bring such reforms about, and Pole goes on to show that it 
would be easier than at first sight appears. A good prince would 
soon accomplish the work, and his authority is all that is required. 

The succession and entailing of lands next (p. 195, par. 16) en- 
gage Pole's attention. Younger brothers must be provided for ; the 
law which puts heirs out of fear of parents must be abolished — the 
sons should " stand upon their behaviour," and, unless they behaved 
well, the father, after proof before a judge, should have power to dis- 
inherit them. Lupset remembers that this was the custom among 
the Romans, and agrees, generally, in what has been said. 


Lupset now inquires what Pole has to say concerning theft and 
treason. Pole's answer is, Remove the cause, and you will soon find 
a remedy. The cause of theft lies in the number of idle persons, 
and in the defective education of youth : correct these, and the great 
cause will be removed. Still, if a man through weakness fall to 
*\ picking and stealing," he should be apprehended and put to some 
public works. This would be more grievous to him than death is 
reputed to be. As has been said, the punishment for this kind of 
stealing is too severe. Highway robbery, murder, and manslaughter 
should be still punished with death. And treason also shovdd con- 
tinue to be a capital offence, without depriving the children of the 


criminal of their father's property. A .man who lays a charge of 
treason against another without just grounds should be punished with 
death. But if tyranny were taken away there would be no cause for 
treason — " for tyranny is the mother of treason." This is a gospel 
word. Lupset agrees that most faults may be referred to that prin- 
ciple, or else to the bad education of the nobles. Pole goes on to 
say that Plato in his Commonwealth insists upon the instruction of 
his officers and governors, and considers good rulers to be living 
laws. A good prince would remedy all faults ; without one all good 
counsel can be of no effect. Faults among the spirituality now re- 
quire attention (p. 198). And first, the Pope usurps authority to 
dispense with all laws without consulting his Cardinals, who are ap- 
pointed to have the authority of a General Council in things pertain- 
ing to the good of Christendom, or of any controversy in any nation 
thereof. But now the Pope, usurping a sort of tyranny under the 
pretext of religion, defines all, and dispenses with all, as he wills. 
He should still be taken as the Head of the Church, because that 
authority is given to him by a General Council. An ordinance is 
needed to prohibit the removal of any cause, except causes of schism, 
out of the realm. This liberty of appeal to Rome has been a great 
destruction to England, as Pole could, by many stories, declare. As 
a recognition of the Pope's superiority Pole woidd still pay Peter 
pence, but not annates, except in the case of Archbishops, who 
should, after election at home, receive institution at the hands of the 
Pope. As for bishops, there would be no need for them to run to 
Pome ; our own archbishops should institute them at home. By 
paying these annates we have been maintaining the pomp of the 
Court of Eome, giving to the Pope that which ought to have been 
distributed among our own poor in England. Lupset asks what is 
the difference between sending first-fruits to Rome and spending 
them here " among whores, harlots, and idle lubbers 1 " There is a 
difference, Pole says. In the latter case it is spent in our own 
country. But this leads to another question — the manner of living 
among bishops and abbots. He would have every bishop's income 
divided into four parts. One part to build ruined churches in their 
dioceses ; a second to maintain poor youths in study ; the third to be 


given to poor maidens and others • the fourth part to be reserved for 
the maintenance of himself and his household. Abbots and 
priors he would have elected every three years according to the 
custom in Italy. They should give an account of their office, 
should live among the brethren, and not " triumph in chambers as 
they do now." 

Considering that those who have great possessions will not spend 
them according to reason (p. 201), he would have some authority to 
regulate their expenses after the manner of the Eomans, who had a 
law constraining men to frugality. Something after the plan above 
proposed for bishops would, 'he thinks, be suitable. As poor men 
are compelled to pay tithes, so parsons and curates should be com- 
pelled to distribute all they have to spare among the poor of their 
parishes. Besides, they should be compelled to reside upon their 
benefices, there to teach and preach, and see to the distribution of 
their goods themselves, except in the case of some few who might be 
required by the prince or in cathedral churches. These latter should 
not be resident with such an idle company as they are now, but 
should be counsellors to the bishop, men of great learning and 
virtue, helping to set in order the rest of the diocese, and observing 
that inferior priests did their duty. He would have none admitted 
priests until they were thirty years of age, because this admission of 
" frail youth," without proof of virtue and learning, is the ground 
and mother of all disorder in the Church and religion. " Of this 
fountain springeth all the slander of the Church by misbehaviour." 
The advantage of this would not be confined to the Church, because 
the common people ever look to the life of prelates and priests, 
taking them for an example. 

As Latin and Greek are the foundation of all learning (p. 202), 
in the study of which those destined for the Church must pass their 
youth, good schools must be founded and presided over by prudent 
and learned masters. It would be well to unite two or three small 
schools, with incomes of ten pounds a-year, and make one good 
school with an excellent master. Above all things, let the school- 
master remember that he must study to bring up his pupils " no less 
in virtue than in learning ; for look, how they be customed in 


youth, so after they follow the trade either of vice or virtue. There- 
fore there must be as much regard of the one as of the other. For 
the learning without virtue is pernicious." A similar order must he 
observed in the Universities, that the seed planted by the school- 
master may bring forth good and perfect fruit. Universities and 
grammar schools require to be reformed. The order of studies must 
be amended, and things which are now neglected must have atten- 
tion. But how and by what means these reforms are to be brought 
about Pole cannot now show. Among the wise men who have 
written on this subject is the Bishop of Carpentras, whose counsel 
ought to be followed. 

Lupset here (p. 204, par. 7) reminds Pole that he has not sup- 
plied certain officers who woiald be of service in our country. Pole 
would have in every great city one superior officer to see that all 
others did their duty. Like the Censors of Eome, Lupset replies ; 
and then goes on to say that he would have yet another officer who 
should have charge of the ornaments and health of the city — an 
edile, in fact. Pole now proposes to conclude. Correct, he says, 
the general errors, especially the education of the nobility and clergy, 
and we shall have a near approach to a true commonwealth. We 
should have a multitude of people, an abundance of necessaries, and 
love one to another, " every one glad to help another to his power : 
to the intent that the whole might attain to that perfection which is 
determined to the dignity of man's nature." Lupset doubts the 
ability of law to bring man to this perfection, — and Pole confesses it 
cannot : it is only a means to an end. Christ alone can make man 
perfect : He alone can supply the law's defects. This is certainly 
the work of God (p. 207, par. 14), but He has ordained that man 
shall obtain no good without labour, diligence, and care. Christ 
used two means to establish His law at the beginning — example of 
life, and exhortation. And now it must be established chiefly by the 
preachers and by their godly living. It is needful therefore only to 
admit such to preach whose life and doctrine is proved to be good. 
" For now-a-days the preachers slander the Word of God rather than, by their contrary life." True, answers Lupset, but how can 
we make them 1 Man cannot do it, is Pole's reply ; he can only 


make an ordinance that such alone as God has made worthy to preach 
shall receive the authority of a preacher. This man can do as well 
as ordain how he shall be brought up at the Universities. But this 
is not the place to enter upon it, especially as Erasmus has written 
his " Treatise on the Study of Divinity," and his " Book of the 
Preacher." Things are so far out of order that few men are less fit 
to preach the Gospel than those who profess to preach it : they are 
arrogant without meekness ; all " affects " rule and reign in them, 
without any sparkle of reason. There is no need to show up their 
faults or their instruction, which Erasmus has done with eloquence 
and wisdom. An ordinance must be made commanding Heads of 
Colleges to see our youth brought up after the manner set forth by 
the Bishop of Carpentras and others. Then, in a few years, we 
should see preachers who would induce the people to follow the 
Gospel. But still all rests with God, who is "no acceptor of per- 
sons." How a man should "institute his mind to receive" sound 
doctrine Erasmus has shown in his " Instruction of a Christian 

Bef erring to public ordinances (p. 211, par. 16) Pole goes on to 
repeat what he has said of the necessity there is for translating the 
Bible into English, and having all public and private prayers in our 
mother tongue. It is thought that the putting of our law into Eng- 
lish would be the destruction of religion ; as though the law, if it 
Were known, would make man forsake the law. And to have service 
in a strange tongue is like telling a tale to a deaf man. If preachers 
were well brought up, the Gospel faithfully translated, and all 
divine service in English, we should see more fruits of religion than 
we now do. 

Thus briefly have been discussed during these three days (1) What 
is a Commonwealth, and in what it consists. (2) What our country 
lacks thereof. (3) How and by what means our faults may be cor- 
rected. And Pole, as it is late, wishes to end, unless Lupset has 
more to say. 

Lupset has but one thing to remark upon : — As all men are 
bound to set forward this commonwealth, he would once more urge 
Pole not to allow this occasion to slip, lest men call him ungrateful 


to his own country. Pole assures him that he lives but to serve his 
country, but " I must tarry my time." And this he repeats after 
Lupset has told him to put himself forward, that he must not wait 
to be called. To Pole's objection that he will not " spot his life 
with ambition," Lupset says, when men desire to bear office that they 
may advance this commonwealth, it is not ambition, but virtue. 
Sluggish minds live in corners and are content with private life, but 
noble hearts ever desire to govern for the good of the multitude. 
Pole declines to show his mind on these matters because it is late. 
He will defer the discussion of them till more convenient leisure. 
He begs Lupset to rest assured that he shall find no fault or negli- 
gence in him, but that he will ever find him ready to do his duty to 
his prince, his country, and his God. 


BysJiam, p. 1. — Bisham is a parish about four miles from Maidenhead. 
The Abbey, now the seat of G. Vansittart, Esq., was founded by the Knights 
Templars. In 1338 it was changed into an Augustinian Priory by Montacute, 
Earl of Salisbury. Some short time before the dissolution it was again changed, 
this time into a Benedictine Abbey. In 1518, the King and the Princess Mary 
retired to the Abbey on account of the prevalence of smallpox, measles, and 
the great sickness. The King presented it to Anne of Cleves. The Princess 
Elizabeth made it her home for about three years. Some of the Earls of 
Salisbury, Neville the King-maker, the famous Marquis of Montague, and 
Edward the last Plantagenet, were buried in the Abbey, but their monuments 
have all disappeared. 

Archery, pp. 79, 160, 161. — " The legislature, it has been said, enjoined the 
assiduous practice of archery. The statute of Winchester, 13 Edw. I. cap. 6, 
enacts that 'every man between fifteen years of age and sixty years shall be 
assessed and sworn to armour, according to the quantity of his lands and goods. 
. . . For forty shillings lands, a sword, a bow and arrows, and a dagger. And all 
others that may shall have bows and arrows.' By statutes of Bichard II. and 
Henry IV., all able-bodied men were required to employ their leisure at the butts, 
'as valiant Englishmen ought to do.' But the Wars of the Boses had found the 
bowmen more than enough of practice, and the reaction from the fierce 
struggle between York and Lancaster was shown in the disinclination of the 
higher classes for the tilt-yard, and of the yeomen for exercise at the butts. 
Archery, therefore, was falling into disuse, when, in 1511, Parliament re- 
enacted the statute of Winchester, with the additional provisions that ' every 
man being the king's subject, not lame, decrepit, or maimed, being within the 


age of sixty years, except spiritual men, justices of the one bench and of the 
other, justices of the assize, and barons of the exchequer, do use and exercise 
shooting in long-bows, and also do have a bow and arrows ready continually 
in his house to use himself in shooting. And that every man having a man 
child or men children in his house shall provide for all such, being of the age 
of seven years and above, and till they shall come to the age of seventeen 
years, a bow and two shafts to learn them and bring them up in shooting ; and 
after such young men shall come to the age of seventeen years, every of them 
shall provide and have a bow and four arrows continually for himself at his 
proper costs and charges, or else of the gift and provision of his friends, and 
shall use the same as afore is rehearsed.' In 1541 an amended edition of this 
statute was passed. Amongst other additional provisions, each village was re- 
quired to maintain a pair of butts, and no person under the age of twenty-four 
was to be permitted to shoot with the light-flight arrow at a distance of less 
than 200 yards ; and that the games which had usurped the place of the 
archery-drill might be effectually abolished, it was enacted that ' no manner of 
artificer or craftsman of any handicraft or occupation, husbandman, apprentice, 
labourer, servant at husbandry, journeyman or servant of artificer, mariners, 
fishermen, watermen, or any serving man, shall from the . . . Feast of the 
Nativity of St John Baptist play at the tables, tennis, dice, cards, bowls, clash, 
coyting, logating, or any other unlawful game out of Christmas, under the 
pain of xx s , to be forfeit for every time ; and in Christmas to . play at any of 
the said games in their masters' houses or in their masters' presence; and also 
that no manner of persons shall at any time play at any bowl or bowls in open 
places out of his garden or orchard, upon the pain for every time so offending 
to forfeit vi 8 viii d ." — Si Paul's Mag., vol. v. pp. 33j0, 331, Art. Rural England, 
A.D. 1500—1550. 

Annates or Firstfruits, pp. 126, 199. — The Acts passed restraining the 
payment of Annates to Eome, are 23 Hen. VIII. c. 20 ; 25 Hen. VIII. c. 20. 

In the following year (26 Hen. VIII. c. 3) an Act was passed which provided 
that these Annates or Firstfruits should be paid to the Crown. In the next 
year (27 Hen. VIII. c. 8) an explanatory Act was passed. In the 1st and 2nd 
Philip and Mary, c. 8, the whole of these Acts were repealed, but as soon as 
Elizabeth ascended the throne another Act (1 Eliz. c. 4) was passed again for- 
bidding the payment of Annates to Eome, and commanding them to be paid 
to the Queen. What Annates or Firstfruits were, and to what extent the pay- 
ments had reached, with the abuses, will be clearly seen from the preamble of 
the first Act referred to and from what follows it. " Forasmuch as it is well 
perceived, by long experience, that great and inestimable sums of money are 
daily conveyed out of this Realm, to the impoverishment of the same ; and 
specially such sums of money as the Pope's Holiness, his predecessors, and the 
Court of Eome, by long time have heretofore taken of all and singular those 
spiritual persons which have been named, elected, or postulated to be Arch- 
bishops or Bishops within this Eealm of England, under the title of Annates, 
otherwise called Firstfruits ; which Annates or Firstfruits heretofore have 
been taken of every Archbishopric or Bishopric within this Eealm, by re- 
straint of the Pope's Bulls, for confirmations, elections, admissions, postula- 
tions, provisions, collations, dispositions, institutions, installations, investitures, 
orders, holy benedictions, palls, or other things requisite and necessary to the 
attaining of those their promotions ; and have been compelled to pay, before 
they could attain the same, great sums of money, before they might 
receive any part of the fruits of the said Archbishopric or Bishopric, where- 
unto they were named, elected, presented, or postulated ; by occasion where- 
of, not only the treasure of this Eealm hath been greatly conveyed out of 


the same, but also it hath happened many times, by occasion of death, unto 
such Archbishops and Bishops, so newly promoted, within two or three years 
after his or their consecration, that his or their friends, by whom he or they 
have been bolpen to advance and make payment of the said Annates and First- 
fruits, have been thereby utterly undone and impoverished ; and forbecause the 
said Annates have risen, grown, and increased, by an uncharitable custom, 
grounded upon no good or just title, and the payments thereof obtained by re- 
straint of Bulls, until the said Annates or Firstfruits have been paid, or surety 
made for 'the same ; which declareth the said payments to be exacted and 
taken by constraint, against all equity and justice : The Noblemen therefore of 
this Realm, and the wise, sage, politic Commons of the same, assembled in this 
present Parliament, considering that the Court of Borne ceaseth not to tax, 
take, and exact the said great sums of money, under the title of Annates or 
Firstfruits, as is aforesaid, to the great damage of the said prelates and this 
Realm ; which Annates or Firstfruits were first suffered to be taken within the 
same Bealm, for the only defence of Christian people against the Infidels, and 
now they be claimed and demanded as mere duty, only for lucre, against all 
right and conscience ; insomuch that it is evidently known, that there hath 
passed out of this Realm unto the Court of Rome, since the second year of 
Henry VII. unto this present time, under the name of Annates or Firstfruits, 
paid for the expedition of Bulls of Archbishoprics and Bishoprics, the sum of 
800,000 ducats, amounting in sterling money, at the least, to 160,000 pounds, 
besides other great and intolerable sums which have yearly been conveyed to 
the said Court of Rome, by many other ways and means, to the great im- 
poverishment of this Realm : And albeit, that our said Sovereign Lord the 
King, and all his natural subjects, as well spiritual as temporal, are as 
obedient, devout, catholic, and humble children of God and Holy Church, as 
any people be within any Realm christened ; yet the said exactions of Annates 
or Firstfruits be so intolerable and importable to this Realm, that it is con- 
sidered and declared, by the whole body of this Realm now represented by all 
the Estates of the same assembled in this present Parliament, that the King's 
Highness, before Almighty God, is bound, as by the duty of a good Christian 
Prince, for the conservation and preservation of the good estate and Common- 
wealth of this Realm, to do all that in him is to obviate, repress, and redress 
the said abusions and exactions of Annates or Firstfruits : And because that 
divers prelates of this Realm are now in extreme age, and in other debilities 
of their bodies, so that of likelihood, bodily death in short time shall or may 
succeed unto them ; by reason whereof great sums of money shall shortly after 
their deaths, be conveyed unto the Court of Rome, for the unreasonable and 
uncharitable causes above-said, to the universal damage, prejudice, and im- 
poverishment of this Realm, if speedy remedy be not in due time provided : 
It is therefore ordained." 

The Act (26 Hen. VIII. c. 3) transferring these annates to the king seems 
to have given some cause for dissatisfaction. Thus in "Mors' Complaynt" 
we read : — " The Pope, ex plenitudine potestatis, made a law that every bishop 
should lack the first year all the fruits of his bishopric, though the bishop 
were so worthy his living the first year as the worthiest of all the Apostles. 
And he ordained that these Firstfruits should neither be given to blind nor 
lame, but to himself to maintain his pride.* This condition of the Pope is 
now confirmed in England with an Act of the Parliament, whereby not only 
bishops must pay the Firstfruits of their bishoprics, but also every parson and 
vicar of his benefice, and every lord the Firstfruits of his lands. In which Act 
the Pope's condition is not put away, but it is two parts greater than ever it 

* See p. 200, 1. 119. 


was. For where the bishops did only pay the Firstfruits then, now the parsons 
pay, the vicars pay, the lords pay, and in conclusion all men must so often 
pay, pay, that a man, if he take not good heed, would think that the Latin 
papa were translated into English, here is so much paying on every side." * 

Dean Hook has the following note on " Tenths and Firstfruits : " — " The 
history of that property is remarkable. It was originally a papal usurpation: 
it was taken from the Pope and attached to the Crown by Henry VIII. ; it was 
given to the Church by Queen Mary ; it was again attached to the Crown by 
Queen Elizabeth ; it was restored to the Church by Queen Anne ; and now, 
through the medium of Queen Anne's Bounty Board, it is administered by the 
bishops and deans of the English Church for the augmentation of poor bene- 
fices." f 

The Statute of Enclosure, p. 171. — The Statute against Enclosures 
was passed in the 7 of Henry VIII. The Preamble and Section I. are 
quoted by Mr Furnivall in the Introduction to Ballads, etc., p. 6. Other statutes 
on the subject may be seen in the same Work, also the Petition of 1514 and 
the King's Proclamation in pursuance of it (pp. 101, 102). The following 
may also be quoted from the Appendix to Letters and Papers, Henry VIII. 
vol. ii., p. 1546: — "Decree in Chancery by my Lord Cardinal, 12 July, 10 
Henry VIII., that all who have pleaded the King's pardon, or submitted to his 
mercy for enclosures, shall within forty days ' pull down and lay abroad ' all 
enclosures and ditches since the 1 Henry VII., under a penalty of £100, 
unless they can bring evidence, that such enclosure is more beneficial to the 
commonwealth than the pulling down thereof, or is not against the statutes 
about the deoay of houses." 

The statutes prohibiting enclosures had remained, especially in the northern 
counties, unenforced ; and the small farmers and petty copyholders, hitherto 
thriving and independent, found themselves at once turned out of their farms, 
and deprived of the resource of the commons. They had suffered frightfully, 
and they saw no reason for their sufferings. From the Trent northward, 
a deep and angry spirit of discontent had arisen, which could be stirred easily 
into mutiny. Froude, iii. 93 (1536). 

Gluttony and Drunkenness, pp. 87, 94, 95, 171, 172. — "We send to other 
nations to have their commodities, and all is too little to feed our filthy flesh. 
But the singular commodities within our own realm we abhor and throw forth 
as most vile, noisome matter. Avidiously we drink the wines of other 
lands ; we buy up their fruits and spices, yea, we consume in apparel their 
silks and their velvets. But, alas! our own noble monuments [of learn- 
ing] and precious antiquities, which are the great beauty of our land, we as 
little regard as the parings of our nails." — Bale's Leylande's Laboriouse 
Journey, ed. 1549, If. 39. 

" What commessacyon, drunkenness, detestable swearing by all the parts of 
Christ's body (and yet calling them in scorn ' hunting oaths '), extortion, 
pride, covetousness, and such other detestable vice reign in this your realm." — 
Supplication to Our Sov. Lord. 

In 1518 (Oct. 5), the bridal ceremonies connected with the betrothal of 
Mary to the Dauphin commenced at Greenwich. The bill of fare for October 
7 included the following : — 

Bread, 3000 loaves (13 qrs. 7 Ale, 6 tuns, 7 hhds. 

bushels of wheat). Beeves, lOf carcases. 

Wine, 3 tuns, 2 pipes. Muttons, 56 carcases. 

* The Complaynt of Roderyck Mors, chap, xvi., 1536. See also Froude, i. pp. 353—357 ; vi. 
807^8. t Lives of the Archbishops, iii. 399, note, N.S. 


Veals, 17. Pigeons, 384. 

Porks, 3. Quails, 150. 

Fat hogs, 4. Larks, 648. 

Cray fish, 600. Geese, 60. 

Fat capons, 24. Pears, 3000. 

Kentish capons, 67. Apples, 1300. 

Coarse capons, 84. Butter, 367 dishes. 

Chickens, 324. Eggs, 2500. 

Pullets, 30. Cream, 16| gallons. 

Swans, 15. Milk, 16 gallons. 

Cranes, 6. Frumenty, 6 gallons. 

Rabbits, 372. Curd, 7 gallons. 

Rabbits, young, 24. Flour, 2 qrs. 4 bushels. 

Partridges, 42. Mustard, 6 gallons. 

Plovers, 132. Vinegar, 6 „ 

Teals, 78. Verjuice, 4 „ 

Although we have omitted many things, the above will give some idea of the 

fcity erf food w 
' in alms^nd : 

was given away in aims,*and much wasted, but allowing for these there remains 
enough to lead us to believe that t&e charge of gluttony and drunkenness was 
made on good grounds. — Letters and Papers, Henry VIII. vol. ii., 1515. See 
also Preface, clxiii. 

In November following an Embassy of four persons was sent to France. 
Unfortunately a storm compelled them to leave a part of their train behind 
them. On the 1st of December, the mayor and merchants of Abbeville presented 
them with three puncheons of mine. On the 3rd, they were at Amiens, where, 
being Friday, the burgesses offered them great carps, great pikes, trouts, bar- 
bels, crevisses, great eels, and four puncheons of wine. — lb. Pref. clxvi. 

Then as now the ale-house competed with the church : — 

"And lightly in the country 

They be placed so 
That they stand in men's way 

When they should to church go. 
And then such as love not 

To hear their faults told, 
By the minister that readeth 

The New Testament and Old, 
Do turn into the ale-house, 

And let the church go." — Crowley's Epigrams,\. 6(1550) 

" Few of our drunkards 
Do use to rise early ; 
But much of the night 
They will drink lustily. 

But, alas ! many curates, 

That should us this tell, 
Do all their parishioners 

In drinking excel." — lb. If. 17. 

Gambling, pp. 77, 171, 172. — The 33 Henry VIII. c. 9, was passed "for 
the maintenance of Artillery, and debarring unlawful games." , It enacted that 
no manner of persons of what degree, quality, or condition soever, should for 


" gain, lucre, or living " keep any place for bowling, coiting, closh-cayles, half- 
bowl, tennis, dicing table or carding, or any other manner of game prohibited 
by any former statute, or any -unlawful new game now invented or made. 

In an account of a banquet given by Wolsey, we are told of the guests that 
" after gratifying their palates, they gratified their eyes and hands ; large bowls, 
filled with ducats and dice, were placed on the tables for such as liked to gam- 
ble." — Letters and Papers, Henry VIII., ii. c. lxi. 

Latimer says, there is such dicing-houses also, they say, as hath not been 
wont to be, where young gentlemen dice away their thrift ; and where dicing 
is, there are other follies also. — Sermons, p. 161. 

The nineteenth article to be inquired of the clergy of Canterbury by Pole 
was " Whether any of fhem do use unlawful games, as dice, cards, and other- 
wise, whereby they grow to slander and evil report 1 ' ' 

Gambling seems to have been common among all classes. 

Wool, Tin, Lead, p. 173. — Crowley, in his epigrams, sums up the advan- 
tages of these three products thus : 

" This realm hath three commodities, 
Wool, tin, and lead, 
Which being wrought within the realm, 
Each man might get his bread." 

Dress, pp. 89, 90, 174. — " Is there not such excess and costliness of ap- 
parel because of diversity and change of fashions, that scarce a worshipful 
man's lands, which in times past was wont to find and maintain twenty or 
thirty tall yeomen, a good plentiful household for the relief and comfort of 
many poor and needy ; and the same now is not sufficient and able to main- 
tain the heir of the same lands, his wife, her gentlewoman or maid, two yeo- 
men, and one lackey ? The principal cause hereof is their costly apparel, and 
specially their manifold and diverse changes of fashions, which the man, and 
specially the women, must wear upon both head and body. Sometime cap, 
sometime hood ; now the French fashion, now the Spanish fashion ; then the 
Italian fashion, and then the Milan fashion ; so that there is no end of consum- 
ing of substance, and that vainly and all to please the proud foolish man and 
women's fancy. Hereof springeth great misery and need." — Supplication to 
Our Sovereign Lord, etc., 1544. The mischiefs arising from this excess accord- 
ing to this writer we need not quote. 

Acts of Parliament vainly endeavoured to regulate dress. See 37 Edw. III. 
8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, where the apparel of all classes from the plowman to the 
esquire is regulated. The Acts 3 Edw. IV. c. 5, and 22 Edw. IV. c. 1, were 
repealed by 1 Henry VIII. c. 14, and another Act substituted. This is pro- 
bably the statute referred to on p. 174, 1. 1089. The Act 1 & 2 Philip and 
Mary, c. 2, for the reformation of excess in apparel, may also be referred to. 

Laws in English, p. 193. — As far back as 1362 the attention of the 
Legislature was called to this subject. " Because the Laws, Customs, 
and Statutes of the said Eealm be not commonly known in the same 
Eealm, for that they be pleaded, shewed, and judged in the French tongue, 
which is much unknown in the said Eealm, so that the people which 
implead, or be impleaded, in the King's Courts, and in the Courts of others, 
have no knowledge nor understanding of that which is said for them or 
against them by their Serjeants and other pleaders ; and that reasonably the 
said Laws and Customs would be the more learned and known, and better 
understood, in the tongue used in the said Eealm, and by so much every man 
of the said Eealm might the better govern himself without offending the law 
all pleas which shall be pleaded in the Eealm, shall be 


pleaded, defended, answered, debated, and judged in the English tongue, and 
. . . entered and inrolled in Latin." — 36 Edw. III. c. 15. 

Peter-Pence, p. 116. — King Offa (died 793) is said to have established the 
tribute called Peter's pence. He is said to have founded, a Saxon hostelry in 
Home for the use of students, and this tax of a penny on each house was for 
its support. Edward I. was the first who objected to pay tribute to Rome. 
The statute passed in his reign (35 Ed. I.) was confirmed by the 4th and oth 
Ed. III. The Statutes of Provisors enacted in this latter reign may also be 
consulted. Edward refused to pay the tribute, and his nobles supported 
him (Eanke, Popes, p. 13, ed. 1859). The payment of Peter's pence was for- 
bidden by the 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21. This Act was repealed by 1 & 2 Philip 
and Mary, c. 8, and revived by 1 Eliz. c. 1. The tribute sometimes went 
under the name of Romescot, sometimes Rome fee (Eome-feoh). — Minsheu. 

Bishop of Carpentras, pp. 203, 210. — Jacopo Sadoleto, Jacques Sadolet, 
Jacobus Sadoletus, James Sadolet, a man well spoken of for piety, benevo- 
lence, and learning, was born at Modena in 1477. He was educated at 
Ferrara and Rome, where he gained admission into the family of Cardinal 
0. Caraffa. His scholarship attracted the attention of Leo X., by whom he 
was made a papal secretary, and rewarded with the bishopric of Carpentras. 

By Adrian VI. and Clement VII. he was employed but a short time, and 
was then allowed to retire to Carpentras. Here his house became the resort of 
the learned, and he gained for himself the title of father of his people. By 
Paul III. he was created a cardinal, and accompanied that pontiff to Nice when 
he negotiated between the Emperor and the King of France. But with Paul 
his straightforwardness was not more acceptable than it had been with Adrian 
and Clement, and he once more turned his steps to Carpentras. 

The purity of Sadoleto's Latinity was praised by Erasmus as being superior 
to his own. His works were numerous, and are said to have shown consider- 
able reading. His Commentary on the Epistles of St Paul was, at the instance 
of his enemies, condemned at Rome. This caused him some annoyance, and 
led him to appeal to the Pope, by whom the book was declared to be catholic. 

He lived on friendly terms with Melancthon and Calvin. When Zuingle 
died, and Erasmus and Luther spoke severely of him, Sadoleto dwelt chiefly 
upon those points in his character which he could praise.* 

Pole seems to have spent two or three years at the Monastery of Carpen- 
tras, and having commenced or renewed his acquaintance with this excellent 
and amiable man at Avignon, to have continued a warm friend until Sado- 
leto's death in 1547. 

The book referred to in the text in such laudatory terms is entitled De 
Liberis recte instituentis. It was published in 1533, and became very 

JSdiles — Public Health, p. 205. — The need of some authority to regulate 
cities and towns was forced upon men's minds by the prevalence of the 
Sweating Sickness. Erasmus wrote to Wolsey's Physician, suggesting among 
other remedies, the appointment of ediles, in the following words : — " I am 
frequently astonished and grieved to think how it is that England has been 
now for so many years troubled by a continual pestilence, especially by a 
deadly sweat, which appears in a great measure to be peculiar to your country. 
I have read how a city was once delivered from a plague by a change in the 
houses, made at the suggestion of a philosopher.f I am inclined to think 
that this also must be the deliverance of England. 

Hook's Archbishops, iii. 49, N.S. 
t The "philosopher" which changed the houses and delivered Loudon was the Great Fire of 

clxxvi Erasmus's books. 

"First of all, Englishmen never consider the aspect of their doors and 
windows ; next, their chambers are built in such a way as to admit of no ven- 
tilation. Then a great part of the walls of the house is occupied with glass 
casements, which admit light, but exclude the air, and yet they let in the draft 
through holes and corners, which is often pestilential and stagnates there. 
The floors are in general laid with a white clay, and are covered with rushes, 
occasionally removed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undis- 
turbed, sometimes for twenty years, harbouring expectorations, vomitings, the 
leakage of dogs and men, ale-droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations 
not fit to be mentioned. Whenever the weather changes a vapour is exhaled, 

which I consider very detrimental to health I am confident the 

island would be much more salubrious if the use of rushes were abandoned, 
and if the rooms were built in such a way as to be exposed to the sky on two 
or three sides, and all the windows so built as to be opened or closed at once ; 
and so completely closed as not to admit the foul air through chinks ; and for 
as it is beneficial to health to admit the air, so is it equally beneficial to exclude 
it. The common people laugh at you if you complain of a cloudy or foggy 
day. Thirty years ago if ever I entered a room which had not been occupied 
for some months I was sure to take a fever. More moderation in diet, and 
especially in the use of salt meats, might be of service ; more particularly were 
public Ediles appointed to see the streets cleaned from mud and urine, and the 
suburbs kept in better order." — Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII. vol. 2, ccix. 

Erasmus, pp. 210, 211. — The Treatise on the Study of Divinity is Para- 
cusis, id est adhortatio ad Christiana philosophic Studium, 1st ed. 1518. 

The Book of the Preacher is, Eeclesiastes, sive de ratione Concionandi, 
1st ed. 1535. 

The Instruction of a Christian Man is probably the Enchiridion, militis 
Christiani, 1st ed. 1503. Erasmus also wrote Institutio principis Christiani, 
and Symbolum sive Catechismus. 

Ypres, p. 176. — A hundred years ago there were in Ypres three hospitals 
for the sick ; one house for poor old men, another for poor old women ; one 
hospital for educating poor boys, another for poor girls. In these both boys 
and girls were taught how to get their living, and supplied with a sum of 
money on leaving, to enable them to start in the world. 

In addition there was a bequinage where unmarried women lived, receiving 
a small allowance which, added to what they earned or had, was enough to 
keep them. They dressed alike as a sisterhood, and were free to marry, but 
seldom did so.* I have not ascertained when these various institutions were 
established, nor who were their founders. 

I am indebted to Mr W. M. Wood for the following account of the practice 
in Venice about this time : 

" Of common prouision and charitable deedes. — Theyr diligent vse in 
prouision for graine is notable. For be it deare or good cheape, theyr common 
graner (whiche is a myghtie greate house) is in maner alwayes furnisshed. 
So that lyghtly in the citee can be no great dearth, because many times of 
their owne common purse, they are contented to lose for the poore peoples 
reliefe (thoug another time they pay them selfes the double). — They haue 
also certaine schooles or felowships, gathered together for deuocion, as one of 
saincte Marke, an other of sainct Eooke, one of this sainct, an other of that, 
which (beyng for the most part substanciall men) doe releeue a noumber of 
the poore after this sorte. — They geue theim ones a yere a course liuery, with 

* See Martinigre's Grand Dictionnaire, Geographique, Historique, &c, Paris, 1768. 


a certaine smal stipende, for the which the poore man is hound to carie a taper 
at one of the bretherne or sisters burial ; and, besides that, to attend certeine 
holidaies at the schoole, where the principal bretherne assemble, to dispose 
vnto the mariage of poore younge women, and in other good woorkes, that 
parte of money that theyr rate for the time dooeth allow ; and afterwards 
(wyth theyr priestes and goe a procession a certayne circuite, in the 
which the pore men lyke wyse cary their tapers before theim. — Furthermore, 
there are certaine hospitalles, some for the sicke and diseased, and some for 
poore orphanes, in which they are nourisshed vp til they come vnto yeres of 
seruice ; and than is the man childe put vnto a craft, and the maidens kepte 
till they be maried. If she be fayre, she is sone had, and little money geuen 
with hir ; if she be foule, they auaunce hir with a better porcion of money. — 
For the plague, there is an house of many lodgeinges, two miles from Venice, 
called the Lazaretta, vnto the whiche all they of that house, wherin one hath 
been infected of the plague, are incontinently sent, and a lodgeyng sufficiente 
appoincted for theim till the infection ceasse, that they may retourne. — 
Finally, for prisoners, they haue this order : Twise a yeere, at Christmas and 
Easter, the Avditori dooe visite all the prisones in Venice, and there geue 
audience vnto all creaditours that haue anye debtour in prison for the summe 
of .50. duckates and vnder. If the partye be liable to paie, daies are geuen, 
and sureties founde ; and if the debt be desperate, than doe they theim selfes 
agree with the partie for more or lesse, as the likelihode is, and pay hym of 
the common purse. So that ere euer they departe, they empty the prisones of 
all theim that lie for that summe." — The Historxje of Italy e, &c, by William 
Thomas, edit. 1561, the chapter on leaves 82 and 83, under the general heading 
" The Venetian Astate." 

[Cjre gialngu*.] 

[PART I.] 


1. ' Lupse^. — Much [tyme] past, blaster Pole, 2 [I] l. has long 
haue desyryd [greatly to'commyn] wyth yow, [beyng] witnPoie, 
rnouyd therto by the [great] frenchype and famylyaryte 
wych, of youth growyng betwyx vs, ys now so by 4 
ve?^tue incresyd and, cowfyrmyd, that nature hathe not 
sofsure a band and knot to coupul and joyne any hartys 
togyddur in true lou[e] and amyte. Wherfor I am and is glad to 
ryght glad, Mastur Pole, that I haue, now at thys leisure, 
tyme, here found you, both, as me seniyth, at con- 
uenyent leser to commyn and talke, and also in thys 10 
place of Bysham, where as the image and memory of 
your old aunceturys of grete nobylyte, schal, as I trust, 
styr and moue your hart and mynd to the same purpos 
that I wold now and long haue desyryd to co?nrnyn 14 
vnto you. 

2. "Pole. — Troth hyt ys that leyser here, as you say, 
lakkyth now at al ; but, I pray you, what ys that, gud p. asks, 
Mastur Lupsetf, that you seme so ernystely to wyl? matter?" 
Hyt apperyth to be, by your begywnyng, some grete 19 
mater and weyghty. 

1 The numbers are not in the MS., but are inserted for con- 
venience of reference. 

2 In the MS. proper names and the words which commence 
a fresh sentence frequently begin with a small letter. For 
the sake of uniformity, capital letters have been substituted in 
all such cases. 



l. replies, 3. JdWpset. — Troth hyt ys a grete mater in dede, 

" The matter 

concerns the and, as to me hyt semyth, touchyng the hole ordur 

afe. of your lyfe, Master Pole ; and schortly to schow you, 

24 wythout long cyrcumstaunce, thys hyt ys. I haue 

much and many tymys maruelyd, resonyng wyth my 

After so much selfe, why you, Master Pole, aftur so many yerys spent 

study you must 

in quyet studys of letturys and lernyng, and aftz^r such 

experyence of the manerys of maw, taken in dyuerse 

29 partyes beyond the see, haue not before thys settyllyd 

your selfe and applyd your mynd to the handelyng of 

apply yourself the materys of the commyn. wele here in our owne 

to the - 

commonwealth, natyon ; to the i??tent that bothe your frendys and c\m- 
trey myght now at the last receyue and take some frute 
34 of your long studys, wherin you haue spent your hole 
youth, as I euer toke hyt, to the same purpos and end. 
You know ryght wel, Master Pole, that to thys al men 
are borne and of nature brought forth, to commyn such 
gyftys as be to them gyuew, ych one to the p?'ofyt of 
other, in perfayt cyuylyte ; and not to lyue to theyr 
40 owne plesure and profyt, wyth[out] regard of the wele 
of theyr cuwtrey, forgettyng al justyce and equyte. I 
nede not to reherse to [you] (to whome the storys are 

as piato, Lycur- bettur knowne then to me,) the exampul of Plato, 

gus, and Solon 

did, Lycurgus, nor of Solon, by whose wysdome and pollycy 

45 dyuerse cytes, cu?ztreys and natyonys were broug[h]t to 

cyuyle ordur arid polytyke lyfe ; wych, yf they had not 

[♦Page 28.] regardyd, but folowyd theyr owne *pryuate plesure and 

fantasy, had yet remeynyd in theyr old rudenes, and 

lyuyd lyke wylde bestys in the woodys, wythout lawys 

50 and rulys of honesty. Wherfor me semyth, who so 

euer he be wych, drawen by the swetenes of hys studys, 

and by hys owne quyetnes and plesure mouyd, leuyth 

or you wrong the cure of the commyn wele and pollycy, he dowth 

and neglect ' manyfest wrong to hys cuntrey and frendys, and ys 

playn vniust and ful of iniquyte ; as he that regardyth 

56 not hys offyce and duty, to the wych, aboue all, he ys 


most bounden by nature. Of thys, Mastur Pole, many 57 

men dow you accuse, saying that, syns you baue byn of Men blame you 

even now 

your curctrey so wel nuryschyd and brought vp, so wel for this neglect; 

set forward to geddur prudence and -wyse[dom], you 

ought now to study to maynteyn and avaunce the wele 

of thys same your cu?ttrey, 1 to the wych you are bounden 

no les then the chyld to the father, when he ys by 63 

syknes or age impotent and not of powar to helpe hyni 

selfe. You see your cuwtrey, as me semyth, requyre you see your 

country require 

your helpe, and, as hyt were, cry and cal vnto you your help, but 

besyly for the same, and you, as drownyd in the plesure fnereto." 

of letturys and pryuate study s, gyue no yere therto ; 68 

but, forgettyng hyr vtturly, suffur her styl to want your 

helpe and succur apon your behalfe, not wythout gret 

i?ziury. Wherfor, Master Pole, now at the last wake 

out of thys dreme ; remembyr your curctrey, loke to 

your frendys, consydur your offyce and duty that you 73 

are most bounden vnto. And so now thys you haue 

breuely hard the cause of my cummyng and purpos at 

thys tyme. 

4. "Bole. — Maystur ~Lupset, your purpos is gud, and 
touchyth, as you sayd, no smal mater. In dede, hyt p. owns it is 
caw not be denyd but hyt ys a gudly thyng to med- ser ve one's 
dyl wyth the materys of the co??zmyn wel, and a nobul coun ry ' 
vertue to dow gud to our frendys and curctrey, to the 81 
wych, as you say, we are borne and brought forthe. 
* Wherfor not wythout a cause you exhorte me therto, [* Page 29.] 
as to the end of al mawnys studys and actys, and [the] 
best thyng in thys lyfe to be atteynyd vnto. Thys ys 
your purpos ; but, Master Jjwpset, here we must a lytyl 86 
stey. Me semyth you remembyr not the commyn say- 
ing, " He was neuer gud mastur that neuer was scoler, but before wc 

. can rule others, 

nor neuer gud capitayne that neuer was soudiar. I wemustieam 
thynke hyt veray co?iuenyent, befor I begyn to meddyl ourselves. 

1 " cimtrey " is slightly scored out. 


wyth the rule of other, surely to lerne to rule myselfe; 

for he that caw not gouerne one, -vndowtydly lakkyth 

93 craft to gouerne many. I neuer hard of any maryner 

abul to goue?*ne a gret schyppe, wych neuer could 

When he has gouerne wel a lytyl botte. Wherfor, when I haue had 

he win do ins suffycyent experyence of the rulyng of my selfe, and by 

the opynyon of other jugyd to dow that ryght wel, 

98 then, perauewtur, I wyl not refuse the causys of my cuw- 

trey and rulyng of other. How be hyt, Master Lvpsef, 

in your communycatyon, me semyth, lyth no smal dowte. 

I wold be glad to dow the best, and that to folow 

102 wherin lyth the perfectyon of maw ; but wether hyt 

either in active stond in the actyue lyfe, and in admynystratyon of the 

or contemplative 

life. maters of the comniyn wel, as you seme to say, or els 

in the comtemplatiue and knolege of thynges, hyt ys 
not al sure. For, seyng the pevfectyon of man restyth in 
the mynd and in the chefe and puryst parte therof, 
108 wych ys reson and irctellygewce, hyt semyth, wythout 
dowte, that knolege of God, of nature, and of al the 
workys therof, schold be the end of mannys lyfe, and 
the chefe poynt therin of al men to be lokyd vnto. 
[* Page 30.] Wherfor the old and antique *phylosopharys forsoke 

Old philosophers . ' 

applied them- the medelyng with materjs oi commyn welys, and 

° suy ' applyd themselfys to the secrete study s and serchyng 

115 of nature as to the chefe thyng wherin semyd to rest 

and thought the perfectyon of maw ; and thus to them hyt apperyd 

that prudence and pollycy were not to be comparyd 

and that it was wyth bye phylosophye. Bettur hyt semyd to them to 

nature's laws know God and the hole course of nature then to know 

the ordur and rule of cytes and townys ; — bettur to 

121 know the lawys that nature hath set in mawnys hart 

surely, then the lawys wych ma'/znys wyt hath deuysyd 

by pollycy ; — of the wych, the one perteynyth to the 

cyuyle and polytyke lyfe ; the other, to the quyat and 

125 cowtewzplatyue. "Wherfor, though I were in dede apte to 

meddyl wyth the materys of the commyn wele, yet byt 


may "be dowtyd, Master Isvpset, as hyt apperyth, whether 127 ' 
hyt be best so to dow or not. 

5. liVgset. — Wei, Master Pole, as touchyng your 
aptenes, I wyl now no ferther reson, of the "wych no 
niaw doth dowte : wherfor thys ys but an excuse ; and 
so that parte I wyl leue. But, Syr, of your dowt I 132 
somewhat wyth my selfe now dow maruayle. For 
though hyt be so that many of the auncyent phylo- 
sopharys, for the niaywtenaunce of theyr idul and slomer- 
yng lyfe, dowtyd much therof, yet, me semyth, yon, 
aftur so mawy yerys had in the study of the scole of 137 
Arystotyl, schold no thyng dowte therin at al; in so l. says 
much as he techyth and scho[w]yth most manyfestely that perfection 
the perfectyon of maw to stond joyntely in both, contemplation 
and nother in the bare cowtemplatyon and knolege of ^^i^ 1 
thyngys separat from al besynes of the world, nother in 142 
the admynystratyon of materys of the commyn wele, 
wythout any ferther regard and dyrectyon therof ; for 
of them, aftur hys sentence, the one ys the end of the 
other. As we may also see by commyn experyewce, al 
laburys, besynes, and trauayle of wyse mere, hawdelyd 147 
in materys of the co?wmyn wel, are euer referryd to thys 
end and purpos, that the *hole body of the commynalty [* Page sij 
may lyue in quyetnes and trawquyllyte ; euery parte 
dowyng hys offyce and duty ; and so, as much as the 
nature of maw wyl suffer, al to attayne to theyr natural 152 
perfectyon. To thys eu«ry honest maw, medelyng in the 
commyw wele, ought to loke chefely vnto ; thys ys the 
marke that euery maw, prudewt and poly tyke, ought to 
schote at ; fyrst, to make hymselfe perfayte, wyth al Every man 

must strive to 

vertues garnyschyng hys mynd ; and then to commyn make himself 

perfect, and then 

the same perfectyon to other. For lytyl avaylyth vertue try to improve 
that ys not publyschyd abrode to the profyt of other; 
lytyl avaylyth tresore closyd in coffurys, wych neuer ys 160 
cowzmunyd to the succur of other ; for al such gyftys of 
God and nature must euer be apply d to the commyn 


163 profyt and vtylyte. Wherby man, as much as lie may, 
thus following the sclial euer folow the nature of God, whose infynyte 
gudnes ys by thys chefely declaryd and openyd to the 
world, that to euery thyng and creature he gyuyth 
parte therof, accordyng to theyr nature and capacyte. 
168 So that vertue and lernyng, not co?wmunyd to other, ys 
lyke vnto ryches hepyd in cornerys, neuer applyd to 
the vse of other. 

(5.) Therfor hyt ys not suffycyent, a maw to get 

knolege and vertue, delytyng hymselfe only therwyth, 

173 as the old phylosopharys dyd, wych toke such plesure 

in pryuate studys, that they despysyd the polytyke 

lyfe of ma?? ; hut chefely he must study to co??zmyn 

hys vertues to the profyte of other. And thys ys the 

end of the cyuyle lyfe, or, as me semyth, rather the 

178 true admynystratyon of the commyn wele ; the wych you 

and this the see now, Mastur Pole, how thes phylosopharys, by 

philosophers , , , , „ 

did not do. whose exampul you appere to excuse your selie, most 

avoydyd and vniustely fled, ouer much delytyng in 

theyr owne pryuate studys. How be hyt, I wyl not yet 

183 say and playnly affyrme that therin they dyd vtturly 

nought, so absteynyng from the commyn wele ; the 

[♦Page 32.] wych, perauentur, they *dyd, other bycause they found 

them self e not met to the handelyng of such materys, 

or els bycause they wold, as you sayd of your selfe, 

188 fyrst lerne to rule themselfe befor they toke apon them 

any rule of other. But thys one thyng I dare affyrme, 

— that yf they dyd for thys purpos abstayne, as therby 

to attayne hyar pe?-fectyon, and so to folow the best 

trade of lyfe, then they surely were deceyuyd ; for 

193 though hyt be so that lernyng and knolege of nature be 

a plesaunt thyng, and a hye perfectyon of mawnys 

Knowledge is mynd and nature, yet yf you sundurly compare hyt 

compared to wyth justyce and pollycy, vndowtydly hyt ys not to 

jus ice, j )e p re f err y ( j therto as a thyng rather to be chosen and 

198 folowyd. For who ys he so fer wythout reson, that 


wold not, thought he myght, hy hys pryuate study and for who would 

not help his 

labur, know al the secretys of nature, leue al that country rather 
asyde, and apply hymselfe rather to helpe hys hole secrets of nature :- 
curetrey by prudence and pollycy, now other wyse then 
he wold dow wych lakkyth fode necessary to hys body, 
rather procure that, then the knolege of al natural 204 
phylosophy 1 

(5.) For euer that wych ys best ys not of al men 
nor at al tymys to be persuyd ; hyt ys mete for a 
maw beyng syke rather to procure bys helth, then to 
study about the procuryng of the co?wmyn welth. Hyt 209 
ys bettur, as Arystotyl sayth, for a mare being in gret 
pouerty, rather to procure some ryches then hye phylo- 
sophy ; and yet phylosophy of hyt selfe, as al mew know, But philosophy 
ys fer to be preferryd aboue al wordly ryches. And so, to riches, 
lyke wyse, al be hyt that * hye phylosophy and cowte??ipla- [* Page 33.] 
tyon of nature be of hyt selfe a grettur perfectyon of 215 
mawnys mynd, as hyt wych ys the end of the actyue lyfe, 
to the wych al merenys dedys schold euer be referryd ; yet 
the medelyng wyth the causys of the co?remyn wel ys and the e° od of 

J ° J J J J the common- 

more necessary, and euer rather and fyrst to be chosen, wealth to aii 

other things. 

as the pryrecypal mean wherby we may attayne to the 

other. For hyther tewdyth al prudence and pollycy, to 221 

bryng the hole cuwtrey to quyetnes and cyuylyte, that 

euery maw, and sq the hole, may at the last attayn to 

such pe?*fectyon as by nature ys to the dygnyte of maw 

dew ; wych, as hyt semyth, restyth in the commynyng 

of al such vertues, as to the dygnyte of maw are con- 226 

uenyent, to the profyt of other lyuyng togydur in 

cyuyle lyfe and polytyke ; ye, arid, as hyt were, in the 

formyng of other to theyr natural perfectyon. For lyke 

as the body of mare ys then most perfayt in hys nature 

when hyt hath powar to ge??dur a nother lyke thervnto, 231 

so ys the mynd then most perfyt when hyt communyth Man's mind is 

most perfect 

and spredyth hys vertues abrode, to the mstructyon of 


234 other ; then hyt ys most lyke vnto the nature of God, 

Endeavours to whose iwfynyte vertue ys therin most perceyuyd, that 

:ZZT S ZT he commynyth hys gudnes to al creaturys-to some 

others; more, to some les, accordyng to theyr nature and 

dygnyte. Wherfor hyt ys not to be dowtyd, but yf thos 

239 antyent phylosopharys, mouyd by any plesure of theyr 

secrete studys, abhorryd thys from the polytyke lyfe 

and from thys commynyng of theyr vertues to the 

profyt of other in cyuylyte, they were gretely to be 

blamyd, and by no mean caw be excusyd, as they wych 

244 pretermyttyd and left theyr chefe offyce and duty, to 

not in obtaining the wych they were by nature most bounden. For, as 


without you playnly, Mastur Pole, now see, the perfectyon of 


[* Page 34.] maw stondyth not in bare knolege *and lernyng wyth- 

out applycatyon of hyt to any vse or profyt of other ; 

249 but the veray perfectyon of mawnys mynd restyth in 

the vse and exercyse of al vertues and honesty, and 

chefely in the chefe vertue, where vnto tend al the 

other, wych ys dowteles the communyng of hye wys- 

dome to the vse of other, in the wych stondyth mawnys 

254 felycyte. So that thys, Master Pole, now you, I trow, 

so the ancient playnly dow see, that yf you wyl folow the trade of the 


must not be ancyent phylosopharys, you schal not folow that thyng 

wych I am sure you aboue al other most desyre ; — that 

ys to say, the best kynd of lyfe and most cowuenyent to 

259 the nature of maw, wych ys borne to commyn cyuylyte, 

one euer to be redy to helpe another, by al gud and 

ryght pollycy. 

p. says one 6. PoZe. — Wei, Master ~Lvpset, you haue ryght wel 

Amoved, satysfyd me in my dowte, I caw not deny ; but yet (in 

264 so much as your communycatyon ys groundyd on that 

but a greater wych semyth dowtful) therwyth you haue brought me 

into a nother gretur then that. You sayd last of al, that 

maw ys borne and of nature brought forth to a cyuylyte, 

and to lyue in polytyke ordur, — the wych thyng to me 

269 semyth clene cowtrary. For yf you cal thys cyuylyte and 


lyuyng in polytyke ordur, a co?ranynalty to lyue other 
vnder a pry wee or a co?wmyn counsel in cytes and 
townys, me semyth maw schold not be borne therto, for 272 
as much as ma?* at the begynnyng lyuyd many yerys am-ea etas ■ 
"wyt[h]out any such pollycy ; at the wych tyme he lyuyd Man at the 

beginning lived 

more vertusely, and more accordyng to the dygnyte of more virtuously 
hys nature, then he doth now in thys wych you cal po- 
lytyke ordur and cyuylyte. "We see also now in our days 277 
thos men wych lyue out of cytes and townys, and haue and men out 

of cities live 

fewyst lawys to be gouernyd by, lyue better then other better than those 

dow in theyr gudly cytes neuer so wel byllyd and in- 

habytyd, gouernyd wyth so many lawys for commyw. 

You see by experyence in grete cytes most vyce, most 282 

suttylty and craft ; and, contrary, euer in the rude cuw- 

trey *most study of vertue and veray true symplycyte. [* Page :i.->.] 

You se what adultery, murdur, and vyce ; what vsury, 

craft, and dysceyte ; what glotony and al plesur of body, 

ys had in cytes and townys, by the reson of thys 287 

socyety and cumpany of meB togydur, wych al in the 

cuwtrey and rude lyfe of them ys avoyded, by the reson 

that they lyfe not togydur aftur your cyuylyte. Ther- And so he thinks 

it better to live 

fore yf thys be cyuyle lyfe and ordur, to lyue in cytes in a forest and 

j x J.-U i. j j stud y virtue > 

and townys wytn so much vyce and mysordur, me 
seme marc schold not be borne therto, but rather to lyfe 293 
in the wyld forest, ther more folowyng the study of 
vertue, as hyt ys sayd mew dyd in the golden age, where as men did "' 

the " golden age." 

in maw lyuyd accOrdyng to hys natural dygnyte. 

7. IiVpset. — Nay, Maystur Pole, you take the mater i>- says, 

" You take me 

amys. Thys ys not the cyuyle lyfe that I mean, — to amiss, 
lyue togydur in cytes and townys so fer out of ordur, as 299 
hyt were a multytude cowspyryng togeddur in vyce, one 
takyng plesure of a nother wythout regard of honesty. 
But thys I cal the cyuyle lyfe, contrary, lyuyng togyd- cmi ufe ><* the 

living together 

dur in gud and polytyke ordur, one euer redy to dow in virtue, 
gud to a nother, and, as hyt were, co?ispyryng togydur in 304 
1 In margin of MS. 


305 al vertue and honesty. Thys ys the veray true and 

cyuyle lyfe ; and though hyt be so that maw abusyth the 

■socyety and cumpany of maw in cytes and townys, 

gyuyng hymselfe to al vyce, yet we may not therfor cast 

■downe cytes and townys, and dryue maw to the woodys 

310 agayne and wyld forestys, wherin he lyuyd at the fyrst 

and if men do begynnyng rudely ; the faut wherof ys nother in the 

"he feuu is in cytes nor townys, nother in the lawys ordeynyd therto, 

cities! " 0t m DU,; hyt ys in the malyce of maw, wych abusyth and 

turnyth that thyng wych myght be to hys welth and 

315 felycyte to hys owne dystructyon and mysery; as he 

doth al most al thyng that God and nature hath 

prouydyd to hym for the mayntenawce of hys lyfe. 

For how abusyth he hys helth, stranghth, and buety, 

oi9 hys wyt, lernyng, and pollycy ; how al mane?* of metys 

Man abuses and drynkys to the vayn plesure of the body ; ye, and 

ti™,g S , every ' schortly to say, euery thyng al most he abusyth ; and 

[♦Page 36.] yet they thynges are not therfor vtturly *to be cast 

away, nor to be taken horn the vse of maw. And so 

324 the socyety and cumpany of maw ys not to be accusyd 

as the cause of thys mysordur, but rather such as be 

and those who grete, wyse, and polytyke mew, wych flye from offyce 

avoid office are 

to blame for it; and authoryte, by whose wysdome the multytude 

myght be cowteynyd and kept in gud ordur and cyuy- 

329 lyte ; such I say are rather to be blamyd. For, lyke as 

by the persuasyon of wyse mew, in the begynnyng, men 

were brought from theyr rudenes and bestyal lyfe, to thys 

cyuylyte so natural to maw, so by lyke wysdome they 

and so it would must be co?*teynyd and kept therin. Therfor, Master 

STwhatyou Pole, wythout any mo cauyllatyonys, me semyth, hyt 

schold be best for you to apply your mynd to be of the 

336 nombur of them wych study to restor thys cyuyle ordur, 

and maynteyn thys vertuose lyfe, in cytes and townys 

to the coram yn vtylyte. 

. 8. "Pole. — As for cauyllatyonys, Master ~Lvpset, I 
purpos to make non, except you cal them cauyllatyonys 



wych I cal resonyng and dowtyng for the cleryng of the p. says, 

he is in more 

truth, of the wych sort I wyl not yet cesse to make more doubt than 

when so euer your coramunycatyon ys not to me clere ; 

therfor, wyth pardon, you must patyently here me dowt 

a lytyl ferther, mouyd of your wordys. You sayd ryght 

now that thys cyuyle lyfe was a polytyke ordur, and, as 

hytwere,aconspyracyinhonestyanaVertue,stablysc[h]yd 347 

"by commyn assent : thys, me semyth, hryngyth the hole ail now seems 

confusion ; 

mater in more dowte then hyt was yet "before, ye and 

bryngyth al to vncertaynty and playn confusyon. For 

they Turkys wyl surely say on theyr behalfe that theyr 

lyfe ys most natural and polytyke, and that they con- 352 

sent togydur in al vertue and honesty. The Sarasyn con- *u nations say 

they live in 

trary, apon hys behalfe, wyl defend hys pollycy, saying virtue and 

honesty — 

that hys of al ys most best and most conuenyent to Turks, 

mannys dygnyte. The Jue constantly wyl affyrme hys Jews, and 

law to be aboue al other, als receyuyd of Goddys owne 

mouth i?nmedyatly. And the Chrystun man most surely 358 

beleuyth that hys law and relygyon ys aboue the rest 

most agreabul to reson and nature as a thyng confyrmyd 

by Goddys owne dyuynyte. So that by thys *mean hyt [* Page 37.] 

apperyth al stondyth in the jugement and opynyon of 

man, in so much that wych ys the veray true polytyke 363 

and cyuyle lyfe, no man surely by your dyffynytyon can 

affyrme wyth any certaynty. 

9. Lvpset — Wei, Syr, thys ys no smal dowte to some l- sees the force 

of this doubt, 

men wych now you haue mouyd. Wherfor, bycause suche and proceeds 
ther be wych couertly take away al cyuylyte, and wold 
bryng al to confusyon and tyranny, saying ther ys no 369 
dyfference betwyx vyce and vertue but strong opynyon, 
and that al such thyngys hang of the folysch fansy and 
jugement of man; I schal fyrst schow you how vertue First, That virtue 
stondyth by nature and not only by the opynyon of and not by a "^ 
man ; and second how and by what mean thys folysch j™|* 9 °gg™°™ 
opynyon cam in to thos lyght braynys. And, fyrst, thys How thls fanc ^ 
ys certayn and sure, — that man by nature fere excellyth brains. 


377 in dygnyte al other creaturys in erthe, where he ys "by 
the hye prouydewce of God set to gouerne and rule, 
ordur and tempur al to hys plesure "by wysdome and 
pollycy, non other wyse then God hym selfe doth in 

381 heuyn gouerne and rule al celestyal thyngys iraniedyatly. 
The old phiioso- "Wherfor he was of the old phylosopharys callyd a erthely 

phers called him r j r o j j 

an earthly god, god, and, as hy t wer, lord of al other bestys and creaturys, 

lord of all other D .. ' J J ' 

beasts and applying them al vnto hys vse, for al be vnto hym sub- 


iecte, al by pollycy are "brought to hys obedyence, titer 

ys no best so strong, fers, or hardy, so wyld, oode, or cruel, 
387 but to maw by wysdom he ys subduyd ; wherby ys per- 
ms excellent ceyuyd euyde??tly the excellent dygnyte of hys nature. 
And ferther more, playnly thys thyng to see, let vs, as 
hyt were, out of a hyar place, behold and cowsydur the 
his wonderful wondurful workys of ma« here apon erth ; where fyrst 
we schal se the gudly cytes, castellys, and townys, 
[* Page 38.] by 11yd for the *settyng forth of the poly tyke lyfe, 
394 pleasauntly set as they were sterrys apon erthe ; wherin 
good laws, we schal see also meruelus gud lawys, statutys, and 

ordynawcys, deuysyd by ma?i by hye pollycy, for the 
maynteynyng of the cyuyle lyfe. "We schal see infynyte 
strange aits and strange artys and craftys, inuerctyd by mawnys wyt for 
399 hys commodyte, some for plesure, and some for neeessyte. 
Ferther, we schal see how by hys labur and dylygence he 
hath tyllyd the erth, and brought forth infynyte frutys 
for hys necessary fode and plesaunt sustenaurace ; so that 
now the erth, wych els schold haue leyne lyke a forest 
404- rude and vntyllyd, by the dylygent labur and pollycy 
of man ys brought to maruelous culture and fortylite. 
Thys, yf we wyth our selfe reson and cowsydur the 
Avorkys of maw here apon erth, we schal nothyng dowte of 
prove his divine hy S excellent dygnyte, but playnly affyrme, that he hath 
409 in hym a sparkul of Dyvynyte, and ys surely of a 
celestyal and dyuyne nature, seyng that by memory and % 
wyte also he cowceyuyth the nature of al thyng. For ther 
ys no thyng here in thys world, nother in heuyn aboue, 


nor in erth byneth, but be by bys reson co?nprehendyth 413 

hyt. So that I thynke we may conclude tbat man by 

nature, in excellence and dygnyte, euen so excellytb He excels ail in 


al otber creaturys bere apon ertbe, as God excedyth tbe 
nature of man. 

(9.) And now to our purpos. Thus hyt apperyth 418 
to me, that lyke as maw by nature excellyth al other 
in dygnyte, so he hath certayn*vertues by nature con- [* Page 39.] 
uenyent to the same excellency, they wych, by the opy- and his virtues 


nyon of man, are not conceyuyd and groundyd in hart, with it. 

nor yet be not propur to one natyon and not to a nother, 423 

but stablyschyd by nature, are contmyn to al mankynd. 

As, by exampul, ther ys a certyn equyte and justyce 

among al natyonys and pepul, wherby they are inclynyd 

one to dow gud to a nother, one to be bunfycyal to a 

nothur, lyuyng togydder in a cu?npynabul lyfe. And, 428 

lyke wyse, ther ys a certayn terapera?2ce of the plesurys Temperance and 

of the body, wych ys not mesuryd by the opynyon of 

man, but by the helth therof and natural propagatyon, 

as to ete and drynke only to supporte the helth and 

strenghth of the body, and to vse moderate plesure wyth 433 

woman ; for lawful increse of the pepul ys, among al 

men and al natyonys, estymyd vertue and honesty. And 

in lyke maner man, wyth grete currage to defend hym- courage every- 

wli6r6 ur6 

selfe from al violence of other iniurys or wrongys, ye considered 
and patyently to suffur al such chaunce as can not be 
avoydyd, ys, amonge al pepul, taken as a nobul vertue. 439 
Ther ys also a certyn wyt and pollycy by nature gyuere 
to man in euery place and cuntrey, wherby he ys in- 
clynyd to lyue in cyuyle ordur accordyng to the dygnyte 
of hys nature ; and to perceyue the mean how he may 
attayn therto, ther ys, ferthermor, in al men by nature, 444 
wythout any other instructyon, rotyd a certayn reuer- Man's reverence 
ence to God, wherby they honowre hym as gouernour universal. 
and rular *of al thys world. For yet ther was neuer na- [* Page 40.] 
tyon so rude or blynd but fortheys cause they relygyously 


449 worschyppyd and honowryd the name of GocL Thes 
These and other vertues, and other lyke, wherhy man, of nature meke, 

virtues are 

planted in man's ge?ztyl, and ful of humanyte, ys inclynyd and sterryd 

y na ure, ^ cyuyle ordur and louyng cumpany, wyth honeste be- 

hauyour both toward God and maw, are by the powar of 

454 nature in the hart of maw rotyd and plawtyd, and by no 

vayn opynyon or fansy cowceyuyd. And thought hyt be 

Sughtoey'had so that amongys al natyonys many so lyue, as they had 

mturafdi^nit 1 vtturly forgoten the dygnyte of thys theyr nature, and 

and fail from its na( j no SU ch vertues by nature in them set and plawtyd : 

excellency. " . 

459 yet among them al, few ther be, or now, wych, 'so 
lyuyng, juge themselfe to dow wel, but thynke them- 
selfe they are slyppyd and fallen from the excelle??cy of 
theyr nature, wyth grete and cowtynual gruge of cow- 
scyence inwardly. For they haue rotyd in theyr hartys 

464 a certayn rule, euer repugnywg to theyr maner of lyfyng, 
wych they, by necligewte incowtynewce, suffur to be cor- 
rupt ; the wych rule, so certayn and so stabul, ys callyd 
This law of nature of phylosopharys and wyse mew, the vnyuersal and true 

is common to all 

nations. law of nature, wych to al natyonys ys cowtmyn, no 

469 thyng hangyng of the opynyon and folysch fansy of 

[* Page 4i ] maw. In so much that yf maw, by corrupt *jugemewt, 

wold extyme vertue as vyce, no thyng regardyng hys 

owne dygnyte, yet vertues, by theyr owne nature, be no 

les vertues, nor mynyschyd of theyr excellency, by any 

474 such frawtyke fansy ; no more then yf al me?i togydur 

wold cowspyre that there were no God, who by that 

folysch opynyon schold no thyng be mynysched of hys 

hye maiesty, or yf they wold say that he nother gou- 

€rnyth nor ruly th thys world, yet theyr opynyon makyth 

wherefore it is no les hys hye prouydence. Wherfor playnly hyt ap- 

plain these virtues " 

do not stand in peryth that thes vertues stond not in the opynyon of 

maw, but by the buwfyte and powar of nature in hys 

hart are rotyd and plawtyd, inclynyng hym euer to the 

483 cyuyle lyfe, accordyng to the excellewt dygnyte of hys 


nature ; and thys inclynatyon and rule of lyuyng, "by but by the power 

of nature. 

thes vertues stablyd and confyrniyd, ys callyd, as I sayd, 
the law of nature, wych though al men folow not, yet 486 
al men approue. 

(9.) But here we must note, that lyke as in many But here we must 

,, n , t -\ ± note the many 

thyngys, wych by experyercce we dayly se, nature re- things in which 

,,,■,,, j> -, ,■■ p , n nature requires 

quyryth the dylyge?zce ot ma«, leuyng them vnperrayt 01 the diligence of 

themselfe, as the sedys and frutys of the grounde, wych man ' 

sche wyl neuer hryng to perfectyon, yf man wythhold 

hys dylygence and labur ; so in thes vertues and law 

of nature, sche requyryth the ayd and dylygewce of man, 494 

wych els wyl soone be oppressyd and corrupt. *Therhe [*Page42.j 

in mannys lyfe so many occasyonys of destroyng these Dangers to 

sedys and vertues, plantys and lawys, that excepte ther 

he joynyd some gud prouysyon for theyr spryngyng vp 

and gud culture, they schal neuer hryng forth theyr 499 

frute, they schal neuer hryng man to hys perfectyon. 

"Wherfor amonge al me?i and al natyonys, as I tlijnk, ah nations have 

apon erth, ther he, and euer hathe byn, other certayn and manners, 

custumys and manerys hy long vse and tyme confyrmyd 

and approuyd ; other lawys wrytere and deuysyd hy the 504 

polytyke wytte of man receyuyd and stahlyschyd for 

the mayntenaunce and settyng forward of thes natural 

sedys and plawtys of vertue ; wych custume and law hy 

mail so ordeynyd and deuysyd ys callyd the cyuyle law, called civil law, 

for hycause they he as meanys to hryng man to the per- 509 

fectyon of the cyuyle lyfe ; wythout the ordyna?ice of 

thes lawys, the other sone wylbe corrupt, the wedys wyl 

sone ouergrow the gud corne. Thys law cyuyle is fer which differs from 

the universal law 

dyffereret from the other ; for in euery czmtrey hyt ys of nature, and 

. 7 111- ' varies in every 

dyu erse and varyabul, ye almost m euery cyte and towne. country. 
Thys law takyth effecte of the opynyon of maw, hyt 
restyth holly in hys consent, and varyth accordyng to 
the place and tyme, in so much that in dyuerse tyme 
and place C07ztrary lawys are "both gud, and both con- 
uenyent to the polytyke lyfe. Wher as the law of -519 


520 nature ys euer one, in al cuntreys fyrme and stabul, and 

The law of nature neuer for the tyme varyth ; hyt ys neuer chaungeabul ; 

the consent of man doth no thyng therto ; hyt hangyth 

no thyng of tyme nor place, but accordyng as ryght 

[* Page 43.] reson ys euer one, so ys thys law, and neuer * varyth 

525 aftur the fansy of man. Thys law ys the ground and end 

of the other, to the wych hyt must euer be referryd, now 

other wyse then the conclusyonys of artys mathematical 

and is aided by are euer referryd to theyr pryncypullys. For cyuyle 

the civil law. 

ordyna?zce ys but as a mean to bryng ma« to obserue 
530 thys law of nature, in so much that, yf ther be any 
cyuyle law ordeynyd wych can not be resoluyd therto, 
hyt ys of no value ; for al gud cyuyle lawys spryng and 
yssue out of the law of nature, as brokys and ryuerys 
out of fountaynys and wellys ; and to that al must be 
535 resoluyd and referryd as to the end why they be or- 
deynyd, to the obseruatyon wherof they are but as 
Thus we see that (9.) -j_ n< ^ thus now I thynke, Master Pole, we may 

honesty do not se that al vertue and honestye restyth not in the strong 

rest in opinion 

only, but also in opynyon of man, but that, lyke as ther ys a certayn law 

nature ; 

541 by nature ordeynyd to induce and bryng maw to a lyfe 
co?zuenyent and accordyng to hys excellent dygnyte, so 
ther [is] a certayn vertue and honesty consequently an- 
nexyd to the same law, wych by the powar of nature only, 

545 and no thyng by the opynyon of man, ys so stablyd and 
set, that al be hyt, that al men by yl educatyon corrupt, 
wold consent and agre to a contrary ordur, yet were 
that law, that vertue and honesty, of no les powar, 

549 strength, nor authoryte. And lyke as to thys law of na- 

[* Page 44.] ture ys conseque?^t]y *annexyd thys natural vertue and 

dvlAndCturai honesty,— wych in euery place and tyme ys of equal 

law- powar, — so ther ys to law cyuyle, and the obseruatyon 

therof, couplyd also a certayn vertue and honesty, wych 

lyke to the law only remenyth in the opynyon of man 

555 and hath hys strenghth and powar therof. For though 


hyt be so that, to be obedyent to the lawys cyuyle, so 556 

long as they be not contrary to the law of God nor of 

nature, ys euer vertue and honesty ; yet to thys law or 

that law, al men are not bounden, but only such as re- Civil laws only 

binding on those 

ceyue them, and be vnder the domynyon of them, wych who receive them. 

haue authoryte of makyng therof. As to absteyn from 561 

flesch apon the Fryday, wyth vs hyt ys now reputyd 

a certayn vertue, wyth the Turkys no thyng so ; prestys 

to lyue chast, wyth vs hyt ys a certayn vertue and 

honesty, wyth the Grekys hyt ys no thyng so ; to mary 

but one wyfe, wyth vs hyt ys a certayn vertue also, wyth 566 

other natyonys, as Turkys, Morys, and Sarasyns, hyt ys 

no thyng so. And thus in infynyte other hyt ys euydent 

to se, how that to be obedyent to the lawys in euery To he obedient 

to the laws is ;i 

auwfcrey hyt ys a certayn vertue, but of that sort wych virtue. 

hath hys strenghth and powar holly of the opynyon 571 

and consent of maw. And so thys ys truth as now you 

may see, that vertue and honesty partely stondyth by so you see virtue 

stands by nature 

nature and portely by the opynyon of man ; wherby and opinion. 

now you may perceyue the pestylent persuasyon of them 

wych say and affyrme betwyx vyce and vertue *no [*Pagei:,.] 

dyfference to be, but only strong opynyon and fancy ; 577 

they wold bryng al to co?2fusyon, and leue no ordur by 

nature certayn. But the veray cause of theyr error ys He proceeds to 

arrogant blyndnes ; they thynke themselfe to be of such 

hye pollycy that no man may see so fer as they, and in- 581 

dede they see les then other. Such haue only a lytyl secondly, the 

" cause of their 

smateryng m gud lernyng and hye phylosophye ; they error who say 
comprehend not the hole ordur of nature ; they conceyue 
not the excellent dygnyte of man ; the[y] depely consydur 

not the maner of lyuyng accordyng to the same, by the 586 

reson wherof they can not dyscerne the powar of thys there is no 

natural law ; they can not see thys hye vertue and hon- opinion, between 

esty couplyd therto. But bycause man, yf he be brough[t] virtue an vlce ' 
vp in corrupt opynyon, hath no perceyueance of thys 

natural law, but suffryth hyt by neclygence to be op- 591 



592 pressyd, as ther wer no such sedys plantyd in hym; 
therfor they say, al stondyth in the opynyon of maw, al 
restyth in hys fansy, and that hys consent only makyth 
both vertue and vyce. 

(9.) And thus now, Mastur Pole, you haue hard 

597 schortly, aftur myn opynyon, the cause of such errors, 

wherby some are dryuen to juge al vyce and vertue 

Tbey are blind on i v to consiste in the opynyon of maw, wych ys arro- 

and do not 

consider man's gant blyndnes, no thyng co??syderyng the dygnyte of 


man, nor the lyfe accordyng to the same ; but of hys 

602 actys mesuryng hys dygnyte, affyrme playnly, that seyng 

[* Page 46.] *so co?nmynry he folowyth vyce, that, by nature, vertue 

They say by ther ys non, but that only men conspyre by consent to 

no virtue, cal vertue that which indede ys non. "Wych ys much 

lyke to say, as yf al men wold by consent, agre, and con- 

607 spyre to say ther were no God, that theyr folysch consent 

by and by schold take away the nature of God. Wherin 

you see the grete foly and blyndnes, wych ys no les in 

because most thys, to say that vertue, by nature, ther ys non, bycause 

men follow vice: 

the most parte of men folow vyce, and in theyr hartys 

dow, as hyt were, conspyre agayne the dygnyte of vertue 

and nature of man. They consydur not the fraylty of 

614 man, wych seyng the best folowyth the worst, ouer 

comme by sensual plesure ; they consydur not the nec- 

lygence of man, wych suffryth hys sedys, by nature in- 

they do not stincte, by wordly occasyonys to be ouer run ; they con- 

windness which sydur not the blyndenes of man, wych by yl educatyon 

education. grouth in hym ; but of the effecte folyschely they juge 

Hence these al to stond in the opynyon of man ; and thys ys the 


cause of theyr folysch erroure. And so now of thys to 
622 make answere to your dowte, "Kaster Pole, me semyth 
no thyng hard at al ; for though hyt be so that the 
Turke, Sarasyn, Jue, and Chrystun man, and other dy- 
uerse sectys and natyon[ys], dyssent and dyscorde in the 
maner of pollycy, euery one jugyng hys owne to be best, 
[•Page 47] yet in al such thyng as perteynyth by * nature to the 


dygnyte of mm and maner of lyuyng accordyng to the 628 
same, they cowsent and agre, wythout any dyscord or in aii tilings 

which pertain 

dyuersyte. Al juge God ahoue al to be honowryd as to man's dignity, 

goueraour and rular of thys world ; al juge one bound to 

ayd and suceur a nother ; al juge hyt to be cowuenyent 

to lyue togyddur in polytyke lyfe. So that in the law 633 

and rule by nature cowuenyent to the dygnyte of maw, 

and in al vertue and honesty annexyd to the same, surely 

they agre. Wherfor, al be hyt the[y] dyssent in theyr although they 

differ in civil 

cyuyle ordynawce and polytyke mean 01 the obseruawce affairs, 
of thys commyn law, yet hyt ys not to be dowtyd but 638 
the cyuyle lyfe ys a polytyke ordur of me/i cowspyryng 
togyddur in vertue and honesty, of such sort as by na- 
ture ys cowuenyent to the dygnyte of maw. And as 
touchyng the dyscord in the partycular mean of kepyng 
thes lawys, plawtyd by nature, as some mew thynke of 643 
hye wysdome and lernyng, hyt gretely forsyth not at al ; 
for how dyuerse so euer they cyuyle lawys be, and However diverse 

civil laws may be, 

varyabul m euery secte and cuwtre, yet so long as yet the people 

ma« ordryd therby fayllyth not from the ground and 

erryth not fro?w the end, but kepyth thys natural law, and strive to 

live up to the 

inseAvyth the vertue annexyd to the same, he then law of nature, 

folowyth the polytyke ordur, and kepyth gud cyuylyte. 650 

In so much that the Jue, Sarasyn, Turke, and More, so 

long as they obserue theyr cyuyle ordynawce and sta- 

tutys, deuysyd by theyr old fatherys in * euery secte, [*Page48.j 

dyrectyng them to the law of nature ; so long, I say, ther 

be mew wych ernystely affyrme them to lyue wel, and 655 

euery one in hys secte to be sauyd, and now to perysch 

vtturly ; seyng the infynyte gudnes of God hathe no les 

made them aftur hys owne ymage and forme, then he 

hath made the Chrystuw maw ; and the most parte of 

them neuer, perauewtur, hard of the law of Chryst. 660 

Wherfor, so long as they lyue aftur the law of nature, 

obseruyng also theyr cyuyle ordynawce, as mean to bryng 

them to the end of the same, they schal not be daranyd. damned? ** 


664 Thys I haue hard the opynyon of grete wyse mere, wel 
But let us leave porederyng the gudnes of God and of nature ; but whether 

this as St Paul 

did,' to God, and hyt be so or not, let vs, aftur the mynd of Sayn Poule, 

rest assured that , . , , ., .. i. p r\ t t p j/i 1 

our laws are leue thys to the secrete jugemerat ot God ; and of thys be 

law^f^ture 116 assuryd, of thys be certayn, that our lawys and ordyn- 

669 a/zcys be agreabul to the law of nature, seyng they are 

al layd by Chryst hymselfe and by hys Holy Spryte. 

We are sure they schal bryng vs to our saluatyon yf we 

gyue perfayt fayth and sure trust to the promys of God 

in them to vs made. Thys to vs faythful and Chrysture 

674 mere ys no dowte. Therfor how other sectys schal dow, 

to what perfectyon so euer theyr lawys schal bryng 

them, let the secret wysdome of God therof be juge, 

and let vs be assuryd that our lawys, by Chryst the Sone 

of God, and by hys Holy Spryte incresyd and corefyrmyd, 

[* Page 49.] schal bryng *vs to such perfectyon as accordyth to the 

680 dygnyte of the nature of mare. Of thys thyng we are by 

fayth corefyrmyd, more sure, more certayne, then of thos 

thyngys wych we se, fele, or her, or by any sens may 

The diversity of pe?'ceyue. Wherfor, Mastur Pole, let thys dyuersyte of 

sects and laws , ,, ,-, i i i j_i i 

must not trouble sectys and lawys no thyng trowbul vs at al, wych, per- 

dtversitVof 111 the a ueretur of necessyte, folowyth the nature of mare, nore 

language. other wyse then the dyuersyte of language and tong. 

687 For lyke as mare naturally ys borne to speke and expresse 

the coreceyte of mynd one to a nother, and yet to no 

partycular language they are borne, so to folow the law 

of nature al mere are borne, al natj^onys by nature are 

inclynyd therto ; and yet to no partycular mean by 

692 cyuyle ordynarece decred they are nother bounden nor 

Notwithstanding borne. Therfor, notwythstoftdyng thys dyuersyte of 

this difference of , , . - rti - , „ 

laws, we may stui sectys and lawys, we may yet ryght wel aftyrme the dyf- 
Sa^poiitir 1 fynytyon of the cyuyle lyfe before sayd to be ryght gud 
agreeing'together an ^ resonabul, wych ys a polytyke ordur of a multytude 
honesty 6 aUd corespyryng togyddur in vertue and honesty, to the 
698 wych mare by nature ys ordeynyd. Thys ys the end of 
marenys lyfe ; to thys euerj inare ought to loke ; to thys 


euery man ought to referre al hys actys, thoughtys, and 700 

dedys ; thys euery maw to hys powar ought to ayd and 

set forthe ; thys (al dowtys layd aparte) euery maw ought 

to study to maynteyn. * Wherfor, Maystur Pole, now I [* Page so.] 

"wyl in thys cause no more reson wyth you, but pray 

you, al occasyonys drawyng you from that layd asyde, to 705 

apply your selfe to the hawdelyng of the materys of the He again urges 

Pole to affairs of 

coramyn wele, wych you know ryght wel ys the end of state. 
al studys, and, as you wold say,, the only marke for 
eue?y honest mynd to schote at. 

10. "Bole. — Maystur Lupse£, you haue sayd ryght 710 
wel ; and though in dede I dowtyd no thyng of thys P- owns the force 
mater, that you so ernystely moue me vnto, yet hyt hath reasoning, 
plesyd me wel to here you, wyth such phylosophycal 
reson ys out of nature drawne, cowfyrme the same, so 
manyfestely and clerly declaryng hyt, that no maw may 715 
dowte therof. For yf hyt he a gud thyng to helpe one, 
hyt ys vndowtydly much hettur to helpe many, ye and 
best of al to helpe a hole cuwtrey ; in so much that maw and says how 
so dowyng neryst approchytb to the nature of God, who help a whole 
therby ys most perceyuyd to be God, that he communy- 
catyth hys gudnes to al other. Therfor, Master Lvpse£, I 721 
am cowtent. Let vs agre apon thys, let vs take thys as a 
ground, that euery maw ought to apply hymselfe to the 
settyng forward of the coramyn wele, euery maw ought 
to study to helpe hys cuwtrey. Tet ther ys a nother but there is 
thyng to be cowsyderyd, wych hath causyd many grete, to be considered, 
wyse, and polytyke men to abhorre from eommyn welys, 727 
and thys ys the regard of tyme and place. For though 
hyt be so that a maw to meddyl wyth materys perteyn- 
jng to the wele of hys hole cuwtrey, ys * of al thyng [* Page si.] 
best and most to be desyryd, yet in some tyme and cer- 731 
tayn place hyt ys not to be temptyd of wyse mew, wych sometimes this 
ryght wel perceyue theyr labur to be spent in vayn ; as attempted, 
in tyme of tyrawny, or in such place where they that anrseMshness 7 
rule are bent only to theyr pryuate wele. What thynke prevai " 


736 you among such the co/'useyl of a wyse maw schold 

avayle 1 "Wythout dowte hyt schold be laughyd at, and 

no thyng at al hyt schold be regardyd, no more then a 

tale tollyd among deffe men. Wherfor hyt semyth not 

wythout cause they euer absteynyd, in such tyme and 

741 place, from medelyng wyth materys of the commyn 

in such cases wele ; they see exa?wpullys of many and dyuerse, wych 

for their pains. wythout profyt had attemptyd the same, and no thyng 

got, but only that some of them therfor were put in 

exyle and bawnyschyd from theyr cuwtrey ; some put in 

746 pryson and myserably hawdlyd ; and some to cruel and 

schameful deth. Hyt ys therfor no smal dyfferewce in 

what tyme and place a wyse man ys borne, and in 

what tyme he attempt to hawdyl materys of the commyn 

Plato and TuUy, wele. Yf Plato had found in Cycyle a nobul prywce at 

wouidhave sucn tyme as he cam thyder for the deuysyng of lawys, 

succee e etter j^ j^ then schowyd grettur frutys of hys wysedome. 

753 Yf Tully had not chauncyd in the tyme of the cyuyle 

warre betwyx Cesar and Pompey, the cyte of Eome 

schold haue haue seen and felt much more pnrfyt of 

that nobul wytt. Yf Seneca had not byn in the tyme of 

[* Page 52.] Nero, so cruel a tyrarc, * but in the tyme of Traiane, so 

if they had nobul a prywce, hys vertue schold haue byn otherwyse 

better princes. ex tymyd, and brought forth other frute. Thyswesethat 

760 vertue at al tymys ca?^ not schow hys lyght, no more 

then the sone at al tyinys can sprede abrode hys beamys. 

a man must Wherfor they wych, wythout regard of tyme or place, 

regard time and 

place if he will wyl sett themselfe to hawdyl mate?ys of the commyn 

handle matters . . . . , . . 

of state; wele, may wel be co??zparyd to them wych in grete tem- 

pest wyl commyt themselfe to the daungerys of the see, 

766 or wythout wynd wyl set vp the sayle. Plutarch com- 
paryth them to such as, being them selfe in dry house, 
seing ther felowys delyte in the rayne, and wyllywg 
not to rcm out, but tary therin, are not content, but 
yssue out, no thyng obtaynyng, but only that they may 

771 be wet wyth theyr felowys. So they wych, wythout 


regard of tyme or of place, run in to courtys and con- 772 

seyl of prywcys, were they here euery nia?< speke of the 

commyn wele, euery man hath that oft in hys month, that, 

vnder the pretense and colour therof, they may the bettor 

procure theyr owne, sone be corrupt wyth lyke opynyon, 

sone draw lyke affecte. For as hyt ys co»?.mynly sayd, 777 

hard hyt ys dayly to be among thefys and be not a 

thefe. Euery maw for the most parte ys lyke to them 

wyth whome he ys cowuersant. Wherfor to atte??zpt the and to meddle, 

handelyng of the materys of the co?/?myn wele, wythout regard, is 

regard other of tyme or place, no thyng optaynywg, but ma 

only to be corrupt wyth lyke opynyonys as they be 783 

wych meddyl therwyth, me semyth grete madnes and 

foly. * And so al be hyt therfor, Master ~Lvpset, 1 that C* Page 53.] 

to meddyl wyth materys of the cowmyn wele, and 

profyt your cuwtrey, be in dede of al thyng that maw 787 

may dow in thys lyfe the best and of hyest perfectyon, 

yet now to me hyt apperyth some respecte ys to be had 

both of tyme and of place. 

11. "Lvpset. 1 — Wei, Master Pole, as touchyng the L. says there is 

1 j l f • -7 o i -r,i it, some tmtn *™ 

respecte both ol tyme and ot place, I thynke hyt ys this, 
some thyng to be cowsyderyd ; and no dowte thos mew, 793 
wych be of grete wysdome and hye pollycy, be also 
fortunate and happy, wych chaunce to be borne in 
such tyme when they wych haue in theyr cuwtrey hye 
authoryte and. rule, al ambycyouse affectyon set apert, 
only procure the true commyn wele ; and, as Plato 798 
sayth, thos cuwtreys be also happy wych haue such 
goue?'nurys as euer loke to the same. How be hyt, I but some men 

consider time 

thynke agayne also that ther ys nother so much respect and piaoe so long, 
of tyme nother of place to be had, as many men juge, 
wych thynke the hyest poynt of wysdome to stond 803 
therin ; and so naroly and so curyously they powdur the 
tyme and the place, that in al theyr lyfys they nother that they never 
fynd tyme nor place. They loke, I trow, for Plato's ° any 
1 MS. le. 


807 cominyn wele, in such expeetatyon they spend theyr 

lyfe, as they thynke wyth grete polytyke wysdome, hut 

in dede wyth grete frawtyke foly. For of thys I am 

and so have sure, that suche exacte co??syderyng of tyme hathe 

allowed their 

country to causyd many cowmyn welys vtturly to perysch; hyt 

hath causyd in many placys much tyra?zny, wych myght 

813 haue byn amewdyd, yf wyse men, in tyme and in place, 

wold haue bent themselfe to that purpos, leuyng such 

fon respecte of tyme and of place. But, Master Pole, 

[* Page 54.] what so euer regard he of wyse mere * to he had other 

it is certain that of tyme or of place, thys to vs ys certayn, that now, in 

now is our time, 

while we have so our tyme, when we haue so nohul a prywce, whome we 

noble a Prince, . , . , , . , , 

are sure no thyng to haue so pryntyd in hys hrest as 

820 the cure of hys commyn wele, both day and nyght 
reme??zbryng the same, we schold haue no such respecte. 
For thys I dare affyrme, ther was neuer pryrece reynyng 
in thys realme wych had more ferueret loue to the 

824 welth of hys subectys then hath he; ther was neuer 
kyng in any cuwtrey wych bare grettur zele to the 
admynystratyon of justyce and settyng forth of equyte 
and ryght then dothe he ; aftur he ys therof informyd 
and surely instructe by hys wyse cowseylyrs and 

829 polytyke men. Therfor, as I sayd, lyke as ther ys some 

respecte to be had of tyme for the abstenyng from the 

intrety of materys of the co?wmyn wele, so ther ys much 

and it is our duty more of takyng the tyme when hyt ys, and takyng 

occasyon when hyt offryth hyt selfe. Wherfor, Master 

834 Pole, as you now see, chefely to be regardyd as the end 
of al marcnys studys and carys, the welth of the com- 
mynalty, so now also vse your tyme, vnder so nobul a 
prywce, to the mayntena?zce and settyng forward of the 
or it may be same. Let not occasyon slyppe ; sufFur not your tyme 
vaynly to pas, wych, wyth out recouery, fleth away; for 

840 as they say, occasyon and tyme wyl neuer be restoryd 
agayne. Therfor, as I haue sayd to you before, wythout 
any mo steppys, bend your selfe to that to the wych 


you are borne ; loke to that wycli, aboue al, ys your 843 
offyce and duty. 

12. "Sole. — Master Lvpse£, you hauebounde me now; p. says he cannot 
I haue no refuge ferther to fie. Wherfor, I promys 

you I schal neuey pretermyt occasyon nor tyme of 
helpyng *my cimtrey, but euer, as they offer them- [* Page 55.] 
selfe, I schalbe redy to my powar euer to apply and 849 
indeuur myselfe to the mayntennarcce and settyng for- 
ward of the true commyn wele. And now, bycause, as 
you ryght wel and truly haue sayd, we haue so nobul 
a prynce, wych, when he knowyth the best, he sted- 
fastely wyl folow hyt, euer desyrouse of hys commyn 854 
wele ; that I may be in the mater more rype when so 
euer occasyon schal requyre, I schal now at thys leser, and he wui talk 

. over the matter 

and here, in thys solytary place, some thyng wyth at once, 
you, Master Jsvpset, deuyse,-touchyng the ordur of our 
cu?rtrey and co??zmyn wel, to the wych purpos also, me 859 
semyth, the tyme exhortyth vs, seyng that now our 
most nobul pry?^ce hath assemblyd hys parlyamerct and 
most wyse corcseyl, for the reformatyon of thys hys 
commyn wele. 

13. Lvpset. — Mary, Syr, thys purpos ys maruelus 864 
gud, and veray mete and cowuenyent for the tyme ; 

and glad I am that I put you in remembra?jce herof. l. isgiadofthis. 
Therfor I pray you now exercyse your selfe therin, 
that you may be more redy to schow your mynd openly 
and in such place where as I trust heraftur hyt schal 869 
bryng forth some frute. 

14. PoZe. — Wel, Master Lvpse£, yf you lyke hyt wel, p. proposes to 

n . ,1 iii -1 discuss, first, 

attur thys mane? 1 we schal deuyse, bycause eue?y marc 

spekyth so much of the commyw wele, and many more, 

I fere me, dow know hyt in dede. And for bycause the 874 

coramyn wele ys the end of al parlyamerctys and 

commyn conseyllys, fyrst therfor, (to kepe a certayn 

processe vritJi ordur) we wyl serche out, as nere as we 

ca?^, what ys the veray and * true commyn wele, wherin [* Page 56.] 


what is the true [liyt] stondyth, and when liyt most floryschyth, that 

commonwealth : 

we may, hauyng thys playnly set before our yes, al 

881 our cowseyllys to thys poynt euer resolue and referre. 

second, to search Second, we wyl serch out therby the dekey of our 

out its disorders : 

commyn wele, wyth al the commyn fautys and mys- 
third, to consider ordurys of the same. Thyrdly, we wyl deuyse of the 

the remedies. 

cause of thys same dekey, and of the remedy and mean 
886 to restore the commyn wele agayne. And thys schalbe 
the processe of our communycatyon. 
l. agrees with 15. "Lvpset. 1 — Syr, thys processe lykyth me wel; 


but here of one thyng, I pray you, take hede, that in 
but wds Pole thys your deuyse of your communycatyon you folow 

to beware of 

imitating Plato's not the exampul of Plato, whose ordur of commyn wele 
whose common- no pepul apon erth to thys daye coud euer yet attayn. 

wealth no mortal -run. r ■\ i. j. j i? t.j. j 

can follow. W herior hyt ys reputyd ot many mew but as a dreme 

894 and vayne imygynatyon, wych neuer caw be brought 
to effect ; and of some other hyt ys comparyd to the 
Stoyke phylosophar, who neuer apperyd yet to the 
lyght, such vertue and wysdonie ys attrybutyd to hym, 
that in no mortal maw hyt caw be found. Therfor loke 
899 you to the nature of oure cuwtrey, to the maner of our 
pepul, not wythout respect both of tyme and of place, 
that your deuyse heraftur, by the helpe of our most 
nobul prywce, may the sonar optayne hys frute and 

This Pole 16. "Pole. — Master Lvpsef, you admonysch me ryght 

promises. _ , - _. , . 

wel, and accordyng as you say, as nere as I caw, so schal 
906 I dow ; but now, Master ~Lvpset, bycause hyt ys late 

and tyme to suppe, we wyl dyffer the begynnyng of 

our communycatyon tyl to niorow in the mornyng. 
17. Lvpse^. — Master Sir, you say veray wel; for 

me semyth thys ys a mater mete for the mornyng, 
911 when our wyttys be most redy and fresch. 

1 MS. Le. 



1. *[Pole.] — Seying that we be now here mete, [* Page 57.] 
Master Lupse£, accordyng to our promys, to deuyse of 

a mater, as you know > of grete dyffyculty and harduos, 

I requyre you most tewdurly to be dylygent and attent, 4 

and frely also to schow your mynd therin, that where as 

my resonys schal appere to you sklender and weke, wyth 

your dylygence you may them supply ; and cesse not to p. asks Lupset 

' pi to ex P ress his 

dowte as you haue occasyonys— for dowtyng, you know, doubts on any 
bryngyth the truth to lyght. And though hyt be so for doubting 
that the mater be hard and requyryth grete labur to t o light. 
the enserchywg of the truthe conteynyd in the same, 11 
yet the grete frute and profyte wych may ryse and 
yssue of the same may somewhat encorage vs and gyue 
vs stomake. lor thys I juge to be of sure truth, that yf 
mere knew certaynly what ys the true comniyn wele, if men knew 

what is the true 

they wold not so lytyl regard hyt as the[y] dow ; they commonwealth, 

., 1,-1,71 ii i tne > T would not 

wold not so neclecte hyt ana despyse hyt as commymy S o often neglect 

they dow. For now as euery man spekyth of hyt and 

hath hyt oft in hys mouth, so few ther be that extyme 19 

hyt and haue hyt fyxyd in theyr hartys ; wych playnly 

co??imyth as (aftur the mynd of the most wyse phy- 

losophar Socrates) al other yl dothe, of vayn, false, and 

corrupt opynyon ; for no maw wyttyngly and wyllyng 

wyl dow hymselfe hurte. Wherfor yf mew knew that, 24 

so lytyl regardyng the commyn wele, * they dow them [* Page ss.i 

selfe therwyth also hurt, surely they wold mor extyme 

hyt then they dow, wych thyng I trust to make 

euydently to be seen heraftur. 

2. "Lvpset. l — Syr, thys thyng of Socrates semyth l. doubts 

whether this 

to me somewhat straunge, to say that al spryngyth arises from 
of ignora??ce, as of the ground of al vyce. Therfor, 

1 MS. Le. 


32 befor that we passe any ferther, let vs a lytyl examyn 

thys, for as much as you seme to take hyt as a sure 

ground. Communely hyt ys sayd, and me semyth 

euery maw felyth hyt in hym selfe, that thos wych 

he yl know they dow nought ; and yet, by plesure 

37 ouercome, the[y] folow the same, contrary to theyr owne 

Men know they co?iscyence and knolege. Euery maw knowyth, as hyt 

virtue, apperyth to me, they schold folow vertue, and yet you 

vfce they ° W see now ^hey f°l° w the cowtrary ; euery maw knowyth, 

as I thynke, they schold aboue al regard the commyn 

42 welth, and yet euery maw sekyth hys owne profyt. 

Wherfor hyt apperyth to me we schold attrybute al 

Faults should be fautys, al vyce, rather to malyce then to ignorawce. 

malice rather Besyde thys, how schal we defend the lyberty of our 

wyl, yf we be thys lade [n] wyth ignorawce 1 Frewyl caw 

47 not be wythout knolege, both of the gud and of the yl. 

Wherfor me semyth the ground of your communycatyon 

stondyth in dowte. 

3. "Pole. — Wei, Master Jjrpset, thys thyng wych 

you now bryng in questyon, mouyd of the begynnyng of 

52 our communycatyonys, semyth to be a cowtrouersy not 

This seems to be only betwyx the commyn sort and lernyd, but also 

between betwyx Arystotyl ' and Plato, the chefe phylosopharys. 

piato! 6 an How be hyt, betwyx them I thynke thys dyscord that 

but it is one of apperyth ys but in wordys only, and no thyng in dede, 

as hyt ys in many thyngys mo, wherin they seme 

58 gretely to dyssent ; for the declaratyon wherof, now in 

[* Page 59.] thys purpos *you schal vnderstond, that aftur the 

Man's mind at sentence of Arystotyl, the mynd of maw fyrst of hyt 

first is a cban ,„ , , j. i -i i • ,, 

tablet) selte ys as a clene and pure tabul, wherin ys no thyng 

payntyd or carvyd, but of hyt selfe apt and indyfferewt 
63 to receyue al maner of pycturys and image. So mawnys 
mynd hath fyrst no knolege of truth, nor fyrst hath no 
maner of wyl wherby hyt ys more drawne to gud then 
to yl ; but aftur, as opynyon and sure persuasyon of gud 
1 MS. arystotytyl 


and of yl growth in by experyence and lernyng, so which receives 

. impressions 

euer the wyl cowforniyth and frainyth hymselie to the afterwards. 

knolege before goten, in so much that yf hyt be per- 69 

suadyd that gud ys yl, and yl gud, then euer the wyl 

chesyth the yl, and leuyth the gud, accordyng as sche, 

by opynyon, ys instructyd. And yf tbe opynyon be if the opinion 

strong, and confyrmyd wyth ryght reson, and wyth it follows the 

ryght jugeme?zt, then sche folowyth euer that wych ys 

gud ; lyke as, contrary, when the opynyon ys waueryng 75 

and, not groundly set, then sche, ouercome and blyndyd if vv eak 

by plesure, or some other inordynat affecte, folowyth the 

yl ; so that other out of sure and certayn knolege, or 

lyght and waueryng opynyon, al the inclynatyon of wyl 

takyth hys rote, wych euer ys framyd accordyng to the 80 

knolege. Wherfor Socrates euer was wont to say, yf 

the mynd of ma)« were instructe * wyth sure knolege [* Page 60.] 

-ij-i-11 it Socrates says 

and stabul opynyon, hyt schold neuer erre nor declyne virtue depends 

from the streyght lyne of vertuose lyuyng ; but when 

ther was therin no thyng but waueryng opynyonys, 85 

wych wyth euery lyght co?ztrary persuasyon wold 

vanysch aAA r ay, then the mynd schold be lyghtly ouer- 

come and schortly blyndyd wyth the vayne colour of 

truth. Thys waueryng opynyon in mawnys mynd, and 

thys blyndenes wyth inordynate affectys, he callyd in 90 

dede ignorance, the wych he euer notyd to be the 

fountayn of al yl and vycyouse affect reynyng in marenys 

mynd. Arystotyl, more co?zformyng hymselfe to the Aristotle says 

commune jugement of man, sayd that they wych had this opinion of 

thys opynyore of gud, be hyt neuer so lyght, waueryng, "grudgeAn 

and vnstabul, yet some knolege hyt left in marenys they C do n wrong! n 

mynd, by the reson wherof, aftur the commyn opynyon 

of eue?y mam, ychone in hym selfe, when he doth 98 

nough[t], felyth a gruge in conscyence and repugnance 

in mynd. Wherfor he says that they wych be yl haue 

knolege therof and yet folow the same. But Plato Plato calls waver- 
ing knowledge 

callyth that same waueryng knolege, and lyght per- ignorance. 


103 suasyon, certayn blyndnes and playn ignorance, inso- 
mucli as hyt ys but vayne and lyght opynyon, and sone 
corrupt wyth the contrary persuasyon of yl. So that in 
the thyng ther ys no cowtrouersy betwyx them, but 
only in wordys, for bycause that thyng wych one 

108 callyth lyght knolege, and but a waueryng opynyon, 

the other callyth ignorawce, specyally when hyt ys 

outcome wyth the contrary persuasyon, as hyt ys in al 

[* Page 6i.] them wych know the gud and folow the yl. *They 

haue repugnance and dyuersyte of opynyonys, but the 

113 one ouercumy th the other, and that wych ouerco?ranyth 
if man had sure euer he folowyth. But yf maw had certayn and sure 

knowledge of 

good, knolege of the gud, he wold neuer leue hyt and folow 

lie would never 

leave it. the yl. For, as Arystotyl sayth, theyr knolege wych be 

incowtynewt and gyuew to vyce ys blyndyd for the 

118 tyme wyth some iwordynate affecte, wherwyth they be, 

as hyt were, druwken aftur such sorte that they cow- 

sydur not what ys gud or what ys yl ; but, as hyt were, 

by the vayn schadow therof, they are deceyuyd, and yet, 

thys notwythstondyng, they haue frewyl and lyberty 

123 therof; for as muche as they be not of necessyte by 

thys persuasyon co?npellyd nor drawn to folow the 

Man can perceive same. For albehyt the wyl of maw euer co?nmynly 

and avoid the ill, folowyth that to the wych opynyon of perseuyng the 

gud or voydyng of the yl ledyth hyt, yet hyt ys not of 

128 any necessyte, but maw, dryuew nother to one nor to 

the other, may, other by dylygewce resyst that same 

of hymselfe, or by cowseyl of other ouercomme hyt also ; 

and therin restyth the lyberty of mynd. How be 

hyt, thys ys of trothe, yf the reson and wyl be cus- 

dMn it it- Very tummably blyndyd wyth any persuasyon, hard hyt ys 

134 to resyst therto, and wythout grete dylygence hyt wyl 

and so some men not be ; for the wych cause many men vtturly take away 

of the will, er y the lyberty of wyl, and say that euer hyt ys cowipellyd, 

by strong opynyon, to folow thys or that, accordyng to 

the persuasyon. But vndowtydly dylygewt instructyon 


and wyse conseyl may at the lest in long tynie restore but add, that 

instruction may 

the wyl out of such captyuyte, and * bryng hyt agayne [* Page 62.] 

bring it out of 

to the old 1 lyberty; ye, and though hyt he so that so captivity, and, 
long as hyt ys thys drownyd wyth affectys and blyndyd by ignorance, it 
wyth ignorance, hyt euer folowthe the hlynd per- J^£J* 
suasyon, out of the wych, as I sayd, as out of a foun- own &&&*• 
tayn, spryngyth al vyce, al myschefe, and ylj yet by 145 
clylygence hyt may be restoryd and brought to consydur 
hys owne dygnyte. But plesure and profyt so blynd 
reson, and so reyn ther, that hard hyt ys to pluke out 
thys pestylent persuasyon, wych ys the cause of al 149 
errorys in mannys lyfe. Thys ys the cause of the de- 
structyon of al co??imyn welys, when euery nian, 
blyndyd other by plesure or profyte, consyduryth not 
the perfectyon of ma?z nor the excelle??cy of hys owne 
nature, but wyth ignorance blyndyd and by corrupt 154 
jugement, leuyth the best and takyth the worst. 
Wherfor we may wel say that thys ignorance, as wemust 
Socrates sayd oft, ys the fountayn of al yl, vyce, and ignorance is the 

i • , ■• o • cause of all vice. 

mysery, as wel in euery pnuate mannys lyie as in 
euery commynalty. 

4. liVpset. — Why, but, I pray you, here a lytyl take 160 
hede ; for then yf hyt be thus that ignorance, as you i. answers, 

if this is so, 

say, ys the cause of al yl, men are not so much to be men are not so 
blamyd as commynly they be ; for the[y] dow as they blamed, 
know, and yf they knew the bettur, they wold also 
gladly folow the same, and then, as hyt apperyth, they 165 
be vniustely purcnyschyd in al pollycys. 

5. "Pole. — Nay, Master Lvpse^, not so. Such ignor- p. denies this: 
aftce excusyth not errorys in niannys lyfe, nor makyth 

hym not to be wythout faut ; but, contrary, makyth hym 

more worthy of punnyschenient and blame, accordyng 170 

to our commune proverbe, "he that kyllyth a maw drowk, "He that kills a 

sobur schalbe hangyd ;" in so much as he hym selfe of sober shall 'be 

thys ignora[n]ce ys the cause, by hys owne neclygence. 

■ MS. wold. 


1 74 For yf he wold other here counseyl of wyse and prudent 

men, or sulfur not by neclygence the sedys of nature 

plantyd in hys mynd to be oppressyd wyth vayn opyn- 

yon, he schold not be so led by ignorance and foly, and 

178 schold not be so drownyd in affectys and mysery. 

[* Page 63.] Wherfor, seyng that he suffry th * hyt, so hys faut 

ignorance cannot ys grettur ; he ys more to be blamyd, nor in no ease, 

excuse a man. 

by thys ignorance, may iustely be excusyd. 
182 6. liVpset. — Wei, then, let vs now, I pray you, re- 
l. asks to return torne to our purpos, that we may the bettur (and ether 1 

to their purpose : 

also, avoyd thys ignorance, — the fountayn of al yl) 
what is the true serch out what ys the true commyn wele. For, in dede, 


1 tbynke thys now to be truth, that yf men knew what 
187 hyt were, they wold not so lytyl regard hyt as they 
dow, they wold not so hyly extyme theyr owne pryuate 
plesure and wele. 

7. "Bole. — Thys thyng ys, and euer hath byn, ye, 
and I dare boldly affyrme euer schalbe, the destructyon 
192 of al true commyn welys, and so, consequently, the de- 
structyon also of them wych so blyndly extyme so much 
theyr owne profyte and plesure, as we schal see more 
playnly heraftur. But now to our purpos. Aftur the 
mynd of the antyent and most wyse phylosophar Arys- 
p. says that the totyl, in the veray same thyng wherin stondyth the 

prosperity of the 

individual welthe and prosperouse state of euery partycular man 

commonwealth by hym selfe, restyth also euery cyte or cuntrey, the 
tiling?* ' e Same veray and true commyn welth ; the wych thyng ys to al 
201 men by commyn reson euydent, for as much as the 
welth and substance euer of the hole rysyth of the welth 
what is this. of euery partycular parte. Wherfor, yf we can fyrst 
fynd out that thyng wych ys the welth of euery par- 
tycular man, we schal then consequently fynd out also 
206 what thyng hyt ys that in any cyty or cuntrey we cal 
the veray true commyn wele. And thys let vs take as 
a ground to the rest of our communycatyon. 

1 MS. other. 


8. Lvpse£. — Mary, Syr, "but herin, me semyth, lyth l. if the common 

. good come from 

a dowte ; for yf hyt be thus, that the commyn wele ryse the individual 
of the party cular wele of euery one, then euery maw g 
ought to study to maynteyne * the partycular wele, [* Page 64.] 
to the settyng forward of the co?wmyn. And so that strive to advance 
thyng wych you notyd "before to be the destructyon g ^ n w na 
of euery commyn wel, now by thys reson and ground 215 
schold maynteyn the same. 

9. "Pole. — Nay, Master Isrpset, not so ; for thes ij 
thyngys agre veray wel. Ouermuch regard of pryuat 
and partycular wele euer destroyth the commyn, as 
mean and cowuenyent regard therof maynteynyth the 220 
same. For thys ys troth, as hyt ys commynly sayd, yf p. says if 

every man would 

euery maw wold mewd one, yf euery maw wold cure one, cure one, 

as he schold dow, we schold haue a veray true commyn we should have 

wele. But now, were as many, blyndyd wyth the loue wealth. 

of themselfe, regard tbeyr partycular wele ouermuch, 225 

hyt ys necessary by polytyke personys, hauy??g regard 

of the co??zmyn wele, to correct and amend such blynd- 

nes and ouersyght growne in to many mewnys myndys 

by the iwordynate loue of tbemselfe ; lyke as phy- 

sycyonys now be necessary in cytes and townys, seing 230 

that mere co??imynly gyue themselfe to such iwordynat 

dyat, wheras, yf men wold gouerne themselfe soburly if men were 

by temperat dyat, then physycyonys were not to be re- physicians would 

i n , -ij-1 -n not be needed. 

quyryd ot necessyte m no commyre welth nor poilycy. 

And so, I say, yf euery maw wold goue?"ne on wel, no- 235 

thyng blyndyd "with the loue of hymselfe, you schold 

then see a true commyn wele. And thys hyt ys true, 

that euen lyke as ouermuch regard of partycular wele 

destroyth the commyn, so conuenyent and mean regard 

therof maynteynyth and settyth forward the same ; and 240 

in thys ther ys no cowtrouersye. Therfor let vs now, 

as we began, turne *agayne to seke out thys par- [*p ag e65.j 

tycular wele of euery pn'uate maw, that we may, as 

I sayd, therby come to our purpos. And for bycause 



245 many thyngys ther be wych are requyryd to the wele of 

euery maw, wych sondurly to reherse were ouerlong and 

Three things are no thyng necessary, therfor iij thyngys general I note 

needful to the , , , 

individual good, now to be spoken oi, by the wych hyt schal be esy to 
i. Health of vnderstond the rest : — And fyrst of them ys helthe of 


body, wych I note to be as foundatyon and ground of a 
251 grete parte of the wele of maw; for as much as yf hyt 
were so that maw had neuer so grete abuwdawce of al 
ryches and wordly substance ; neuer so grete no??zbur 
of gud and faythful frendys ; neuer so grete dygnyte 
and authoryte in hys cuwtrey ; yet, yf he lake helth, al 
256 thos thyngys to hym lytyl dow profyt, of them he 
takyth lytyl plesure, no thyng erthly to hym wythout 
for if a man be helth caw be plesaunt or delectabul. For yf he be 
sickness he trowblyd wyth any greuus sykenes, hys lyfe then to 

than Uve! hOT ^ n y m vs n °ther swete nor plesaunt, he rather then wold 
261 desyre to dye then to lyue ; so trowblus he ys bothe to 
He is unprofitable hym selfe and to hys frendys. He lyth then vnprofyta- 
and excluded bul to hys cuwtrey, and can to no maw dow gud, for he 
exercise^faii y s therby excludyd also from the vse and vtward exer- 
virtue. C y. ge a j mos ^ f a i vertue, by the wych hyt ys communyd 

266 to the profyt of other. And thought hyt be so that man 
by sykenes and bodyly infyrmyte be not vtturly ex- 
cludyd from hys gud purposys and vertues intentys, 
wyche God, that only lokyth in to the hartys of man, 
no les extymyth then the vtward dedys, yet the vt* 
[* Page 66.] * ward dedys and exercyse of vertue undowtydly makyth 
hyt more co??zme?idabul, plesaunt, and profytabul, both 
to hymselfe and to the world ; and, at the lest, no les 
plesaunt to God, whose gudnes man doth folow, when 
as much [as] he caw by vtward dedys he cowmunyth hys 
vertue to the profyt of other. Wherfor hyt apperyth 
277 that we may justely anyone bodyly helth to be the 
To health must ground and foundatyon of the wele of maw, to the 
strath and wych also must be couplyd, of necessyte, strenghth and 
beauty. beuty. For yf a man for the tyme haue neuer so gud 


helth, yet yf he haue not strenghth to maynteyne the For if a man have 
same, hyt wyl sone vanysch away, leuyng thys ground strength to 
Aveke and vnstabul ; therfor strenghth must be joynyd, will soon ^ lost. 
and beuty also. For yf the body haue neuer so gud 
helth, and coreuenyent powar and strenghth for the 285 
mayntenarece of the same, yet yf hyt be deformyd, yf 
the partys be not proporcy[o]nabul, one agreyng to 
another, accordyng to the orclur of nature, they be not 
so acceptabul nor plesaunt, nor the body hath not hys 
perfayt state and vertue. Also, aftur the se?ztence of the 290 
most wyse poete, yn a gudly body ys more [that ys] 
co?remewdabul, plesant, and acceptabul. Wherfor, to gratiorest 

pulehro, &c.l 

the perfayt state of the body, and veray wele therof, 

they must rure al iij joyntely togydur — both helth, in these three 

the perfect state 

strenghth, and beuty, to the wych al other vertues of ofthehody 

the body, as to the pryrecypallys and chefe, lyghtly 

ensue. And so in thes bodyly vertues and natural 297 

powarys, stondyth the fyrst poynt requyryd to the wele 

of euery partycular mare, aftur my mynd, except *you [* Page 67.] 

haue any thyng to say contrary to thys. 

10. Lvpse£. — No, Sir, I wyl not interrupt your l. says, 
cwremunycatyon now in the myddys, but when you haue y^, ^! 1 emip 
brought hyt to an end, I wyl then frely and playnly 303 
schow my mynd. 

11. PoZe. — "Wei, then, let vs go forward. The The 2nd point 
second poynt that marenys wele restyth in, ys ryches rests in Ms riches. 
and co?zuenyent aburedaunce of al wordly thyngys, mete 

to the mayntennarece of euery niarenys state, accordyng 308 

to hys degre. Thys ys to euery mare manyfest and playn ; if he have not 

n • -i .-1 i ^ it i_ iii these he shall 

tor m case be that mm haue a body neuer so helthy, suffer many cares> 
beutyful, and strong, yet yf he lake such thyngys as 
necessaryly be requyryd to the mayntenarece of hys 
state and degre, he schal be trowblyd in mynd wyth in- 
fynyte carys and myserabul though tys ; by cause he seth 
wel that, wythout them, thys bodyly wele wyl sone vade 315 
1 In margin of MS. 


316 and vanysch away. Besyd thys, yf a maw haue neuer so 

grete ryches and abumdaunce of tresore, yet yf he. lake 

children and chyldur and frendys in whome he may delyte, hy coni- 

friends are also 

necessary. munyng therof, they lytyl avayle, and be to hyni nother 

plesant nor swete ; wherfor, they be also requyryd to 
321 thys. And though hyt be so that supe?*fluouse ryches 
and oue?'grete abundance of thes wordly goodys be not 
requyryd necessaryly to the wele of maw, but rather be 
the destructyon therof, yet hyt ys many f est that the 

The lack of food lake of necessarys, for nuryschyng and clothyng of the 

and clothing is 

the cause of much body, ys the sure and certayn cause of infynyte myserys 
[* Page 68.] and manyfold wrechydnes. *Lyke as the cowuenyent 

wretchedness ; -. ■> n ,-, e L -\ -\ i i^i 

while abundance, aou?zdaunce ol the same, yi they be wel vsyd, ys the 

cln^ou"^*^ occasyon of puttyng in exercyse many honest and 

virtues. vertuse affectys of niawnys mynd, wych els schold be 

coueryd and clokyd and neuer come to lyght, but 

stoppyd and let by penury and pouerty, no?i other wyse 

333 then they be by bodyly syknes and infyrmyte. Therfor 

we may now of thys ryght wel perceyue, that thes ex- 

teryor and wordly thyngys in coraienyent abuwdaunce 

are not wythout cause, in the second place, requyiyd 

to the wele of euery partycular maw, as such thyngys 

338 wythout whome no mare can haue hys most prosperouse 


The third and (H-) The thryd poynt now remeynyth, wych al be 

most important, iip-iiipij. j. i 7ip j. 

though least hyt o± hyt selte hyt ys most prywcypal and cheie, as to 

isffnaturT the wvcn tlie y other are to De referryd, yet hyt ys lest 

virtufofThe regardyd and lest had in mynd. That ys, the natural 

mind - honesty and vertue of the mynd. For co??zmynly hyt ys 

a man with seen that yf a maw haue helth and ryches, [he] ys then of 

is counted al mew jugyd happy and fortunate, lykyng no welth, 

heaver dream though he neue?* dreme of vertue ; so lytyl count ys had 

of virtue. therof. How be hyt, the troth ys thys, that lyke as the 

349 soule fer passyth and excellyth the body, ye, and al 

other wordly thyngys, so doth they vertues of the 

mynd, in the same ordur and degre, passe and excelle al 


vertues and powarys of ther body, and al other But the truth is, 

the virtues of the 

and wordly tresore, as thos thyngys wych be chefely mind excel ail 

i a j virtues and 

and aboue al other to be extymyd and regardyd. And powers of the 

thought hyt be so that mare, by corrupt jugement, con- ^loniTmfJL 

trary extyme them, and wythout the other regard them the body - 

not at al, yet they, of theyr owne nature, are no les to 357 

be extymyd, *no les to be regardyd ; wych ys to al them C* Page 69.] 

euydent and playn wych be not yet blyndyd wyth in- 

ordynat affectys, and haue not lost the ryght jugement 

of thyngys, wych ys the cause of al errorys and mys- 361 

chefys that commynly happurenyth in inarenys lyfe. For 

what avaylyth to haue helth, beuty, and strenghth of of what avail 

are health, 

body, to hym wych care not vse them to the end by beauty, 
nature and reson appoyntyd 1 What avaylyth hyt to riches, 

i i, 71 n-Lj J.V to a man who 

haue ryches, tresore, and al wordly aburedarece, to hym cannot use them ? 

wych care not by wysdome vse them to hys owne welth 

and to the profyt of other 1 Wythout fayle, no thyng. 368 

We see dayly in commyn experyence (we nede not to 

seke for reson or exampul to proue and corefyrme hyt) 

that ryches, authoryte, and wordly aburedaunce, to them Riches to those 

who cannot use 

whych caw not vse them, be playn destructyon. Wher- them are 
fore they, of themselfys, be not to be extymyd but in 
ordur to vertue. Helth ys not to be extymyd to thys in- 374 
teret, that therby wyth more lyberty and plesure you 
may haue the vse of al vayn joys and past-tymys 
wordly ; but to thys end and purpos only, that by your 
helth of body you may more coreuenyently vse al honest Health is to he 
and vertuese exercyse of the mynd, both to the com- mind's sake, 

t , n in 7i^> p i 7 and for the good 

modyte ot yourselle and also ol your ireredys and cure- f your f r ienc!s 
trey. Aftur thys maner helth ys to be extymyd as the g"^" 1 
ground and furedatyon, accordyng, as I sayd befor, of 
the wele and prosperouse state of eue?y mare. Lykewyse, 383 
ryches and wordly aburedance ys not to be regardyd to Riches and 

i • il i-Lj jii i -u. ,1 n abundance are to 

thys intent, that mare therby may haue * the vse oi vayn [* p age 70.] 
and traresytory plesures, but only to thys purpos, that ^ants 3 , ' y 
by them he may fyrst satysfy hys owne necessyte, and 


and to help the so aftur succur and helpe them wych haue nede and be 

needy and such . , . 

as are in misery, in mysery. Aftur thys maner also they are to he extymycl, 

euer referryng them to vertue as to theyr end and pur- 

pos wy they are to he desyryd, and, as the chefe poynt 

392 of the felycyte, wele, and prosperouse state of maw, 

wythout the wych they other no thyng avayle, other he 

Virtue alone can the destructyon of ma«. For vertue only hyt ys that 

show the right 

use of health and schowyth vs the ryght vse and streght, both of helth, 


strenghth, and heuty, of ryches, and of al other -wordly 
397 abuwdaunce ; and tra??sytory vertue hyt ys that techyth 
vs al honest behauyour bothe toward God and maw. As, 
by exampul, relygyously to honower and worschype God, 
as Maker, Gouernor, and Eular of thys word, and bro- 
therly to loue euery maw iche other, wyth al ryghtwyse 
and just delyng togyddur. 
403 (11.) Wherfor hyt caw not be dowtyd, yf we wyl 
extyme thyngys in ryght ordur and degre, but that 
virtue is the vertue ys the chefe poynt of al thes thre. For yf hyt 
and nothing can' were so that a man had most prosperouse state of body, 
wyth helth, strenghth, and beuty; ye, and yf he had 
if a man have also al abuwdaunce of wordly godys and ryches, yet 
without pleasure yf he had not also the streyght and ryght vse of the 
and receives' only same, he schal not only take of them no profyt nor 
destruction frute, but he schal also haue nother plesure nor cowfort 

therby ; but rather hurt, da??^mage, and vttur destruc- 
413 tyon. And thos thyngys wych of themselfe and of theyr 
owne nature be gud, schalbe to hym, for lake of gud 
.vse, noyful and yl. And lykewyse, yf a maw had al 
Riches without the ryches and powar of the world, wyth al other pros- 

religion and 

honour towards peryte therof, yet, yf hys mynd were not ryghtly set 

[* Page 71.] wyth relygyouse * honour toward God, and wyth honest 

pro . an( ^ j ug j. tjghauyour toward maw, al that schold no 

thyng avayle, no thyng profyte. So that thys ys now 

421 certayn, that they ij fyrst poyntys, wythout thys thryd 

couplyd therto, rather hyndur and hurt, then ayd and 

set forth, the wele and prosperouse state of eue?y prmate 


man; but when they al be joynyd togyddur, — helth, The man who 

has health, 

strenghth, and beuty of body ; ryches and abundaunce of strength, 

and beauty of 

such wordly godys as be necessary to the mayntenance body, riches 

j? J.T. j.j.1? j.i?j.i jt_ j.1- a nd abundance. 

ot the state ol maw ; vertue oi the mynd schowyng the and a]1 due 
streygh[t] vse of the same ; wyth al honest and dew be- g^m man 
hauyour bothe toward God and- mare, — then surely that is in a most 

" prosperous state. 

man, who so euer he be, hath hye welth and most pro- 
sperouse state and felycyte, conuenyent to the nature of 
ma?i and to hys dygnyte. And so thus, Master Lvpset, 
now I thynke you se wherin stondyth the wele of eue?y 433 
partycular man ; out of the wych Ave must now seke out 
and enserch the veray true co?nmyn wele, seyng that we 
haue therby thus found the best mean, and, as hyt 
apperyth to me, the ryghtyst way therto. 

1 2. ItVpsef. ' — Syr, you say wel. How be hyt, bycause l. says, You say 
thys ys the ground, as me sernyth, of the rest of our we ' 
co??*munycatyon, I wyl not let hyt pas vnsure, for as 440 
much as hyt apperyth yet to me some thyng strange, but it seems 
For yf hyt be thus as you conclude, that the wele and we ai of every 

„•.,/. ,-. , ,-■_ . ,■■ . ... man consists 

felycyte ot euery partycular man restyth m thos nj i n these three 

poyntys, wych you haue declaryd couplyd togyddur, pomts ' 

then few ther be that haue wele, few wych be in p?-o- then but few 

sperouse state and felycyte ; the most parte of mankynd 

ys excludyd from hyt. For by thys reson, yf a ma?i be 447 

fallen * in to any grete sykenes or febulnes of body, or [* p age 72.] 

by any iniury of fortune be cast in to grete pouerty ; or 

yf hys chyldur or frendys haue any myschaunce, then — 

be he neuer so vertuse, honest, and gud ; be he as per- 

fayt as euer was Sayn Poule — yet he ys not in wele nor 452 

in pmsperouse state and felycyte ; wych ys contrary to the it is contrary 

to the opinion of 

opynyon of many gret wyse men, wych euer haue gyuen many wise men, 
thys powar to vertue, that hyt doth not only kepe man ^, at V irt Ue keeps 
from mysery, but hyt doth also set hym in hye felycji;e. muery^nd 1 
In so much that yf man were fallen in to neuer so grete ™* ]ies . him 
syknes or pouerty, or otherwyse trowblyd by the stormys 
' MS Le* 


459 of fortune in aduersyte, wych by no wysdome he caw 
avoyd ; yet, so long as he patyently sufifryth them and 
cowtewtyth hys mynd wyth hys present state, euer com- 
fortyng hymselfe wyth vertuse purposys ; so long, I say, 

463 hyt caw not be denyd but that he ys in wele and fely- 
ami to this agrees cyte. To thys, me semyth, agreth al the doctryne of our 

the doctrine of 

Christ. Master Chryst, wych callyth them blessyd wych be euer 

in wordly aduersyte, patyently suffrywge * hyt for Hys 

sake ; and, contrary, thos wych be in wordly prosperyte, 

468 he notyth to be myserabul and wrechyd. Of thys al 

Scrypture ys ful. Hyt nedyth not to bryng in any p«r- 

tycular place for the testymony therof, seyng that al 

sownyth therto. Al Chrystys dyscypullys and apostyllys 

were sympul and pore, hauyng no wordly prosperyte ; 

473 and yet I thynke you wyl not say that they were in 

t* Page 73.] *mysery, but, contrary, that they were in hye felycyte. 

wherefore these "Wherfor hyt apperyth that your iij poyntys couplyd to- 

not required. gyddur are not requyryd of necessyte to the wele of 

euery partycular maw ; specyally cowsyderyng that, by 

478 that mean, the most parte of ma??kynd schold be ex- 

cludyd from theyr wele and felycyte, wych can not at- 

tayn to wordly ryches and hye phylosophy. 

p. owns these 13. Po?e. — Wei, Master ~Lvpset, you euer bryng in 

the purpose, some regyd knottys in co?nmunycatyon. But yet by- 

eLmfnation cause they be somewhat to our purpos, we schal not let 

them slype vtturly vnexamynyd. And, fyrst, you schal 

485 vnderstond, for the ground of your dowte, that we may 

perceyue wherof hyt sprange, that, accordyng to the 

dyuersyte of opynyonys wych mew haue had of the 

nature of maw, so varyabul sentence were taken of 

some have said hys felycyte and wele. Some sayd that ma?i was 

the soul is man : 

no thyng els but hys resonabul soule, for as much as 

491 that ys the thyng wherby maw ys maw, and not a 

brute best ; and that the body ys no thyng but as an 

instrument or vessel of the same. To whome hyt was 

1 MS. fuffryrage. 


cowuenyent to say that so long maw hatlie hys hye 494 
felycyte and wele as the soule was instructe wyth 
such vertues as he accordyng to hyr dygnyte ; notwyth- 
stondyng that the "body were trowhlyd wyth syknes, 
pouerty, and al other callyd wordly aduersyty, wych no 
thyng touchy d the nature of the soule ; and so hy theyr 499 
opynyon vertue had euer couplyd wyth hyr hye *fely- [* Page 74.] 
cyte. Other ther were, more agreyng to the commyn others, that soul 

and body united 

reson of maw, wych sayd that maw ys not only the soule, make man; 

in so much that he ys made of hyt, hut as one chefe 

and pryrccypal parte, hut a certayn nature wych rysyth 504 

of the vnyon and comunctyon of the hody and soule 

togyddur. "Wherfor to them hyt was comienyent to say 

that the wele of ma»i restyth, not only in the mynd and 

the vertues therof, hut in the hody also, and in the pros- 

perouse state of the same ; wych, aftur myn opynyon, ys and this, 

veray truth, yf Ave loke to the most perfayt state that u true. 

man may haue. For though hyt he so that vertue euer 511 

defendyth mamnys mynd from mysery, and euer hath 

joynyd therto felycyte, yet, me semyth, hyt ys not in Felicity in the 

the most perfayt state, hyt ys not in the hyest degre, can only spring 

except therto he couplyd wordly prosperyte. For thys [voridiy"" 6 and 

ys certayn, that the mynd of m&?i then more floryschyth, P ros P erit y : 

more reioycyth, and hath more wele, when frely, wyth- because then man 

out any impedyme?zt, other of hody or iniury of fortune, impediment 

hyt exercysyth vertues actys, and spredyth hyr heamys m ind. ° ° * ° r 

to the lyght and comfort of many other. Wherfor, 

though vertus purpos and honest intent he suffycyent, 521 

not only to defend a man fvom mysery, hut also to co?z- 

serue and kepe hys mynd in felycyte ; yet, aftur myn 

opynyon, for as much as the hody ys one parte of marc, 

*he hath neuer most hye felycyte nor most pe?-fayt [* Page 75.3 

state in the hyest degre, except the hody wyth the mynd Body and mind 

fiorysch also wyth hys vertues and al thyngys neces- together. 

sary for the mayntenarcce of the same. And thys, I 

thynke to he of truth, that to the most prosperOuse 529 


530 state al thes thyngys joyntly are requyryd ; albehyt hyt 
But n must not ys no thyng to be dowtyd but that man, stablyd and con- 
a man with fyrmyd wyth pe?-fayt and sure hope, may rygbt wel 

hope may attain attayne, in the lyfe to come, to the most hye felycyte, 
ii h fefo U come° fthe thoughe he be here trowblyd wyth al wordly aduersyte, 
with^adversuy d wner °f by foly and neclygence he hymselfe ys not the 
here ' cause ; but yf he patyently suffur hyt for the loue of 

537 God, hyt ys as a mean to the attaynyrcg therof. And 
lyke wyse wordly felycyte and prosperouse state in thys 
lyfe present, excludyth not man fro?/i the most hye fely- 
cyte of the lyfe to come, but rather, yf he vse hyt wel, 
541 hyt ys also a mean wherby he the bettur may attayne 
to the same. But forbycause wordly p?*osperyte ys so 
ful of manyfold peryllys and daungerys, by the wych a 
neclygent mynd ys sone oppressyd, and, as hyt ys com- 

it is difficult to mynly sayd, hard hyt ys to haue heuyn here and els- 
have heaven here .-i^ 7 r. i i_pt 

and elsewhere. were ; therior few ther be, and lew eue?* haue byn found, 

wych wel to that end coude vse thys wordly pwsperyte, 

some judge n to in so much that hyt ys of many wyse men jugyd much 

prosperity wen, harder to be wel to vse wordly prosperyte, then pa- 

adversity. cyently t° suffur and here al wordly aduersyte. For the 

f * Page 7G.1 wych cause * I thynke our Mastur Chryst chose, for the 

552 most p«?*te, hys dyscypullys of that sort wych were 

tossyd in wordly aduersyte, and few of them wych in- 

yoyd wordly prosperyte ; schowyng vs how hard hyt 

was to vse that wel, and coupul therto hys celestyal 

Christ said, and heuywly doctryne. Therfor he sayth that nother they 

shall they that wych haue theyr hartys fyxyd in the loue of ryches of 

iavenc es, c., ^y S wor i(i nother they wych haue theyr myndys 

559 droAvnydin the vayn plesurysof thys lyfe, may attayne 

to the plesure and. felycyte of the kyngdome of heuyn 

but He does not and lyfe to come. But yet, as I sayd, he excludyth not 

from the life to them wych euer here theyr myndys vpryght in the 

streyght vse of the same. And, forbycause the thyng ys 

of bo grete hardnes and dyffyculty, few you schal fynd 

565 in al Holy Scrypture, wych wel dyd vse thys wordly 


prosperyte; for the wych purpos, as I thynke, many men 566 

of gret wysedome and vertue flye from liyt, settyng some retire from 

themselfe in relygyouse housys, ther quyetly to seme 

God and kepe theyr myndys vpryght wyth les jopardy. 

Wych thyng surely ys not amys downe of them wych and it is not 

amiss of them ; 

perceyue theyr owne irabecyllyte and wekenes, prone 

and redy to he oppressyd and ouerthrowne, wyth thes 572 

comune and quyat plesurys of the world, "by whome 

they see the most parte of mawkynd drownyd and ouer- 

comyn. How be hyt, me semyth, they dow lyke to fere- but ther are 

ful schypmett, wych, for drede of stormys and trowblus who, for dr'ead 

sees, kepe themselfe in the hauen, and dare not co?wmy t nevei . leax ! e the 

themselfys to the daungeronse tempestys of the same. haven - 

But, lyke as he that, in *gret tempest and trowblus tyme, [* page 77.] 

gouemyth wel hys schype and co?zuehyth hyt at the 

last to the hauen and place appoyntyd of hys course, 581 

ys callyd a gud and experte maryner, and much more 

prayse-worthy, then he wych for fere and dred kepyth 

hymselfe in the hauen styl ; so he wych in daungerouse He who does Ms 

, n -1 P P -, duty in all 

prosperyte, so iul 01 so many occasyonys 01 errorys and p er ii S) j S a wise 
dowyng amys, gouernyth hys mynd wel, and kepyth man ' 
hyt vpryght, ys justely to be callyd most perfayt and 587 
wyse man ; ye, and much more desemyth and of more and better than 
prayse ys worthy then he wych, for fere of the same himself in a 

-, , 1 • , 1 1 , -1 religious house. 

daungerys, ruraiyth m to a relygyouse house, ther as in 
a hauyn quyetly to rest, wyth out so much trowbul and 
dysquyetnes. Thys I say, bycause you schal not thynke 592 
that such as lyue in p?'6>sperous state of thys lyfe present 
are therby excludyd from the felycyte of the lyfe to 
come ; but rather when prosperyte ys wel vsyd, hyt ys 
a mean to set maraiys mynd in that state, wherby he 596 
schal attayne hyar felycyte. 

(13.) And so now to retorne to your dowte, Though a man 
Master Lvpse£, thus I say: — That though hyt be so attain heaven?^ 
that maw, beyng here in thys lyfe present trowblyd notexdude^to, 
wyth al wordly adue?'syte, may vndowtydly, by patyent 601 


602 suffrawce of the same, in the lyfe hereaftur attayne 

to the most hye felycyte, yet, seyng that by no wordly 

prosperyte he ys excludyd from the same, hyt may 

[* Page 78.] not [be] dowtyd but that the most prosperouse state * of 

prosperous state man stondyth in the vertues of the mynd conplyd wyth 

ana worldly wordly prosperyte. And, albehyt that few ther be wych. 

piospen y. attayne therto, yet bycause hyt ys cowuenyent to the 

609 dygnyte of maw, and some ther be wych attayne therto, 

the thyng ys not vtturly to be taken away, nor vtturly 

to be denyd fro?w the nature of maw. Suffycyent hyt ys 

that no maw by nature ys excludyd from felycyte, though 

al men can not attayne to the hyest degre therof. And 

if we regard so, yf we haue regard of the soule only, callyng hyt, 

aftur the mynd of Plato, the veray man, wherof the 

616 body ys but as a pryson ; and yf we also haue regard 

and only the only of the lyfe to come, despysyng, aftur the doctryne 

life to come, 

of Chryst, the vayne plesurys of thys present lyfe ; 
man may, even then hyt ys trothe, as you thought, that maw, though 

in adversity, 

attain felicity; he be trowblyd wyth al wordly aduersyte, yet may 
but if we regard ryght wel attayne to hye felycyte. But, contrary, yf we 

the body also, ini in -ipi-ii 

haue regard not only of the soule, but also oi the body, 

623 saying wiih Arystotyl, that maw ys the vnyon and cow- 

iuwctyon togyddur of them both ; and yf Ave haue re- 

and the present gard also, not only of the lyfe to come, but also of the 

life also, 

then felicity in lyfe present ; then hyt ys true that I say, that felycyte 

the highest 

degree is not in the hyest degre ys not wythout wordly prosperyte- 

prosperity. Thus, "Master Lvpse^, the thyng dyuersly cowsyderyd 

629 makyth betwyx vs to appere cowtrouersy, lyke as hyt 

hath downe euer betwyx the old phylosopharys ; among 

whome the chefe, as Arystotyl and Plato, euer in the 

truth dow agre, and only the maner of cowsyderyng 

[•Page 79.] "*the thyngys wherof they dyspute makyth to appere 

betwyx them co?itrouersy. 

l. thinks this 14. Master "Lvpset.— Syr, therin I thynke you say 

truth, for dyuerse cowsycleratyon hathe euer made dy- 

637 nerse opynyon, and I am glad that both we say truth. 


But yet of one tliyng I somewhat marvayle, that in the 638 
felycyte of maw you put dyuerse degres, to some attry- But can there 

be degrees of 

butyng more, and to some les. Me seruytn felycyte ys felicity? 
the most perfayt state, wych aclmyttyth no degre ; for 
no thyng can be more perfayt than that wych ys most. 
Wherfor I can not see how they, wych to vertue haue 643 
couplyd also wordly prosperyte, schold yet haue hyar 
felycyte then they wych, wythout that, haue only ver- 
tue, the wych, yf hyt be so, you then agre that vertue 
alone gyuyth nian felycyte. 

15. Po/e. — You schal marvayle no thyng at thys yf 648 

you wyl reme?nbyr what we haue sayd before. Yf man p. says if man 
be the soule only, then vertue only gyuyth to man hye an d body, 
felycyte ; but yf he be both togyddur, the soide and vj^eand 
the body, then you see hyt dothe not so. But many p r * 1ty g ains 
other thyngys are requyryd therto, by the reson wherof ^'"rf i^manwere 
felycyte admyttyth degres ; and some haue more wele, soul onI * v - 
and some les; and he, as I sayd, hath most prosperouse 655 
state and hyest felycyte, wych hath wyth vertue couplyd 
al wordly p?-osperyte ; and thys ys, wythout fayle, most 
*conuenyent to the nature of man. So that now I [* Page so.] 
thynke hyt ys clere wherin stondyth the felycyte and in tins is man's 
wele of euery partycular man, by the wych now, as a 
ground and foundatyon leyd, we schal procede to the 
rest of our communycatyon. 

16. Jivpset. — Sir, let vs dow so now, I pray you, 663 
for therin now I dowte no more. 

17. PoZe. — Fyrst, thys ys certayn, that lyke as in p. compares the 
euery man ther ys a body and also a soule, in whose 
floryschyng and prosperouse state bothe togyddur 
stondyth the wele and felycyte of man ; so lyke wyse 668 

ther ys [in] euery commynalty, cyty, and cuntrey, as 
hyt were, a polytyke body, and another thyng also re- 
semblyng the soule of ma??, in whose floryschyng both 
togyddur restyth also the true commyn wele. Thys 
body ys no thyng els but the multytude of pepul, the T1 'e pe°p'e are 


674 nombur of cytyzyns, in euery co?nmynalty, cyty, or 

curetrey. The thyng wych ys resemblyd to the soule ys 

and civil order is cyuyle ordur and polytyke law, admynystryd by offycers 

and rularys. For lyke as the body in euery maw re- 

ceyuyth hys lyfe by the vertue of the soule, and ys 

679 gouernyd therby, so dothe the multytude of pepul in 

euery curetrey receyue, as hyt were, cyuyle lyfe by lawys 

wel admynystryd by gud offycerys and wyse rularys, 

by whome they be gouernyd and kept in polytyke 

ordur. Wherfor the one may, as me semyth, ryght 

[♦Page 8i.] wel * be co??zparyd to the body, and the other to the 


686 18. "Lvpset. — Thys symylytud lykyth me wel. 

p. says the good 19. Po?e. — Then let ys go forth wyth the same, and 

arises from three we schal fynd, by and by, that lyke as the wele of euery 

mare sounderly by hymselfe rysyth of the iij prywcypal 

thyngys befor declaryd, so the commyn wele of euery 

691 cu?ztrey, cyte, or towne, semblably rysyth of other iij 

thyngys proporcyonabul and lyke to the same, in the 

wych al other partycular thyngys are comprehendyd. 

And the fyrst of them, schortly to say, stondyth in helth, 

i. From the nurn- strenghth, and beuty of thys body polytyke and mul- 

ber of its people. 

tytude of pepul, wherin restyth the ground, and, as hyt 
No matter how were, the fundatyon of the commyn wele. For yf the 

rich and fertile it 

maybe, if the curetrey be newer so rych, fertyl, and plenty ful of al 
many or too few, thyngys necessary and plesaunt to mawnys lyfe, yet yf 

oppressed 5 any ther be ° f P e P ul other to feW OT to man y \ °r yf they 

Tp'rosperity^ 6 te ' as h ^ t were ' et y n awa J> da yty deuouryd and con- 

sumyd by co?nniyn syknes and dysease ; ther ca?i be no 

703 ymage nor schadow of any commyn wele, to the wych 

fyrst ys requyryd a comienyerct multytude and conue- 

nyently to be nuryschyd ther in the cuwtrey. For 

Multitude of where as ther be other to many pepul in the cuwtrey, 


in so much that the cuwtrey by no dylygerece nor labur 
708 of mara may be suffycyent to nurysch them and mynys- 
1 In margin of MS. 


tur them fode, ther wythout dowte care be no coraniyn 709 
wele, but euer myserabul* penury and wrechyd pou- [*Page8».] 

. „. , but ever miser- 

erty. Lyke as yf ther he ol pepul oueriew, msomucn a bie penury and 
that the ciuztrey may not he wel tyllyd and occupyd, 
nor craftys wel and dylygently exercysyd, ther schal 
.also sprynge therof grete penury and scasenes of al 714 
ihyngys necessary for marenys lyfe ; and so then cyuyle 
lyfe and true comnryn wele caw ire no case he ther 
maynteynyd. Wherfor a corcuenyent multytude mete There must be a 

n ,, , , T , ,, population suited 

tor the place, in euery curetre and commynalty, as the to the place, 
mater and ground of the commyn wele, ys fyrst to he 719 
requyryd of necessyte. 

(19.) Ferther, also, though the norabur of pepul Heithofthe 


were neuer so mete to the place, cyty, or towne, yet Further, if the 
yf they floryschyd not in hodyly helth, hut commynly "Sie^t lack 
were vexyd wyth greuus syknes and coretagyouse dys- heaUh ' andare 

J » ° • °« « consumed by 

ease, by the reson wherof the pepul schold he con- sickness, there 

' J r r cannot be 

sumyd, no ma?i could say ther to he any coramyn wele. prosperity. 

But lyke as euery party cular marc in hodyly sykenes, 727 

and in such specyally wherof he hymselfe ys cause, 

lakkyth the most prosperouse state, so dothe euery 

curetrey, cyty, and towne, lyke wyse afFecte and dys- 

posyd, want much of hys perfayt cowzmyn wele. Ther- 

for, to thys multytude of pepul and poly tyke hody, 732 

fyrst, as ground and furcdatyon of the rest of hys wele, 

ys requyryd a certayn helthe, wych also hy strenghth 

must he * maynteynyd. For lyke as the hody, yf hyt [*ragess.] 

They are like the 

he not strong, sone hy vtward occasyonys, as hy ire- body, which, if 

it be not healthy 

•temperance oi ayr, la bur, and trauayle, ys oppressyd and strong, is soon 

and ouerthrowne, and so losythe hys helth ; so dothe the overthrown? 

multytude of pepul in euery cuntrey, cyty, or towne, 

sone, hy warrys and iniury of ennemys, wythout 740 

strenghth, lose hys welth and sone ys oppressyd and 

brought in to mysery and wrechyd captyuyte. Wher- The body poUtie 

i-i-iT t i i must have 

for to thys polytyke hody strenght ys also requyryd, strength as wen 
1 In margin of MS. 


as health, or it wythout the wych hys helth 'long can not be mayn- 

must of necessity 

decay. teynyd ; out, schortly, of necesstye hyt must dekay. 

strenghtofthe Thys strenglith stondyth in thys poynt chefely — so to 

kepe and maynteyne euery parte of thys body, that they 

748 proraptely and redyly may dow that thyng wych ys re- 

a man's body is quyryd to the helthe of the hole. Lyke as we say, then 

said to be strong, u J J J "" 

when every part euery mawnys body to be strong, when euery parte can 

can perform its 

functions quickly execute quykly and wel hys offyce determyd by the 
heart is strong ordur of nature; as the hart then ys strong when he, 
membersTand " as fountayn of al natural powarys, mynystrytti them 

SoTe^strong W J th deW 0rdur to al ° tller \ and the 7 ^^ ^ Strong 

receu-e'and i«e w h en they be apte to receyue ther powar of they hart, 
the power sent an g can vse j^ accordyng to the ordur of nature : as 

from the heart. J J o > 

the ye to see, the yere to here, the fote to go, and hand 

[* Page 84.] to hold and rech ; * and so lyke wyse of the rest. Aftur 

such maner the strenghth of thys polytyke body stondyth 

760 in euery pa?*te beyng abul to dow hys offyce and duty; 

for thys body hath hys pa7'tys, wych resembyl also the 

' lhe Pf i r t ^ ,s rl of i the P fW 'ty s of the body of ma)j, of the wych the most 

general to our purpos be thes — the hart, hede, handys, 

The heart of a and fete. The hart therof ys the kyng, prywce, and rular 


is the king or of the state, whether so euer hyt be one or many, ac- 
cordyng to the gouernaftce of the commynalty and poly- 
767 tyke state ; for some be gouernyd by a pryrcce alone, 
some by a cowseyl of certayn wyse mew, and some by 
the hole pepul togyddur, as here aftur, when occasyon 
requyryth, more playnly I wyl schow. But now to our 
purpos. He or they wych haue authoryte apon the hole 
772 state rygh[t] wel may be resemblyd to the hart. For lyke 
As ail natural as al wyt, reson, and sens, felyng, lyfe, and al other 

power springs 

from the heart, so natural powar, spryngyth out of the hart, so from the 

miers come all pryrccys and rularys of the state co?ramyth al lawys, ordur 

policy. ' " and pollycy, al justyce, vertue, and honesty, to the rest 

The head, eyes, f thys polytyke body. To the hede, wyth the yes, yerys, 

the under and other sensys therin, resemblyd may be ryght wel the 


1 In margin of MS. 


vnder offycerys by pryncys appoyntyd, for as much as 

they schold euer obserue and dylygently wayte for the 

wele of the rest of thys body. *To the handys are re- [*Page85j 

semblyd bothe craftysnien and warryarys wych defend craftsmen and 

the rest of the body from iniury of ennymys vtward, hands; 

and worke and make thyngys necessary to the same. To 784 

the fete, the plowmen and tyllarys of the ground, bycause ploughmen the 


they, by theyr labur, susteyne and support the rest of 
the body. Thes are the most general partys of thys 
polytyke body, wych may justely be resemblyd aftur the 788 
maner declaryd to thos chefe partys in mannys body. 
Now, as I sayd, the strenghth of thes partys altogyddur 
ys of necessyte requyryd, wythout the wych the helth 
of the hole ca?z not long be maynteynyd. 

(19.) And ferthermore, yet though thys polytyke 793 
body be helthy and strong, yet yf hyt be not beutyful, Beuty of the 

polytyk body, i 

but foule deformyd, hyt lakyth a pa?'te of hys wele (i In margin .; 
and prosperouse state. Thys beuty also stondyth in ah these must 

be in due 

the dew proportyon of the same partys togyddur, so proportion, 

that one parte euer be agreabul to a nother in forme 798 

and fascyon, quantyte and nombur ; as craftysruen and 

plowmen in dew nombur and proportyon wyth other 

partys, accordyng to the place, cyty, or towne. For 

yf ther be other to many or to few of one or of the because if there 

, n . . . , i r- are to° many or 

other, ther ys in the commynalty a grete deformyte ; too few, 
and so lyke wyse of the other partys. Wherfor the deformity, 
dew proportyon of one parte to a nother must be 
obseruyd, and therin stondyth the corporal beuty 806 
chefely of thys polytyk body. And so in thes iij 
thyngys, couplyd togyddur, stondyth, wythout fayle, 
the wele *and prosperouse state of the multytude in [*Page86.] 
euery commynalty, wych, as you now se, iustely may 
be resemblyd to the body of euery partycular maw. 811 
And yet ferther to procede in thys symylytud. Lyke 
as the wele of the body, wythout ryches and con- 
uenyent abundance of thyngys necessary, can not con- 





Vectigalia et 

2. There must be 
abundance of 

necessaries and 
friends ; 


for if a country 
be ever so well 
•replenished with 
yet if it lack 
necessaries, it 
cannot prosper. 

Poverty is the 
mother of envy 
and malice, 
dissension and 


If the country- 
lack the friend- 
ship of those 
living near, 
Amici socij 
recip[roci] ? I 
but is surrounded 
by foes, it cannot 

[* Page 87.] 


Lawys and poly- 
tyk ordur.' 

8. Good order 
and good laws 
are required, 
for without these 
all other advan- 
tages are useless. 

tinue nor be maynteynyd, so thys multytude wych 
we cal the polytyke body, wythout lyke abund- 
aunce of al thyngys necessary, can not florysche in 
most pe?-fayt state. "Wherfor thes exteryor thyngys 
— frendys, ryches, and abundance of necessarys — are 
iustely, in the second place, to be requyryd to the 
mayntenance of thys true co?wmyn wele wych we now 
serche. For yf a cuwtrey be neuer so wel replenyschyd 
wyth pep ul, helthy, strong, and beutyful, yet yf theyr 2 
be lake of necessarys, hyt can not long prosper ; ther 
wyl schortly grow in al kynd of mysery, for grete 
pouerty in any curttrey hathe euer couplyd gret mysery. 
Sche ys the mother of enuy and malyce, dyssen- 
syon and debate, and many other myschefys ensnyng 
the same. Wherfor, wythout necessarys no cuwtrey can 
florysch ; ye, and yf ther be no lake of necessarys for 
the sustena?2ce of the pepul, but grete abundance of 
ryches and of al thyngys necessary and plesaunt for 
ma??,nys lyfe, yet yf the same cuwtrey lake the frenschype 
of other joynyd therto, and be inuyrownyd and com- 
passyd aboute wyth ennemys and fowys, lying euer in 
wayte to spoyle, robbe, and destroy the same, I can not 
see how that cuwtrey can long * florysch in prosperyte. 
Wherfor the frenschype of other cuwtreys ys no les re- 
quyryd then ryches and aburcdaunce of other thyngys 
necessary. And so in thes thyngys joynyd togyddur 
restyth the second poynt requyryd to the wele of euery 

(19.) The thryd — wych ys chefe and pry?zcypal of al 
— ys the gud ordur and pollycy by gud lawys stablyschyd 
and set, and by hedys and, rularys put in effect ; by the 
wyche the hole body, as by reson, ys gouemyd and 

1 In margin of MS. 

2 The following is written in the margin, but there is no 
sign to show where it should be inserted : — as frendys to 
may[n]teyne the state, or els by ennymys they schortly may 
be oppressyd. 


rulyd, to the intent that thys miiltytude of pepul and 

hole commynalty, so helthy and so welthy, hauyng cort- 

uenyent aburcdaunce of al thyngys necessary for the 

mayntenarace therof, may wyth dew honowr, reuerewce, 850 

and lone, relygyously worschype God, as fountayn of al 

gudnes, Maker and Gouernower of al thys world ; euery Every one must 

one also dowyng hys dnty to other wyth brotherly loue, "ve and doni" y 

one louyng one a nother as membrys and partys of one uty; 

body. And that thys ys of the other poyntys most chefe 855 

and pryrccypal hyt ys euydent and playne ; for what 

avaylyth hyt in any cuwtrey to haue a multytude neuer because muiti- 

so helthy, beutyful, and strong, wych wyl folow no and abundance 

cyuyle nor polytyke ordur, but euery one, lyke wyld "J^o^aii 

bestys drawen by folysch fantasy, ys lade by the same, jf^ 8 ^ 01 ,*. ^ ,u 

wythout reson and rule ? Or what avaylyth in any 

cuntrey to haue neuer so grete ryches cmcZ *abuwdaunce [* Page 88.] 

of al thyngys both necessary and plesant to mawnys lyfe, 863 

where as the pepul, rude, wythout polyty, caw not vse 

that same to theyr owne commodyte 1 "Wythout fayle, 

nothyng. But euen lyke as euery maw, hauyng helth, 

abumdaunce of ryches, frendys, dygnyte, and authoryte, 

wych lakyth reson and vertue to gouerne the same, euer and these good 

. , . _ i , , things will be 

abusyth them to hys owne destructyon ; so euery cuwtrey, abused to the 

. •,, j-iij-iT i it destruction of the 

cyty, and towne, though they be neuer so replenyschyd commonwealth, 
wyth pepul, hauyng al abundaunce of thyngys necessary 871 
and plesaunt to the mayntenarcce of the same, yet yf 
they lake gud ordur and pollytyke rule, they schal abuse 
al such commodytes to theyr owne destructyon and 
ruyne, and neuer schal attayne to any commyn wele ; 
wych, wythout cyuyle ordur and polytyke rule, cara 876 
neuer be brought to purpos nor effecte. 

20. IiVpset — Sir, I pray you here, before you pro- l. asks what 
cede any ferther in your communycatyon, — bycause hyt «ci°vii order" 
ys, as me semyth, much to our purpos, and much you mean " 
speke therof, — declare somewhat at large what thyng 881 
hyt ys that you so oft name and cal now " pollycy," 


883 now " cyuyle ordur," and now " polytyke rule ; " to 

the intent that I may the bettur vnderstond the rest of 

your coramunycatyon. 

p. promises -to 21. PoZe. — Master Jsvpset, you admonysch me now 

these pSsTt ryght welj for bothe here ys place now that thyng 

°"T* p "e 89 1 * *° ^ ow > an ^ ^ P rom y s yd hy t a lytyl befor. "Wherfor 

889 I "wyl g° about in some parte to satysfye your mynd 

There was a time and desyre. A tyme ther was, Master Lvpsetf, as we 

when men had . 

no cities, iynd m storys many and dyuerse, when maw, wythout 

no religion, cyty or towne, law or relygyon, wan[d]eryd abrode in 

Poiytyke lyfe.i the wyld feldys and wodys, now other wyse then you see 

but lived in now brute bestys to dow. At the wych tyme he was lad 

forests as beasts 

do now ; till and drawen wythout reson and rule by irayle fantasy 

some, considering -, . , , „ ™ , -. 1 . , T 

his dignity, and lwordynate l anectys, and so long corctynuyd, and 

hfwasTorrto msm J J ei 7 s > tvl at the last certayn mew of gret wytt 

??™ e * ing and pollycy, wyth perfayte eloquence and hye phylo[so]- 

phy, — cowsyderyng the excellent nature and dygnyte of 

900 maw, and perceyuyng ryght wel that he was borne and 

of nature brought forth to hyar perfectyon then he ap- 

persuaded him plyd hymselfe vnto, — began to persuade the rest of the 

rude life and pepul to forsake that rudnes and vncomly lyfe, and so 

to folow some ordur and cyuylyte. And fyrst of al to 

905 byld them certayn cytes and townys, wherto they myght 

assembul to theyr coramyn ayde, succur, and cowmodyte, 

avoydywg the daunger and peryl of the wyld bestys, by 

whome they were oft before deuouryd and destroyd. 

Then came Then, aftur, they deuysyd certayn ordyna?zce and lawys, 

ordinances and i -i .i i j. i_ i j. • ^ -i i j< i 

laws, but wherby they myght be somewhat mducyd to folow a 

911 lyfe cowuenyent to theyr nature and dygnyte. Thes 

lawys and ordynawce, at the fy[r]st begynnyng also, 

[* Page 90.] were vnperfayt and * somewhat rude, accordyng to the 

rude and imper- 

feet, like the tyme and nature of the pepul ; for hyt was not possybul 
selves! em " sodeynly, by exacte law and pollycy, to bryng such a 

1 In margin of MS. 

2 Although this word is not marked out, the word " vn- 
rulyd " is written above it. 


rude multytude to perfayt cyuylyte, but euer as the pe- 916 

pul, by processe of tyme, in vertue incresyd, so par- These things were 

a work of time, 

tycular lawys by polytyke mew were deuysyd. And thus 
in long tyme, by perfayt eloquence and hye phylosophy but by eloquence 
me» were brought, by lytyl and lytyl, from the rude men were brought 
lyfe in feldys and wodys, to thys cyuylyte, wych you now Stle'to canity. 
se stablyschyd and set in al welrulyd cytes and townys. 922 
Where as you see some gouernyd and rulyd by a kyng There were 

various kinds of 

or prynce, some by a co?nniyn consayl of certayn wyse government, 
men, and some by the hole body and multytude of pepul; gome by a council, 
and thus hyt was determyd, jugyd, and appoyntyd by whoiTbodyf * * 
wysdome and pollycy, that ever, accordyng to the nature g m *g^ a aS 
of the pepul, so, by one of thes polytyke manerys, they P articular people. ; 
schold be gouernyd, ordryd, and rulyd. For some pepul 929 
ther be to whome the rule of a prynce more agreth then 
a comniyn counseyl, as such as haue byn long vsyd ther- 
to, and be not gretly desyrouse of hye authoryte, but in 
pryuate lyfe are content to lyue quyetly. To other, con- 
trary, ys mor conuenyence [in] the rule of a coramyn coun- 934 
seyl, wych can in no case suffur the rule of one, for as 
much as euery one of them by theyr custume and na- 
ture, are desyrouse of frank lyberty and hye authoryte ; 
and so to them * ys bettur the rule of many. How be [* Page n.] 
hyt, thys euer ys certayn and sure, among al sortys and 
nature of pepul, whether the state of the commynalty be No matter what 

the form of 

gouernyd by a prynce, by certayn wyse men, or by the government may 
hole multytude, so long as they wych haue authoryte the p°eopi<f study 
mid rule of the state loke not to theyr owne syngular ptbi™™ood, the 
profyt, nor to the pri'uate wele of any one parte more lt; is good policy ' 
then to the other, but refer al theyr cons[e]yle, actys, 945 
and dedys to the commyn wele of the hole ; — so long, I 
say, the ordur ys gud, and dyrectyd to gud cyuylyte, 
and thys ys gud pollycy. But when they wych haue But it becomes 

tyranny when 

rule, corrupt wyth ambycyon, enuy, or malyce, or any the good of an 

iii«. -ii"i ,, ■. individual is 

other lyke afiecte, loke only to theyr owne syngular sought, 
wele, plesure, and profyt, then thys gud ordur ys turnyd 


and the rule of into bye tyrannye ; then ys broken the rule of al gud 

civility is broken. _ 

cyuylyte; ther can be no poly tyke rule, nor cyuyle ordur: 
the nature wherof now to perceyue ys, as I thynke, no 
955 thyng hard at al. For hyt ys a certayn rule wherby the 
pepul and hole commynalty, whether they be gouemyd 
by a prynce or commyn counseyle, ys euer dyrectyd in 
virtue is the end vertue and honesty. So that the end of al polytyke rule 

of all politic , .. 

rule. ys, to enduce the multytud to vertuse lyuyng, accordyng 

to the dygnyte of the nature of ma«. And so thus you 

961 haue hard what thyng hyt ys that I so oft speke of and 

t* Page 92.] cal polytyke rule, cyuyle ordur, and juste pollycy. * You 

haue hard also how dyuerse hyt ys, for hyt may be 

The kind of other vnder a pry[n]ce, commyn corcseyl of certayn, or 

government is 

immaterial, vnder the hole multytude ; and as to dyspute wych of 

966 thys rulys ys best, and to be p?'eferryd aboue other, 

me semyth superfluouse, seyng that certayne hyt ys 

though one may that al be gud and to nature agreabul ; and though 

be more con- 
venient than the one be more cowuenyent to the nature of some pepul 


it is best to be then the other. "Wherfor best hyt ys, leuyng thys 
if you are'not questyon, al mew to be content wyth theyr state, so long 
oppresse . ag ^ e y ^ ^^ oppressyd wyth playn tyrawny. 

973 (21.) And so now to retorne to our purpos agayne, 

blaster ~L\vpset, thys ys, wythout dowte, certayn and 

without civil sure, — that wythout such cyuyle ordur and polytyke 

order there can . 

be no true rule, ther can neuer, m any cuntrey, cyte, or towne, be 

commonwealth, .r i -r. 

seen any schadow ot the true commyn wele. For 

978 yf ther be neuer so many pepul, as I haue oft sayd, and 

neuer so grete ryches in any cuwtrey or commynalty, 

yet yf ther be no polytyke rule nor cyuyle ordur, of 

al such thyng they schal take no commodyte. Yf 

al the partys of the cyty wyth loue be not knyt to- 

983 gyddur in vnyte as naembrys of one body, ther can 

for as in man be no cyuylyte. For lyke as in marcnys mynd ther 

there only is 

felicity where only ys quyetnes and hye felycyte, wher as in a 
agree; gud body al the affectys wyth reson dow agre, so in a 

ortorathere 7 cuntrey, cyty, or towne, ther ys perfayt cyuylyte, ther 


ys the true coramyn wele, where as al the partys, as can only be 

perfect civility 

me??ibrys of one body, be knyt togyddur in perfayt loue where ail the 
*and vnyte; ettery one dowyng hys offyce and duty, [*p^e93.] 
aftur such maner that, what so euer state, offyce, or forrZingL^Tuty 
degre, any marc be of, the duty therto perteynyng wyth degree!" h ' 8 
al dylygence he besyly fulfyl, and wythout enuy or 993 
malyce to other accoraplysch the same. As, by exampul, Temporal and 
they hedys and rularys, both spmYual and te?»poral, to should see the 
dow theyr duty, prouydyng alway that fyrst, and aboue E2£5«a 
al, the pepul may be instruct wyth the doctryne of JjSSJta? 
Chryst, fede and nuryschyd wyth the spiritual fode of 
hys celestyal word, euer dyrectyd therto by al gud pol- 999 
lycy ; so that consequently they may also quyetly labur, 
both wythout vtward impedyment and hurt of ennemys, 
and also wythout inward iniury among themselfe, one 
oppressyng another wyth wrongys and iniury, but dyly- 
gently to labur, procuryng fode and thyngys necessary 1004 
for the hole polytyke body. And thys ys the offyce and The duty of rulers 
duty, breuely to say, of hedys and rularys, aftur thys ^ eee a^t 
maner dylygerctly to se the admynystratyon of justycc 2jJ|££2J 
to the hole commynalty. For the wych purpos they are for which 
thys maynteynyd in powpe and plesure, and in quyat are maintained 
lyfe, wythout al trauayle and bodyly labur, as you see ; p" le ™ *" d the 
in al placys co?nmynly euer maynteynyd by the labur labours of <" h ers, 
and trauayle of the pore co/nmynalty, to the intent, that 1012 
they, a the other syde, supportyd by theyr prudence 
and pollycy, may dylygently, wyth commyn quyetnes, 
apply themselfys to theyr laburys and paynys for the 
susteynyng of the hole body, the wych also ys the chefe 
poynt of theyr offyce and duty; gyuyng also reuerently 1017 
to theyr prywcys and lordys al hmnbul seruyce and 
meke obedyence requyryd to theyr * state and degre. [* Page 94.] 
And so thus, when euery parte, aftur thys mane/-, dothe And so when 
hys offyce and duty requyryd therto, wyth perfayt loue hirdutyln 063 
and amyte one to a nother, one glad to succur and ayd perfect love ' 
another as membrys and partys of one body ; to the in- 1023 




all may attain a 
higher felicity 
suited to the 
dignity of man. 
Then shall there 
he a true 


A commyn wele.i 

which is the 
prosperous and 
most perfect 
state of a 


A commonwealth 
is most pros- 
perous when it 
has (1) a multi- 
tude of people, 
heautiful, and 

[* Page 95.] 


(2) When they 
are nourished 
with abundance, 

and (3) live 
together in civil 
order, quietly 
and lovingly. 

There is the true 
the most 
prosperous and 
perfect state. 


tent that, aftur thys wordly and cyuyle lyfe here paysy- 
hly passyd and vertusely spent, they may at the last 
al togydur attayne such end and felycyte as, hy the gud- 
nes of God and ordynawce of nature, ys dete?-myd to the 
excellent dygnyte and nature of maw. Then schal ther be 
stablyschyd and set in such a multytude of pepul so 
gouernyd, so rulyd, wyth such pollycy, that thyng wych 
we so long haue sought, — that ys to say, a veray and 
true commyn wele, wych ys no thyng els hut the pros- 
perouse and most perfayt state of a multytud assemblyd 
togyddur in any cuwtrey, cyty, or towne, gouernyd ver- 
tusely in cyuyle lyfe, accordyng to the nature and dyg- 
nyte of mare. The nature wherof now, I thynke, you 
may clerly perceyue, and how, semblably, hyt rysyth of 
iij thynkys, lyke and proportionabul to them, wherin 
stondyth the wele of euery pra?"tycular maw. For lyke as 
a maw ys then welthy, and hath hye felycyte, when he 
hathe helth, strenghth, and beuty of body, wyth suffy- 
cyency of frendys and wordly godys to maynteyne the 
same, and hathe also therto joynyd honest bchauyour 
both toward God and maw ; *so a cuwtrey, cyte, or towne, 
hathe hys co?wmyn wele and most perfayt state, when 
fyrst the multytude of pepul and polytykebodyys helthy, 
beutyful, and strong, abul to defend themselfys from 
vtward iniurys ; and. then plentuously nuryschyd wyth 
abundance of al thyngys necessary and plesaunt for the 
sustewtatyon and quyetnes of mawnys lyfe, — and so, 
thyrdly, lyue togyddur in cyuyle ordur, quyetly, and 
peasybly passyng theyr lyfe, ych one louyng other as 
partys of one body, euery parte dowyng hys duty and 
offyce requyryd therto. Then, I say, ther ys the veray 
and true commyn wele ; ther ys the most prosperouse 
and perfayt state, that in any cuwtrey, cyte, or towne, by 
pollycy and wysdom, may be stablyschyd and set. To 
the ayd and settyng forward wherof, euery maw for hys 
1 In margin of MS. 


p«?'te, by the law and ordur of nature, ys bounden; 1059 
wych hath brought forth man, as I sayd at the begyn- And for this 

every man is 

nyng of our communycatyon, for thys purpos and for bound to live, 

. referring all he 

thys end, — that aftur such maner he myght lyue m does to this end. 

cyuyle lyfe, euer hauyng befor hys yes thys commyn 

"wele, wythout regard of hys owne vayne plesurys, frayle 1064 

fantasys, and syngular p?'ofyt. Euery thyng that he 

doth in thys lyfe referryng to thys end, wych ys the 

only poynt and marke, of al conseyllys assemblyd in any 

commynalty, to be lokyd vnto ; now other wyse then to 

gud physycyonys the helth of theyr patyentys, or to gud 1069 

marynerys the hauen and porte to the wych *they sayle [* Page 96.] 

and dresse theyr course. And euen lyke as a schype a weii-govemed 

., , tii,i,t , -ti commonwealth 

then ys wel gouernyd when both the mastur and rular may be compared 
of the sterne ys wyse and experte, and euer hath before ^^the 
hys yes, as a niarke to loke vnto, the hauen or place of masterand 

" ■ " - 1 steersman ever 

hys arryue, and euery maw also in the schype doth hys look t0 tne P lace 

of their arrival, 

offyce and duty appoyntyd to hym ; by the reson Avher- and a country 

is well governed 

of, consequently, the schype arryuy th at the hauen pur- when its rulers 
posyd and intendyd; so a cuntrey, cyty, or towne, then good^ofthT 
ys wel gouernyd, ordryd, and rulyd, when the hedys or them! * ° r ' 
rularys therof be vertuse and wyse, euer hauyng before 
theyr yes, as a marke to schote at, the welthe of theyr 1081 
sub[i]ectys, euery one of them also dowyng theyr offyce 
and duty to them appoyntyd and determyd. And so 
consequently the hole polytyke body attaynyth the veray 
and true commyn wele, wych now I thynke, Master 
Lupse£, somewhat you see, bothe what hyt ys and 1086 
wherin hyt stondyth. 

(21.) For lyke as the helth of mawnys body stond- Asthe ,iea,th 

v ' J J J of a man's body 

yth not in the helth of one particular parte ther- stands not in the 

J r j r health of one 

of, but in the gud and natural affecte and dysposytyon particular 


of euery parte couplyd to other ; so thys true commyn but in ail the 
wele in thys polytyke body stondyth not in the wele and ge ther, 
prosperouse state of any partycular parte seperat from commonwealth 

other, but in euery parte couplyd togyddur, vnyte and rf*^ 

does not stand 



of any particular knyte as me?nbrys of one "body by loue, as by the co?». 

part, but in the 

prosperity of the myn bande of al poly tyke ordur and gud cyuylyte. And 

lyke as the helth of the body determyth no pa?-tycular 

[* Page 97.] *complexyon, but in euery one of the iiij by physycy- 

onys determyd, as in sanguyn, melancolyk, phlegmatyk, 1 

1100 and coleryke, may be found perfayt; so thys cow/myn 

wele dete?'myth to hyt no partycular state, wych by 

poly tyke mew haue byn deuysyd and reducyd to iiij ; 

nother the rule of a prynce, nother of a certayn norabur 

of wyse mew, nother yet of the hole multytude and body 

1105 of the pepul, but in euery one of thes hyt may be found 

perfayt and stabul. How be hyt, as of physycyonys the 

sanguyn cowzplexyon ys gugyd of other chefe and best 

for the mayntenance of helthe of the body, so the state 

where a prince of a prynce, where as he ys chosen by fre electyon most 

election, that is worthy to rule, ys, among the other, chefe and pryncypal 

deemed by some • i i? _pji j ■» i 

the best form of J u gyd oi wyse men tor the mayntenance and long con- 

government. ty nuance of thys co??imyn wele and poly tyke ride in any 

1113 cowmynalty. Wherfor hyt determyth no certayn state, 

so that hyt can be in non other ; but in euery one hyt 

may be founde and surely groundyd, so long as euery 

pa?"te ys kept in hys ordur wyth prosperyte. And as to 

1117 see and playnly to juge when thys commjn wele most 

floryschyth, hyt ys no thyng hard, but esy to perceyue. 

when an the For when al thes partys, thys couplyd togyddur, exercyse 

body politic wyth dylygercce theyr offyce and duty, as the plowmen 

tnTpubUc g ood° r an ^ laburarys of the ground dylygently tyl the same, for 

the gettyng of fode and necessary sustenance to the rest 

[•Page 98.] of the *body ; and craftysmen worke al thyngys mete 

1124 for mayntenance of the same; ye, and they hedys and 

rularys by just pollycy maynteyne the state stablyschyd 

in the cuntrey, euer lokyng to the profyte of they hole 

that common- body ; then that commyn wele must nedys florysch, then 

needs flourish. that cuntrey must nedys be»in the most prosperouse 

state,. For ther you schal see ryches and conuenyent 

1 MS. plegmatyk. 


abuwdaunce of al thyngys necessary ; ther you schal see increase of 

population is 

cytes and townys so garnyschyd wyth pepul, that hyt an evidence of 

schalbe necessary in placys deserte, to by Id mo cytes, 

castellys, and townys for the mynyschywg of such a 1133 

multytude, wych ys a sure argumewte and certayn token 

of the floryschyng of thys polytyke body. So that of 

thys you may be sure : where so euer you se any cun- and wherever 

these signs of 

trey wel garnyschyd and set wyth cytes and townys, prosperity are 
wel replenyschyd wyth pepul, bauyng al thyngys neces- 
sary and plesaunt to maw, lyuyng togyddur in cyuyle 113y 
lyfe, accordyng to the excellent dygnyte of the nature 
of man; euery parte of thys body agreyng to other, 
dowyng hys ofTyce and duty appoyntyd therto ; ther, I 
say, you may be sure ys set a veray and true commyn we may rest 

assured that 

wele, ther hyt floryschyth as much as the nature of maw there is a true 

wyl suffur. And thus now, Master Lvpse^, schortly to 

conclude, aftur my mynd you haue hard rudely de- 1146 

scribyd, what ys the thyng that I cal the commyn wele 

and iust pollycy, wherin hyt stondyth, and when hy<r 

most * floryschyth. [* Page 99.] 

22. livpset — Sir, though you baue therin satysfyd l. expresses 
my mynd ryght wel, and clerly the mater openyd, yet satisfied with 

t t j-i ,1 1 , , . Pole's explana- 

you haue made me therwyth somewhat sory, ye, and to t ion, 
lamewt wyth myselfe. For I haue euer thought hy therto becausTthereis 

no common- 

that the state of Chrystuwdome bath had in hyt a veray 

true co?wmyn weele and just pollycy, and that hyt hath perfect as that 

byn [the] most perfayt and floryschyng that myght be 

coraienyent to the nature of maw, seyng that hyt was 1157 

set and stablyschyd by such an author as you know hyt 

was. But now, me semyth, of your cowzmunycatyon, hyt 

wantyth many thyngys requyryd to the most perfayt 

state aftur your descryptyon ; and most specyally of thos 

wych we cal exteryor thyngys, wherin we put wordly 1162 

p7Y>speryte ; of the wych ther ys grettur want in the state 

of Chrystys church then hath byn befor hyt in other 

kynd of pollycy, ye, and ys now in other statys of poly- 


1166 tyke pepul. "VVherfor, by thys mean hyt apperyth many-' 
He thinks much festely that the coramyn wele and the floryschyng of 

hangs upon 

fortune. the same hangyth much of fortune, as touchyng the 

wordly prosperyte, wherof sche hath grete domynyon, 

and hath byn euer notyd to be as lady and mastres. 

1171 23. Hole. — Wei, Master Lvpse£, as to thys, I schal 

schortly schow you my sentence and mynd. Fyrst, thys 

p. says though ys certayn, though the state of Chrystuwdome be not 

the state of 

[* Page ioo.] [the] most perfayt *and most floryschyng that myght be 

not nourishing (for as much as hyt lakkyth, as you say truly, much 

i'mpe'rfect; wordly prosperyte) yet hyt ys of al other that euer hath 

whicifhaTever ^y n J 6 ^ stably schyd among mew, or euer, I thynk, 

been established, schalbe, most perfayt and sure, and most cowuenyent to 

and tends towards . 

the attainment the nature of man • forasmuch as the rule and ordur 

of everlasting 

life. therof tendyth to euerlastyng lyfe and felycyte, and 

forby cause the plesurys of thys lyfe and wordly pros- 
1182 peryte so blyndyd maw before Chryst commywly, that 
be nothyng regardyd the lyfe to come. Therfor, to 
pluke thys blyndnes out of inawnys mynd, the Author 
and Stablyschar of our Chrystyn pollycy, tought vs, 
by contempt of thys vayn prosperyte, to take the 
1187 streyght way to euerlastyng felycyte. For, seyng hyt 
was so, that mare coud not as a passenger only vse to 
the ryght purpos thys prosperyte, but drownyd ther- 

it was necessary wyth. lokyd no ferther then thys pollycy, necessary 

to bring man to 

despise hyt was to bryng maw to the contempt of the same, 

and heavenly To tbys the Heuewly Wysdome, and no wordly pol- 

not worldly ty c y> hathe brought the state of Chrystuwdonie ; tbe 

prosperity, "vy-ycli passvth al other now other wyse then doth that 

has done this. j r j j 

maw wych, garnyschyd wyth al vertue, in pouerty and 

1196 syknes and al wordly aduersyte, for passyth hym 

that, by belth, honowur, and ryches, ys drownyd in 

wordly prosperyte. And yet I wyl not say hyt ys [the] 

wealth and most perfayt state that may be. For euen lyke as the 

virtue without 

health are not the welth oi euery party cular man, sonderly by hymselie, 
Btate, Per yf he lake helth or necessarys, though he be most ver- 


tuse, ys not most perfayt, as you haue hard "before ; *so [*Page 101.] 

and a country 

the state of any curetrey, cyty, or towne, ys not [the] most is not perfect 

perfayt that may he, yf ther be lake of wordly prosperyte ; worldly 

wych, as we haue at large before declaryd, yf hyt be 

wel vsyd, excludyth no curetrey from most perfayt pol- 1206 

lycy, ordur, and rule, hut rather much settyth forward 

the same. And as touchyng that you sayd, that the com- He owns that he 

thinks much 

myn wele schold hy thys mean hang much of fortune, depends on 

■iti-ii i i pi p fortune, 

thys, I thynke, he truth, spekyng of the most periayt 

state wych may be, to the wych of necessyte ys requyryd 1211 

thys wordly prosperyte. To thys agre bothe Arystotyl 

and, Theophraste, they grete arecZ auncyent phylosopharys, 

wych, though the[y] were of the Stoyke secte, therfore 

reprouyd. Yet, me semyth, theyr opynyon, yf hyt be wel 

porederyd, agreth wel to nature and to marenys reson. 1216 

For truly thys ys sure, that fortune, or els what other 

name soeuer you wyl gyue to the hlynd and vncertayne 

causys wych he not in marenys powar ; that same, I say, which has great 

,. , Ti-i -it power in all 

hath grete domynyon and rule m al vtward thyngys outward and 
and wordly, hoth in the pryuate and publyke state of 
euery mare. For who ys he that doth not dayly in ex- 1222 
peryence se howryches and helth,authorytecm<i dygnyte, 
ye, and, al other callyd wordly prosperyte, by fortune 

and chaunce, be now mynyschyd, now incresyd, now some by her 

are exalte( * ; 
set aloft, now troden vnder fote, now noryschyng, now others are 

in dekey ; nore other wyse then the trowblus and tern- trodden under 

pestuus see, wych by euery wynd ys tossyd and tumblyd 

from hys stahyl quyetnes and trarequyllyte. * And yet I C* Pa § e m 3 

J J ~L J 1 J J J yet he will not 

wyl not say that the co?«myn wele of any curetrey, cyty, ow n that the 

happiness of any 

or towne, or felycyte of any partycular maw, so haugyth country so 

. depends upon 

apon fortune, that, wythout hyr ayd and succur, they fortune, 
caw not stond ; for that were to vertue grete iniury, stand without 
wych to euery mare gyuyth felycyte, and to euery cure- ierai ' 
trey hys true commyn wele and just pollycy. How be 1235 
hyt, except to thys vertue be also couplyd wordly pros- 
peryte, wherby hyt may be put in vse to the profyte 


of other, me semyth (as I oft haue sayd before), hyt 
lettyth not ma/2 in hys most perfayt state that he may 
be in ; nor leuyth not in the cuwtrey, cyty, or towne, 
1241 the hyest wele that may come therto, and be stablyschyd 
therin, by prude?zt pollycy. For [who] dowtyth of 
That is the most thys, but that such a maw hath more perfayte state wych 

perfect state * ■% • 

where virtue to vertue hath joynyd al wordly prosperyte, then he 
worldly ° wych hath equal vertue, but, oppressyd wyth al wordly 

piospen y; aduersyte, by the reson wherof he ca» not put in effect 

1247 hys vertuse purpos ared honest intent? And so, lykewyse, 
a»ci no man to no mara hyt ys dowte, but that cujttrey, cyty, or 

doubts that a 

country with towne, wych ys replenyschyd wyth pepul, helthy and 

people, strong, hauyng habuwdaunce of ryches and al thyngys 

weii governed, necessary, wel goue?-nyd and rulyd wyth polytyke ordur, 

lection than the ys in hyar and mor perfayt state, then that curctrey 

country which -, , , tii^t^i 

lacks necessaries, where ys grete pouerty and lake of al thyngys necessary, 

1254 though ther be besyde neuer so gud ordur and perfayt 

cyuylyte. For thys ys truth, Master Jj\~pset, as me 

[* Page i03.i * semyth, that I haue oft sayd, thys wordly prosperyte, 

W orldly 

prosperity, vf hyt be wel vsyd, some thyng incresyth marcnys 

increases'man's felycyte ; nor no thyng hyt ys to be maruelyd that per- 

happmess. ^j. fgjygy^g ana \ hy es t commyn wele hang some thyng 

1 260 of fortune and chaunce ; for as much as they haue 

domynyon and rule in certayn thyngys, wych of neces- 

syte are requyryd to them in the perfyttyst degre ; for 

every thyng as hyt ys more perfayt in hys nature, so 

hyt requyryth euer mo thyngys to hys perfectyon. 

1265 Thys ys so euydent and playn, bothe in al thyngys 

brought forth of nature and by craft made, that hyt 

nedyth no profe, — hyt nedyth no long declaratyon. 

For as much as God hymselfe, bycause he ys of al 

thyng most perfayt, therfor he requyryth to hym al 

it is no imper- perfectyon. Wherfor, nother to marcnys felycyte in 

fection to man, 

or to a common- the most perfayt degre, nor to the commyn wele of 

wealth, that it . 

should depend on any cuntrey in the most perfayt state and pollycy, hyt 
chance. ys no imperfectyon to hange of many vtward and ex- 


teryor thyngys, wych oft be alteryd by fortune and 1274 
chaunce. And thus, Master Lvpse£, aftur my mynd, 
hyt ys no incorcuenyens that mawnys felycyte by the 
fauour of fortune schold be set forward vnto the hyest 
degre. 1278 

24. Master "Lvpset. — Sir, hyt may be wel true, as l. does not nke 
you dow now say, and by gud reson conclude ; but yet, p0 wer given to 
me semyth, hyt sounyth veray yl, hyt jarryth in myn 

yerys, to gyue such powar to blynd fortune in *mannys [*Pageio4.i 

25. PoZe. — ^Nay, Master Jjvpset, 1 you may not take p. says fortune 
hyt thys, that fortune hath powar to cast maw out of hys deprive a man of 
felycyte, no more then they cloudys haue powar of the the clouds can" 
sone, wych though oft tymys they let hys radyant p^ent the sun 

' •> o j j j j j f rom shining. 

beamys yet they cast hym not out of hys perfectyon ; 

but euer, lyke as the cloudys let the schynyng and 1289 

spredyng of the sone beamys downe to the erth, to the 

comfort of al lyuely creaturys, so dothe fortune oft tymys 

let vertue, and trowbul mawnys felycyte, stoppyng hyt 

from exercyse and vse, to the coramyn profyt of other 

and commodyte. But so long as hyt happuraiyth not 1294 

by ma?znys neclygewce, but by vtward occasyon, ther ys 

in hym no faut nor blame. Wherfor, though maw be Though man be 

here oppressyd wyth iniurys of fortune and al wordly adversity, 

adue?-syte, yet, yf hys mynd be stablyd and set wyth beVtehiTshed" 3 

vertuse purpos and honest intent, God (wych lokytb with virtue and 

only and knowyth the hart) schal therfor heraftur in a £ od Y 1 ! 1 P ve 

nother lyfe gyue hym euerlastyng felycyte and joy ; by hereafter. 

the hope wherof he ys also, in thys lyfe present, so com- 

fortyd and fede, that he caw by no manerfal into wrech- 1303 

ednes and mysery. How be hyt, the most hye felycyte, 

after myw opynyon, he hath not, except therto be 

joynyd wordly prosperyte. 

26. "Lvpset. — Syr, yet thys, me semyth, ys some- l. says this 
what straunge, cowsyderyng your symylytude and al that t^Mm! 1 ™ 86 

MS. le. 


you spake of befor; for yf they iniurys of fortune to 

[* Page io5.] vertue and : *felycyte be but as cloudys to the sone, how 

How can fortune schold they let maw fro?re hys hyest perfectyon ? Me 

keep man from 

felicity ? semy th no more then the cloudys let the sone from hys 

1313 perfectyon, wych I thynke noma?i wyl say. Troth hyt 
ys, that they, peraue?itur, somtyme let the perfectyon 
of thyngys beneth, but of the sone no thyng at al. 

27. Vole. — Master Lupse£, I schal tel you, yf the 
1317 perfectyon of the sone and exercyse therof were let by 
cloudys, as vertue ys, and the operatyon therof, by in- 
iurys of fortune, I wold then agre to you in thys mater. 
p. answers, the £ u £ j n that thyng they be not al lyke ; for the sone 

sun com- J ° •> ° ' 

municates his comniunyth hys perfectyon at al tymys to thes inferyor 

perfection at all 

times, thyngys accordyng to theyr nature and capacyte, as wel 

hut virtue • cloudys as in serenyte. But vertue, vndowtydly, let 

cannot. J » J •> ' 

by fortune and wordly aduersyte, can not commune hyr 

1325 actys and dedys to the profyt of other. Wherfor in 

thys mater ther ys no more to be dowtyd ; but sure hyt 

ys, that fortunys fauur somewhat aydyth and settyth 

forward the hyest poynt of felycyte; and so, in lyke wyse, 

the commyn wele of euery curetrey, cy ty, or tcwne, wych, 

1330 wythout ryches and other wordly prosperyte, care neuer 

florysch in the hyest degre. 

with the°Jon- ed 28, T^Vset—Wel, Master Pole, thys yet comfortyth 

fession that ail me meruelouse much, that you say and playnly corefesse, 

may get to 

heaven. that both euery mare partycular and also the hole co?re- 

mynalty, though hyt be here oppressyd wyth al wordly 

1336 aduersyte, yet they may attayn to the hy[e]st felycyte 

[* page 106.] in the lyfe *to come. 

of which Pole 29. PoZe. — Of that ther ys no dowte, and, per- 

says there is no 

doubt, perhaps auenture, the rather bycause hyt ys so hard and so ful 

because it is so 

hard and of peryl and daunger to vse thys wordly prosperyte ; for 

dangerous to use • , i -r i j , „ . „ 

this worldly m thys 1 haue coretrary opynyon to the commyn sorte of 

wwXhe^iffers mere > w y cn J u g e fry* more hard vpryghtly to here aduer- 
from common gyte then weJ to yse prasreryte- ;g ut j thynke they 

1 MS. and and 


co?isydur not they manyfold occasyonys of ruyne, and 1344 

fallyng horn the trade of vertue, Avych they haue dayly 

and hourly before theyr yes, wych. be inhaunsyd in 

wordly p?'osperyte ; they loke only to the payn and trow- 

bul, wherwyth they be oppressyd wythal, wych be in 1348 

aduersyte ; and such thyngys, bycause they are but few 

in nombur, may other, as they juge, much more esely 

be borne, or more sone avoydyd. But how so euer hyt 

be, we wyl not now dyspute, but turne to our purpos, 

takyng thys as sure, bycause we seke the most perfayt 1353 

state in any cuntrey and true co?nmyn wele. "We may w e must regard 

not only haue regard of the lyfe to come, but also of future nfe, 6 

thys here present, procuryng eumnore such thyngys J^S? present 

as perteyne to the mayntenance therof, "with al gud 

cyuylyte, to the intent that we here, wel vsyng thys using our 

prosperity ae- 

wordly prosperyte, may, at the last, attayne to suche cording to the 
end and perfectyon as, by the prouydence of God, ys of man. ° 
ordeynyd to the excellent nature and dygnyte of maw. 
And so now, to make schort, Master Lvpse£, you haue 1362 
hard what ys the veray and true co???myn wele in any 
cuwtrey, cyty, or towne, and what ys the most pcr- 
fay t state therof ; the wych, as I sayd at * the begyn- [* Page 107.3 
nyng, yf al me?z knew and powdery d ryght wel, they 
wold not so much regard the[r] pryuat wele as the[y] 1367 
dow ; they wold not so study theyr owne destructyon. 
For thys ys sure (as now you playnly see and clerly 
perceyue) that ouermuch regard of pryuate wele, Over-much 
plesure and profyt, ys the manyfest destructyon of al private pleasure 

,,..,. ,, -,, and private good 

gud, publyke, and mste commyn pollycy. lor euen i 8 the destruction 
lyke as maryners, when they be intent and gjaen to go^and 110 
theyr vayn pastyme and syngular plesure, hauyng no ie ^ 0J I ^ 
regard to the course of theyr schype, oft-tymys be, 
other by soddayn tempest ouerwhelmyd and drownyd 1376 
in the see, or by neclygence rim apon some roke, to 
the hole destructyon bothe of themselfe and of al other 
caryd in theyr schyp ; so in a cuwtrey, cyte, or towne, 



1380 when euery man regardyth only hys owne profyte, welth, 
and plesure, wythout respecte of the profyt of the hole, 
they schortly fal in dekey, ruyne, and destructyon ; and 
so at the last, perceyuywg theyr owne foly, then, when 

1 384 hyt ys to late, they begyn to lame?zt. Wherfor, vndowt- 

Men commonly ydly, thys ys a certayn and sure truthe, that men corn- 
are so blinded 

by their own mywly are so blyndyd wyth syngular profyt and vayn 

pleasures and , . . 

profits, plesure, that tney neuer consydur thys commyn wele ; 

that they never , -, •. , , , p n 

consider the thoughe tney speke ol hyt neuer so much, they neuer 
They C never" cowceyue how theyr owne destructyon ys secretly couplyd 

thdr"wnde h . at to ^J* owne act y s and ded J s > for J f &*Y ^ surely 
[* Page log.] they *wold not suffur themselfe so to erre, and so to 

struction must 

follow their own rwi [to] theyr owne ruyne. For thys ys a sure ground, 


No man willingly that no man wyttyng and wyllyng wyl hurt hymselfe, 
nor desyre hys owne destructyon. But euer, by the 
Man is blind and colowr of gud and schadow of truth, man ys blyndyd, 
be good, dysceyuyd, and into ignoraunce lad, and so by corrupt 

goo i , jugemewt, extymyth yl to be gud and gud to be yl; 
which is the wych ys, as you haue hard before at large, the fountayn 

foundation of all 

error and vice. and spryng of al errour and vyce, and ol al mysordur 

1400 in mararys lyfe, bothe pryuat and publyke; thewyche 

thyng, when hyt ouemmnyth hole natyonys and pepul, 

vtturly destroyth al cyuyle lyfe and polytyke rule. For 

There can be no ther can rayne no gud poltycy wher the jugemeftt of the 

people are pepul ys corrupt by false opynyon ; wherby they juge 

false opinion. that euery ma?z doth wel when he only regardyth hys 

1 406 owne plesure and profyt, wythout any respecte had of 

any other. But (as I haue sayd, and oft dow reherse) 

yf me?i knew that when they loke to the co??^myn profyt, 

that they tberwyth also regard theyr owne syngular 

and pryuate, surely they wold not so neclygently loke 

1411 thervnto, as hyt ys coramynly seen they now dow. But 

The public good euen as the commyn wele ys in euery ma?mys mouth, 

should be not 

only in every so also hyt schold be fyxyd in theyr hartys ; hyt schold 

[* rage io9.] be the end *of al theyr cogytatyonys, co??seylys, and 

mii'I'SeTrt I" 7 cai T s - F° r euen as S ud niarynerys, when they, by theyr 

it should be the 


craft and dylygence, bryng theyr schype sane out of end of ail their 
tempestys into the sure port and hauen, dow not only ail their cares, 
saue other beyng in theyr schype but themselfe also, so wh o ^"his 
cytyzyns 1 in any curetrey, cyte,or towne, when they, by $J£^£, 
prudent pollycy, maynteyn cyuyle ordur and gud rule, h ' s ° wn u ^ aild 
euer settyng forward the veray and true commyn wele, °<*ers: 

J J J so in the State, 

dow not only saue other wych be vnder the same gouern- if a man saves 

others he saves 

aunce and state, but also themselfe. For, as you see himself likewise. 

and haue hard by many exa??^pullys, in dyuerse cu?^treys, 

cytes, and townys, when, by sedycyon and neclygence 1425 

of rularys, the cyuyle ordur and polytyke rule of the 

hole body ys onys broken and turnyd vp so downe ther- 

wyth by and by, peryschyth the pryuate wele of eue?y 

ma?z ; no one ca?j long enyoy plesure or quyetnes, where 

the hole ys dysturbyd and put out of ordur. Therfor 1430 

thys ys as euydent as the schynyng of the sone, that in 

the regard euer of the true and commyn wele ys co?z- 

teynyd also the regard of the pryuate. "Wherfor now, Pole has thus de- 

clared what is 

Master Lvpset, seyng that we haue somewhat * declaryd [* page no.] 

-..., , the true common- 

what ys the veray true commyn wele, wherm hyt stond- wea j. t h, in what 
yth, and when hyt most floryschyth, let vs go forth to therein it 
the rest of our communycatyon, purposyd at the begyn- flounshes - 
nyng, as you thynke best. 1438 

30. liVpset. — Yes, Sir, 'I thynke hyt now veray l. is quite 

satisfied, and 

gud ; lor you haue m the iyrst satyslyd me ryght wel. thinks if men 
And I dowte no thyng but yf mere wold wel, al that you what has been 

i_ -i j 7-ij.i tit. said, there would 

haue sayd, co??syaur and poredur, ther wold be more be more regard 
regard of the commyn wele here in our cu^trey then ^ea^it^" 10 "" 
ther ys in dede. For me semyth playnly wyth vs eue?y there 1S - 
ma?z, vnder the prete??.s[e and] colour of the commyn He wishes our 

country were 

wele, regardyth the syngular, by the reson wherof our brought to as 

curetrey lyth rude, no thyng brough[t] to such cyuylyte it might be by 

as hyt myght be by gud pollycy. Wherfor I fere me g0 ° p ° cy- 
sore, lest hyt be almost impossybul to stabul and set 

such a commyn wele among vs here in Englond as you 1450 
1 Not crossed out ; but the word "nilarys" written above. 




P. cannot see 
why there should 
be so much 


[* Page 111.] 


and proposes now 
to " spy out" the 
common faults, 
that some means 
may be found to 
restore the 
country, and 
reform it accord- 
ing to examples 
named before. 


In this Lupset 
will help all he 

They adjourn 
till to-morrow. 


haue before descrybyd ; al thyngys be here so fer out of 
ordur, so fer out of forme. 

31. Pole. — Wei, Master Lvpset, 1 by lykelyhode 
you se much amys that you be in so grete desperatyon 
before we begyn. How be hyt, I se no cause wy you 
schold so be ; for nother the place here of our cuwtrey 
nor pepul themselfe be so rude of nature but they may 
be brough[t] * wel to al gud cyuylyte. Troth hyt ys 
that you say, as yet they are fer from that ordur and 
such state as we haue descrybyd ; for many and grete 
fautys ther be reynyng among vs here in our cimtrey 
and co?wmynalty, wych now remayne in the second 
place to be sought and tryed out. Wherin now, also, 
Master Lvpsef, you must put to your dylygence, that 
we may togyddur bettur spye out the commyn fautys 
and mysordurys therm; that so at the last we may, 
perauewture, fynd some mean to restore our curctrey to 
hyr commyn wele agayne, and, as nere as may be, 
reformyng hyt to the exampul that Ave haue prescrybyd 
before, wych schalbe to vs euer as a rule to examyn the 
rest of our communycatyon by. 

32. "Lvpset — Sir, to thys gud purpos that you now 
haue cottceyuyd, I schal helpe and set forward the best 
that I can. But, I pray you now, bycause hyt ys late, 
and thys mate?- ys large, let vs dyffer hyt tyl to-morow, 
and the mean tyme we may deuyse wyth ourselfys 
some thyng therof. 

33. PoZe. — Master Jjvpset, you say ryght wel, and 
so let hyt be. 

MS. 7 e, 



1. \Pole.~\ JSow, aftur that we haue somewhat P. says after de- 
fining a cotnrhUi- 

declaryd what ys a veray commyn wele in euery cun- wealth suitable 

. . , to the nature of 

trey corauenyent to the nature ot man, lyuyng in cyuyle man inacivii 
lyfe and polytyke ordur, hyt schalbe expedyent for vs JS^J S^k 
(lokyng therto euer as to our marke to schote at, and U pon°hefauits 
to the end of al co?*seyllys and p«rlyameretys in any wh ' ch hmder „ 

J J r j j •} such a common- 

coramynalty assemblyd togyddur here in *thys our c * ^ age i 12 ' ] 

J J J &J J wealth, and 

owne cufttrey) to seke out wyth dylygercce, and by reson brin s jt in tlJe 

J ' J J Jo > J end to ruin and 

to try, such fautys and mysordurys as appere to let the decay. 

settyng forthe of thys commyn wele, and be occasyonys 10 

that hyt can not prosper and florysch, but rather fal 

into ruyne and dekey. For lyke as to physycyonys it avails phy- 
sicians little to 
lytyl hyt avaylyth to know the body, coraplexyon know the perfect 

state of the body 

therof, and most periayt state, except they also can if they cannot 
dyscerne and juge al kynd of syknes and dysseassys J s " c ifnesses and 
wych commynly destroy the same; so to vs now thys SourSsider- 
vnyuersal and scolastycal 1 cowsyderatyon of a veray u^ieeTceTwe 
and true co?«myn wele lytyl schal profyte and lytyl dil ' g t t ntl 7 S T TC ^ 

the com 

schal avayle, except we also truly serch out al commyn the c 0111 " 10 "- 
fautys' and general mysordurys, wych, as sykenes and 
dyseasys, be manyfest impedymentys, and vtturly 21 
repugne to the mayntenarace of the same. Let vs ther- 
for now, M.aster Lvpsetf, to thys purpos now, in the 
second place, wyth al dylygercce ernystely apply our 
myndys. 25 

2. livpset — Sir, you say wel, for dylyge/ice in al l. thinks there 

is little diligence 

thyng doth much gud. How be hyt, in thys mater me required, as it is 
semyth hyt ys not so gretely to be requyryd ; for, as twofeuits than 
hyt ys commynly sayd, much easyar hyt ys to spy ij jSgnSta. 
fautys then amend one. Specyally to them wych haue tlo^aewm- 
hard the descryptyon of a commyn weie, aftur the monweaith as we 

Jr J " have had. 

1 " phylosophycal " is written over this word. 


32 maner before schowyd, hyt ys not hard to see the mys- 

ordurys here in our cimtrey, nor to spye the grete dekey 

of such a cow.myn wele wych you haue so manyfestely 

descryhyd ; — hyt ys so open to euery marcnys ye. For 

The decay of the who can he so blynd or ohstynate to deny the grete dekey, 

country is evident 

[* Page ii3j fautys, and mysordurys, he[re] of our commyn *wele; 

other when he lokyth apon our cytes, castellys, and 

mined towns, townys, of late days ruynate and fallen downe, wyth 

and poor 

inhabitants ; such pore i?zhaby taras dwellyng therin ; or when he 
and untiiied, lokyth apon the ground, so rude and so wast, wych, by 

which have been , , „ i i .i -i -l j? < i j 

fruitful, and dyiyge?£ce oi pepul, hatn byn betore tyme occupyd and 

™again ; ma ° tyllyd, and l myght he yet agayn brought to some 

bettur p?*ofyt and vse ; or yet, aboue al, when he lokyth 

the m manners vnto the manerys of our pepul and ordur of lyuyng, 

of the people and 

their living, wych ys as ferre dystarct from gud and pe?*fayt cyuylyte, 

civinty as vice is as gud fro?n. yl, and vyce from vertue and al honesty ? 

ail are as clear Thys ys as clere as the lyght of the day; and, as me 

asday " semyth, nedyth, theifor, of no long processe for the 
declarywg therof, nor yet much dylygercce to the in- 

51 serchyng of the same, 

p. doesn't think 3. PoZe. — Wei, M.aster Ijvpset, thys mater ys not 

it quite so clear, -i >, i i i , ,i . 

and cannot agree al on t so clere as you make hyt, nor requyrytn not so 

that it requires ij_iji j. i i j. tti 

so little diligence, tyfl dylygewce as you seme to make hyt. For we may, 

perauentur, other a the one syde, to stretly juge or 

without it we naroly examyn the hole mater, laying ther faut wher 

might call that a 

fault which is as no/* ys ; callyng that mysordur and yl gouernarace, 

wych ys indede gud and pe?'fayt pollycy ; or els, of the 

59 other syde (blyndyd wyth affectyon, as commynly men 

be, with the manerys of theyr cuwtrey) contrary, cal 

that playn gud and gentyl cyuylyte wych in dede ys 

He urges caution rudenes and rustycyte. Wherfor, of thys we must 

lest we be 

deceived. chefely beware, and dylyge/itly take hede, lest therby 

64 we dysceyue not 2 our selfe. 3 

1 This word has been crossed out in the MS. 

2 This word is not marked through in MS. 

3 This sentence stood originally as follows : — "of thys we 
must beware, and dysceyue not our selfe." 


4. Lvpsef.— Sfr, as for thys mater, I trust we schal 65 

ryght wel avoyd ; for I promys you that, for my parte, I l. promises not 

•,,,,. , . . to be unjust, 

wyl be loth, in our cowmunycatyon, to be so miust to 

our * owne cu?ztrey, to admy t any such thyngys for p page iuj 

fautys and mysordurys wych in dede be non at al. For 

the escheuyng of thys I wylbe dylygent, and suffur and win give an 

.a fair examina- 

lew thyngys to passe vnexamynyd wherever schal tion. 
appere any dowte "vnto me. 72 

5. PoZe. — I pray you so to dow, and to put me also p. desires Lupset 

to note such 

m reme??ibra?zce of such fautys as you haue notyd your faults as may 
selfe, and by long tyme obseruyd here iw our cu?ztrey, 
wych you schal perauerature see me ouerrurc and, by 
neclygence, let pas. 

6. LvpseZ. — Str, in thys behalf e, I assure you, I 78 
wylbe as dylygent as y caw. 

7. PoZe. — Wel, then, let vs now go forward in the and then goes on 

to say he will not 

mater; wherin, fyrst, you schal vnderstond that I wyl speak of par- 

, ticular faults, 

not speke of euery partycular faute and mysordur in because that 

, „ , . . „ . , , would be endless ; 

euery marcnys lyie here in our cuntrey, — for that were 
a mater infynyte, and nothyng mete for our purpos 84 
intercdyd ; but I wyl speke only of the general fautys he will only 

speak of general 

and mysordurys and vnyue?'sal dekeys of thys commyn faults, and (i) of 

, , , such as he finds 

wele, wych by commyn counseyle and gud pollycy in the body 
may be redressyd, reformyd, and brought to gud suWasare 
cyuylyte. And, fyrst (this processe vsyng) I wyl J^jjg. for the 
speke of such as I schal fynd in the polytyke body of j^rTbodyl 
thys our commynalty and reame ; secowd, I wyl seke ®) U'" su " h . a ® he 

•> J J > i J s hall find in the 

out and inserch such as schal appere to me in thyngys "politic order." 
necessary and commodyouse for the mayntenarcce of the 93 
same body; thyrdly, I schal touch such fautys and 
mysordurys as I schal fynd *in the polytyke ordur, [* Page 115.3 
rule, and gouernance of thys body, growen in by abuse methodus futu- 
and lake of gud pollycy. Thys schalbe the ordur and 
processe of our communycatyon thys day to be had. 

8. Lvpse/. — Sfr, thys lykyth me wel; and aftur 99 

1 In margin of MS. 


100 thys maner now prescrybyd, I pray you go forward. 

9. "Bole. — I am wel content, and, fyrst, thys ys 
p. notes a weak- certayn ; that, in thys poly tyke hody, ther ys a certayn 

ness in the body 

politic, arising sklendurnes, debylyte, ana wekenes therof, wherby hyt 

people. ° ° y s ^ to prosper and florysch in hys most perfayt state ; 

tabes in corpore.i the wych I cal and note to be groundyd in the lake 

just as a man's of pepul and skarsenes of men. For lyke as mawnys 

thrive when it body then doth not florysch, then doth not increse, 

faiis e away ; U when hyt ys sklendur, febul, and weke, but by lake of 

so every country, flesch fallyth in to sykenes and debylyte; so eue?y 

city, and town, 

does not prosper cuwtrey, cyte, or towne, then doth not florysch, then 

men, it fails: as doth not prosper, when ther ys lake of pepul and 

much experience skasenes of men ; by the reson wherof hyt fallyth in 

m ate ays. ^ ru y n an ^ ^q\q,j, slyppyng from al gud cyuylyte ; 

114 the experyewce wherof we see in late days now in our 

curatrey, the wych chefely I attrybute to the lake of 

inhabytans. And to thys, as me semyth, by many 

argumentys we may be inducyd ; as, fyrst, yf you loke 

cities and towns to the cy tes and townys throughout thys reame, you 

wenTmuch better schal fynd that in tyme past they haue byn much 

they now ar«T bettur inhabytyd, and much more replenyschyd wyth 

121 pepul then they be now; for many housys ther you 

schal se playn ruynat and dekeyd, and many yet stond- 

yng wythout any tenawtys and inhabyta?itys of the 

same. Wherby playnly ys perceyuy d, after myn opyny on, 

125 the grete lake of pepul and skarsenes of men. And, 

[*Pa g e ii6.] ferther, *yf you loke to the vyllagys of the cuwtrey 

now are utterly throughout thys lond, of them you schal fynd no smal 

w'here^hristians nombur vtturly dekeyd ; and ther, wher as befor tyme 

^oSS/ hattt °y n nuryschyd much gud and Chrystyan pepul, 

"••Mb" °t" ly now y° u Scna ^ fy nd no thyng maywteynyd but wyld 

where churches and brute bestys ; and ther, wher hath byn many 

were standing to ■, ■jit_j..i.i_i_ i> n j 

the honour of housys and churchys, to the honowre ol (xod, now you 

only find Sep- scnal fy nd no th y n S tut schypcotys and stabullys, to 

cots and stables, ^he ruyne of ma?i; and thys ys not in one place or ij, 

it cannot be "bu.t generally throughout thys reame. Wherfor hyt ys 

doubted that 

1 In margin of MS. 


not to be dowtyd, but that tliys dekey, both of cytes such decay arises 

and townys, and also of vyllagys, in the hole cu?itrey, pe0 pie. 
declaryth playnly a lake of pepul and skarsenes of men. 

Besyd this, the dekey of craftys in cytes and townys crafts also have 

(wych we se manyfestely in euery place) schowyth also, and in towns. 

as me semyth, a plain lake of pepul. Moreouer, the 141 

ground wych lyth in thys reame vntyllyd and brought The waste lands 

,■.,,,-. show a scarceness 

to no protyt nor vse of maw, but lyth as barren, or to of people; 

the-nuryschyng of wyld bestys, me thynkyth coud not 

ly long aftur such maner yf ther were not lake of pepul 

and skarsenes of men. For yf hyt were so replenyschyd for if it were fun 

of people, 

wyth pepul as other cimtreys be, the wast groundys forests, parks, 

(as hethys, forestys, pa?*kys and oldys l ) schold not ly not remain 
so rude and vntyllyd as they be ; but schold be 

brought to some profyt and vse, accordyng to the 150 

nature of the ground, *wych, wythout fayle, by dyly- [* page in.] 
gence and labur of ma??, myght wel be brought to 

tyllage and vse. For the ground ys not of hyt selfe, The land is not 

barren by nature, 

as many men thynke, by nature so barren, but that, yf as some men 

hyt were dylygently laburyd, hyt wold bryng forth ' ' 

frute for the nuryschyng of man ; wych ys by experyence 156 

in many placys prouyd, here of late days, where as 

ground jugyd to be barren and rude, ys by dylygent 

men brought to tyllage and frute. Therfor that we 

haue so much wast ground here in our cuntrey, hyt ys it only requires 

men to till it, 

not to be attrybute to the nature of the erthe, attur my and then it would 

mynd, but only to the lake of pepul and skarsenes of abundantly, as 

men, wych, as wel by the ruyne of cytes and townys, as ex P enence P roves - 

by dekey of facultes, lernyng, and craftys, may playnly 164 

be perceyuyd. "Wherfor I thynke we may surely 

affyrme thys faute and sykenes playnly to rayne in our The body pontic 

polytyke body. 

10. IiVpset. — Sir, as touchyng thys matter, I pray l. doubts this, 
you sufTur me to say my mynd therin ; for your argu- 

mentys dow not suffycyently persuade me. 

11. "Pole. — Mary, that was agred at the begynnyng 171 

1 This word has " playnys " written over it. 


172 for the bettur examynatyon of euery thyng; tlierfor 
say on. 
and thinks ail 12. "Lvpset. — Sir, me semyth thys ruyne of cytes 

this ruin and r ' J J J J 

decay prove and townys, thys dekey of craftys in euery place, thys 

[*Page us.] rudenes and barrewnes of the ground, arguth no *thyng 

177 the skarsenes of pepul, but rather the neclygent idulnes 

No matter how of the same. For yf a curctrey were neuer so popidos 

populous a coun- , , i j lv. i n . n 

try is, if the cmd replenyschyd wyth pepul, yet yl they were euer 

nmus/decay!' neclygent and idul in the same, neuer inte??dyng to 

profytabul exercyse, ther schold be no les dekey of 

182 artys and craftys, wyth no les ruyne of cytes and 

townys, then ther ys now here wyth vs, as you say. 

Wherfor hyt apperyth playnly to me, that thys ys no 

sure profe nor argument to your purpos ; specyally 

He thinks we seyng that, contrary, me semyth, we haue here in our 

people rather curctrey rather to many pepul then to few ; in so much 

there aTe more that vytel and nuryschmewt suffycyent for them caw 

Fs e food\oTustain skan t here be found, but for lake therof many perysch 

them- and dye, or at the lest lyue veray wrechydly. Wher^ 

191 for, lyke as we say co?nmywly, a pastur ys ouerlayd 

wyth catel, when therin be mo then may be co;menyently 

nuryschyd and fed; so in a cuwtrey, cyty, or towne, 

ther ys of pepul to grete multytude, when ther ys of 

195 vytayl ouerlytyl for the necessary sustenaws and mayn- 

He cannot see teynyng of the same. And so I ca?i not se wy we 

fPoma U iackof" S schold lay any grete faute in the lake of pepul here in 

pcop e. Qur cim trey ; but rather, such fautys as you fynd, 

attrybute to the neclygewce of the same. 

200 13. PoZe. — Wei, Master Lvpserf, you say wel. I per- 

ceyue by you that you wyl not let the materys pas 

i*. asks him to vtturly vnexamynyd. How be hyt, yf you compare our 

cTuntrynow with cuntrey now, other wyth hyt selfe, in such state as hyt 

in^mL'paslr' hath byn in tyme PaSt ' ° ther elS Wyt ^ ° thel CUwtre y S > 

wych be by nature no more plewtyful then thys, and 

20G yet nurysch much more pepul then doth ourys, I ca» 

[•rage ii9.] not se but you must *nedys co?rfesse a lake of pepid 


here in our cuntrey. For thys ys no dowte, in tyme past 208 

many mo haue byn nuryschyd therin, and the curctrey 

hath byn more populos, then hyt ys now. And thys ys 

les dowte, that other cuwtreys in lyke space or les, dothe or with other 

_ countries, which 

susteyn much more pepul then dothe thys [ol J ourys ; in less space 

wych ys esy to be perceyuyd by the multytude of cytes, people tharTours, 

castellys, and townys, wych be wel inhabytyd and re- H ™en by S their 

plenyschyd wyth pepul in fer gretur no?»bur then our andtownt.' 68 ' 

cuntrey ys ; as you may see both in Fra?ice, Flaundres, 

Almayn, and Italy. Therfor hyt can not be denyd but 217 

here ys much lake of pepul and skarsenes of mew. And 

yet troth thys ys also that you say, that yf Ave had neuer 

so many pepul here in our curctrey, yf they same lyuyd 

oueridul and neclyge?it, we schold haue no les dekey 

of cytes and townys then Ave haue now. But, Master 222 

Jjvpset, thoughe hyt be so that Ave haue her in our curc- There are many 

, . , , " , Tj.i.1- 4. idle P e °P le in the 

trey much ldul pepul, and, as I thynke, in no cu??trey country— more 

of the world such a multytude, yet they be not so idul S^SSS 

that we must of necessyte attrybute both the ruyne of a11 the ruin can " 

J J J not be attributed 

cytes and townys, and al the dekey of artys and crafty s, to them. 

only to the idulnes and neclygence of pepul. Trothe 228 

hyt ys, that yf our pepul were al dylygent and wel oc- if they were well 

cupyd Avyth honest exercyse, our curatrey schold, wythout country would, 

fayle, stond in bettur case then hyt doth, as we schal at better than it 

large heraftur in hys place open and declare. And yet 

thys ys troth also, that nother of idul nor yet of Avel 233 

occupyd, Ave haue such a nowbur as ys corcuenyent to 

the nature of the place. Thys ys certayn and sure, that if the land were 

ji.i i nil ii tilled it would 

yl our cuwtrey were *wel occupyd and tyllyd, hyt Avoid [*p a ge 120.J 

nurysch suffycyently many mo pepul then hyt doth pe0 pie, and 

noAv. And as touchyng the skarsenes of vytayl Avych ^ y C sh vv S °th f r d 

you allegyd, that no thyng prouyth ouergrete nombur "eo'^Tot^heir 

of pepul, but rather the gret neclygens of thes Avych we great numbers - 
haue ; as I schal playnly schow you heraftur, when we 
schal serch out the cause and ground of al such penury 

and skarsenes of vytayl and sustenaras for the pepul here 243 




Pole insists upon 
this lack of 
people, which he 
compares to a 
consumption of 
man's body, 


when it is brought 
to slenderness 
and there is a 
lack of power. 
When a country 
or city lacks 
people, it wants 
power to main- 
tain a nourishing 
state, and wears 

Examples of 
which in other 
times may be 
seen in Egypt, 
Asia, and Greece. 


f* Page 121.] 


L. cannot deny 
but that this 
country has been 
more populous 
than it is now. 

P. says there is 
another disease 
in this body 
politic, besides 
lack of people— 
that is, the 
number of idle 
and ill-occupied 


in. our cuntrey lately growen in. Let vs therfor take 
thys as a certayn and playn truth, that here in our cmi- 
trey ther ys a lake of pepul, and corefesse thys dysease 
to he in our polytyke body, wych may wel, as me 
semyth, he comparyd to a cowsumptyon, or grete sklen- 
durnes of maraiys hody. For lyke as in a corcsumptyon, 
when the hody ys brought to a gret sklendurnes, ther 
ys lake of powar and strenghth to maynteyne the helth 
of the same ; so in a cuntrey, cyty, or towne, wher ther 
ys lake of pepul, ther wantyth powar to maynteyne the 
floryschyng state of the polytyke body, and so hyt 
fallyth into manyfest dekey, and by lytyl and lytyl 
wornyth away ; as we may se in al cuwtreys wych haue 
byn replenyschyd wyth pepul and wel inhabytyd in old 
tyme ; as Egypt, Asia, and Grece, wych, destroyd by 
warrys, now, for lake of pepul, be desolate and deserfce, 
fallen into ruyn and commyn dekey. So that thys lake 
of pepul, not wythout cause, may wel be callyd *the 
fyrst frute and ground of the ruyne of al commyn welys ; 
and, as I haue sayd, can not be denyd here from oury?, 
yf we loke to the nature of the place, and to the auncyent 
state here of the same. 

14. "Lvjiset. — Sir, indede, as you say, when I loke 
to the cytes and townys and vyllagys in the cuwtrey, I 
can not deny but ther hath byn more pepul here in our 
cuwtrey then ther ys now. Wherfor, wythout ferther 
cauyllatyon, agreyng apon thys, let vs go forward. 

15. PoZe. — "Wel, then, let vs co?*sydur and behold 
how that, besyde thys lake of pepul, ther ys, also, in thys 
polytyke body, a nother dysease and syknes more greuus 
then thys, and that ys thys (schortly to say) : — A grete 
parte of thes pepul wych we haue here in our cuwtrey, 
ys other ydul or yl occupyd, and a smal nombur of them 
exercysyth themselfe in dowyng theyr offyce and duty 
pe?'teynyng to the mayntenarcce of the commyn wele ; by 
the reson wherof thys body ys replenyschyd and oner- 


fulfyllycl wyth many yl humorys, wych I cal idul and wxe0up«a.i 
vnprofytabul personys, of whome you schal fynd a grete 281 
no?nbur, yf you wyl a lytyl corcsydur al statys, ordurys, 
and degres, here in our cuwtrey. Fyrst, loke what an Look at the idle 

. rout kept by tlie 

idul route our nobul men kepe and nurysch in theyr nobles, only to 
housys, wych do no thyng els but cary dyschys to the the table and eat 
tabul and ete them when they haue downe ; and aftur, spe^dfngthe'rest 
gyuyng themselfe to huwtyng, haukyng, dysyng, card- JJjJJjj* *■• «" 
yrcg, and al other idul pastymys and vayne, as though 288 
they were borne to no thyng els at al. Loke to our The bishops, 

canons, priests, 

byschoppys and p? - elatys of the reame, whether they monks, and 
folow not the same trade in nuryschyng* such an idul [* page 122.] 

, j , 1 7ii spending all 

sort, spendyng theyr possessyonys and godys, wych their possessions, 

were to them gyue?? to be dystrybut among them wych ",!jb U tmg them 

were oppressyd wyth. pouerty ana" necessyte. Loke, ferther- amon & lhe P° or - 

more, to prestys, monkys, frerys, and chanonys, wythal 295 

theyr adherentys and idul trayn, and you schal fynd 

also among them no smal nombur idul and vnprofytabul, 

wych be nothyng but burdenys to the erthe. In so much 

that yf you, aftur thys maner, examyn the multytude 

in euery ordur and degre, you schal fynd, as I thy?ike, 300 

the thryd parte of our pepul lyuyng in idulnes, as per- a third part of 

the people live in 

sonys to the commyn wele vtturly vnprofytabul ; and to idleness, like 
al gud cyuylyte, much lyke vnto the drowne bees in 
a hyue, wych dow no thyng els but co?Jsume and de- 
uoure al such thyng as the besy and gud be, wyth dyly- 305 
gence and labur, gedduryth togeddur. 

16. Lvpsetf. — Master Vole, me semyth you examyn l. does not think necessary that 

thys mater somewhat to schortely, as though you wold. a u men should 
haue al me?i to labur, to go to the plowgh, and exercyse t he earth is so 

fi i . TTi i.T_ i-T, bounteous; she 

some craft, wych ys not necessary, r or our mother the supports b e asts> 
ground ys so plentuous and bountyful by the gudnes of fi f ies > j"* 1 ^ 18 ' 
God and of nature gyuen to hyr, that -wyth lytyl labur 
and tyllage sche wyl suffycyently nurysch ma?2kynd, 313 
now otherwyse then sche doth al bestys, fyschys, and 
1 In margin of MS. 


315 foulys, wych are brede and brought vp apon hyr; to 

[* Page 123.] whome we *se sche mynystryth fode wyth lytyl labur 

or non, but of byr owne freredly benygnyte. Wherfor 

if a few men yf a few of our pepul besy themselfe, and labur 

may live in therin, hyt ys suffycyent; the rest may lyue in try- 

umphe, at lyberty, and ease, fre ivom al bodyly labour 

321 and payn. 

To this p. 17. Pole. — Thys ys spoken, M.aater Lupse?*, exxen as 

was not born to though you jugyd ma?i to be borne for to lyue in idulnes 

andpteST and P lesure > al th J n S referryng and applyng therto. 

but to labour; j}^ g^ j^ y S no thyng so ; but, contrary, he ys borne 

to labur and trauayle, aftur the opynyon of the wyse 

327 l and auneyent antyquyte, 1 now other wyse then a byrd 

to fie ; and not to lyue (as Homer sayth some dow) as an 

vnprofytabul weyght and burden of the erth. For maw 

to be a governor, ys borne to be as a gouernonr, rular, and dylygent 

of the earth; tyllar and inhabytant of thys erthe ; as some, by labur 

some by labour o -t i . , i n , i 

of body to pro- °* D °dy, to procure thyngys necessary lor the mayn- 
somVbfwisdom tena?2ce of mannys lyfe ; some, by wysdome and pollycy, 
and policy to keep ^ k epe fa e res £ f the multytude in gud ordur and 

the rest in order ; x * ° 

none are born cyuylyte. So that non be borne to thys idulnes and 

to idleness and J J J J 

vanity, but to vanvte, to the wych the most parte of our pepul ys much 

exercise them- 
selves in some gyue??. and bent ; but al to exercyse themselfe in some 

manner suitable 

to the dignity of fascyon of lyue co?2uenyent to the dygnyte and nature 

it is not neces- of ma??. Wherfor, though hyt be so, that hyt ys no 

should be uiiers thyng necessary al to be laburarys and tyllarys of the 

theV/must be' ground, but some to be prestys and mynysturys of 

pnests, Goddys Word, some to be gewtylmew to the gouernance 

governors, and » ° " ° 

servant^biitaii f ft^ res t ; an d some serua?itys to the *same; yet thys 
in due proportion. y g cer tayn, that ouergrete nombur of them, wythout dew 
345 proportyon to the other partys of the body, ys super- 
fluous in any co??2mynalty. Hyt ys not to be dowtyd 
There are too but that here in our cuwtrey of thos sortys be ouer- 
menfmorethan many, and specyally of them wych we cal seruyng me)!, 
country" er wych lyue in seruyce to gewtylmere, lordys, and other of 
1 — ' " phylosopharys," was originally written here. 


the nobylyte. Yf you loke throughout the world, as I 350 
thynke, you schal not fynd in any one cxmtvey, propor- 
tyonabul to ourys, lyke no??zbur of that sorte. 

18. Lvpsef. — Mary, Sir, that ys troth, wherin, me l. looks upon 

, in- tn ' s ■■ matter 

semyth, you prayse our cuwtrey veray much ; for m of praise. 

them stondyth the royalty of the reame. Yf the yeo- we should be in 

p-p,,, . , „ nl a" shrewd case " 

marary of England were not, m tyme ot warre we schold wer e it not for 

he in schrode case; for in them stondyth the chefe ie y eomanr >* 

defence of Englond. 358 

19. "Pole. — 0, Master Trrpset, you take the mate?' p. says he takes 

■t-.i j_iiij_ii /-T-iiTT the matter amiss : 

amys. In them stondyth the beggary oi Englond ; hy 

them ys nuryschyd the co??zmyn theft therin, as here 

afturat large I schal declare. How behyt, yf they were if the yeomanry 

exercysyd in featys of armys, to the defence of the reame d^^theart 

in tyme of warr, they myght yet he much bettur suffryd. SjSJStertj 

But you se how lytyl they be exercysyd therin, in so bu ' they . are not > 

much that, in tyme of warr, hyt ys necessary for our plow- war plowmen and 

labourers are 

mera and laburarys of the cuntrey to take wepu?^ in needed to fight, 

or we should 

hand, or els we were not lyke long to myoy Englond ; soon lose 
so lytyl trust ys to be put in theyr * featys and dedys. [»pagei25j 
Wherfor dowte you no more but of them (lyke as of 
other that I haue spoke of before, — as of prestys, frerys, 371 
munkys, and other callyd relygyouse) we haue oue;- 
many, wych altogyddur make our polytyke body vnweldy 
and heuy, and, as hyt were, to be greuyd wyth grosse 
humorys ; in so much that thys dysease therin may wel 375 
be co???paryd to a dropcy in ma?znys body. For lyke as dropcy.' 

He compares the 

in a dropcy the body ys vnweldy, vnlusty, and slo, no idle people to a 

dropsy in the 

thyng quyke to moue, nother apte nor mete to any body, which 

maner of exercyse, but, solne wyth yl humorys, lyth wieidy and mil 

idul and vnprofytabul to al vtward labur ; so ys a co??i- and so1™a coua- 

mynalty, replenyschyd wyth neclygerct and idul pepul, tf y f «iiofidie 

vnlusty and vnweldy, nothyng quyke in the exercyse P e °P le - 

of artys and craftys, wherby hyr welth schold be mayn- in aits and crafts, 

by which her 

tenyd and supportyd ; but, solne wyth such yl humorys, wealth is main- 
tained, but it 
1 In margin of MS. 



overruns with 

This is the 
mother of many 


L. says it can't 
be denied ; 
but "o on. 


P. explains what 
lie means by the 

[* Page 126.] 

they are such as 
occupy them- 
selves with the 
newest fashions ; 
in procuring 
ornaments of 
dress ; 

tremor partium. 3 


in providing new 
and diverse kinds 
of meats and 
drinks ; 

or in making and 
singing new 
songs, which tend 
only to vanity. 
Merchants who 
carry out neces- 
saries and bring 
in trifles are 
ill-occupied, as 
are many others. 

boyllyth out wyth al vyce, myschefe, and mysery, the 
wych out of idulnes, as out of a fountayii, yssuth and 
spryngyth. Thys ys the mother of many other sykenes 
and greuus dyseasys in our polytyke "body, and the 
gretyst destructyon of the eommyn wele therin that 
may he deuysyd. 

20. "Lvpset — Wei, Syr, thys ys so manyfest that hyt 
may not he denyd. Wherfor let vs procede wythout 
delay to the sekyng of other, aftur your deuyse. [How 
be hyt, thys dysease semyth to repugne to the 1 other, 
for one schowyth to few, and the other to many. 2 ] 

21. PoZe. — [Kay, not but schortly, on schoweth to 
few of well occupyd, and the other to many idul. 2 ] 
Ther ys a nother dysease, Master Lupse£, also, wych 
ys not much les greuus then thys, wych restyth in 
them whom *I callyd yl occupyd. I mean not thos 
wych he occupyd in vyce, for of that sorte chefely 
he they wych I notyd to he idul before. But al such 
I cal yl occupyd wych besy themselfe in makyng and 
procuryng thyngys for the vayne pastyme and plesure of 
other, as al such dow wych occupye themselfe in the new 
deuysys of gardyng and jaggyng of mewnys apparayle, 
wyth al thyng perteynyng therto ; and al such wych 
make and procure manyfold and dyuerse new kyndys 
of metys and drynkys, and euer be occupyd in curyouse 
deuyse of new fangulyd thyngys coftcernyng the vayn 
plesure only of the body. "Wyth al such as be callyd 
syngyng me??, curyouse descawterys and deuysarys of 
new songys, wych tend only to vanyte ; and al such 
marchantys wych cary out thyngys necessary to the vse 
of our pepul, and bryng in agayn vayn tryfullys and con- 
ceytys, only for the folysch pastyme and plesure of man. 

1 MS. to the to other. 

2-2 The words enclosed in brackets are written at the foot 
of the page ; but without any reference as to where they 
should go in the text. 

3 In margin of MS. 


Al such, I say, and of thys sort many other, I note as 417 
personys yl occupyd, and to the co?remyn wele vnpro- 

22. Lvpse^. — Sir, in thys rnater also, me semyth, l. thinks Pole 

t0 ° severe ; 
you are a juge of to much seueryte ; for you wold haue 

no thyng suffryd in a commynalty hut that only wych 

ys necessary ; and so hy thys mean take al plesure from he objects to au 

. . pleasures and all 

mare, and al orname?itys lvom euery cowimyn Avele and ornaments being 

, t-, , lii taken away from 

cyte. .bor such mere as you now cal yl-occupyd per- man- 
sonys, as me semyth, are occupyd in the procuring ther- g^to'be m-^ 6 
of: that ys to say, of such thyngys as perteynyth to the occupied are 

' " >" " " r " " engaged in pro- 

ornameretys of the comniyn Avele in euery cuntrey. vidin s these 

23. Po7e. — blaster Lvpse£, you take me amys ; for p. does not want 

I-.-.,! , ■• 1 ^ ijt ito confine man to 

wold not hryng mare to lyue wyth such thyng only bare necessaries, 

wych ys necessary, *takyng away al plesure and veray [* Page 127.] 

orname?ztys from the coreimyn wele admyttyd hy gud 432 

pollycy, hut in hannyschyng such yl-occupyd personys but he would 

as I spake of hefor. I Avoid ha?mysch also, and vtturly ui-occapiea 

■ , n 1 7 , ■< persons of whom 

■cast out, al vayn plesure and vayn orname?rfcys hy cor- he has spo k en , 
rupt iugemewt commyrely approuyd, hryngyng in theyr ^^suref 
place veray true plesure of man and they true orna- and ornaments, 

r J x •> and bring in true 

ineretys of the veray co??zmyn wele, wherof we spake ? nes > sueh as rest 
hefore : wych stondyth nother in the gay apparele of tlie bod - v and the 

virtues of the 

the cytyzyns, nother yet in delycate metys and diywkys mind. 

nuryschyng the same, nor in non other thyng : m 441 

one word to say, perteynyng to the vayn plesure of 

the hody. But veray and true plesure restyth only in 

the helth of the hody and vertues of the mynd ; and 

they true ornauie»tys of the conirnyn Avele are foundyd True omame»tys 

" ° " " of a cu?itrey be as 

in the same, as hereaftur more playnly hyt schal appere. t " c £" < f r '' n ^1" 
Wherfor, I thynke justely I may cal al such yl-occupyd Those are justly 

called ill-occupied 

personys as he procurarys only of the vayn plesure of who provide only 
mare, wych no thyng perteyny th to the dygnyte of hys pleasures of man, 

, [, . ! 1 , n i i • and do nothing 

nature ; 01 the wych sorte, surely, many Ave haue here in for that whicn 
our curetrey, hy Avhome we may se thys polytyke hody gjj^j 8 
1 In margin of MS. nature - 



452 ys also greuusly dyseasyd, and much lyke to ma?mys. 
They are like a body trowblyd as byt were wyth a palsy. For lyke as 

man in a palsy, . " . ' 

ever moving and m a palsy, some partys be euer mouyng and schakyng, 
te^ngj-mf ° and lyke as they were besy and occupy d therwyth, but 

always about , o j. i .e * i_i t_ i 

r*pagei28j *° n0 proiyt nor plesure ot *the body; so in our cora- 
are unprofitable raynalty, certayn partys tber be wych euer be mouyng 
Paisy.i and sterryng, and alway occupyd, but euer about such 

purpos and mater as bryngyth notber profyt nor true 
460 plesure to the polytyke body. Wherfor, me semyth, , 

Master juwpset, hyt can not be denyd but that thys ys a 

nother greuus dysease. 
n is true, says 24. Lvpse^. — Troth hyt ys, wythout fayle, for many 

such ther be here in our curetrey. Let vs, therfor, aftur 

the course begonne, go forward to other, 
r. Another dis- 25. Po?e. — Syr, yet ther ys a nother dysease remen- 

yng behynd, wych gretely trowblyth the state of the 
468 hole body, the wych — though I somewhat stond in dowte 

whether I may wel cal hyt a dysease of the body or 

no — yet by cause (as physycyonys say) the body and , 

mynd are so knyt togyddur by nature that al sykenes. 

and dysease be co??zmyn to them both, I wyl not now 
473 stond to reson much herin, but boldly cal hyt a bodyly 

dysease ; and, breuely to say, thys hyt ys : — they partys 
is want of of thys body agre not togyddur ; the hed agreth not to 

agreement. ' 

the fete, nor fete to the handys ; no one parte agreth 
The temporality to other ; the te??zporalty grugyth agayn the sparit- 
the spirituality; ualty, the co??zmyns agayne the nobullys, and subyectys 

commons against . , n , , 

nobles ; a g a y n 'they rularys ; one hath enuy at a nother, one 

subjects against , . ■• n ,-, ■, ,-, n 

rulers; beryth malyce agayn another, one complaynyth oi a 

481 nother. They partys of thys body be not knyt togyddur, 

there is no as hyt were wyth sp[i]ryt and lyfe, in concord and vnyte, 

but dysseueryd asoundur, as they were in no case pa?*tys 

of one body. Thys ys so manyfest hyt nedyth no 

profe, for sure argumewtys therof are dayly amonge vs, 

486 both seen and hard in euery place. Wherfor of thys 

1 In margin of MS. 



dysease we nede not ferther to dowte, wych ys open to 487 
euery marmys ye. 

26. Lvpse£. — Thys cawnot be denyd ; but what dys- l. says it can't 

be denied; but 

ease wyl you lykku/j tbys vnto reynyng in ma?mys what disease is 
body, gud Master Pole 1 

27. "Pole. — Sir, me semytb byt may wel be lykkyn- Pestyiens.i 
nyd to a pestylence ; for lyke as a pestylens, wbere so a pestilence, 

answers Pole, 

euer hyt reynyth, lygbtly, and for the most parte, de- which regards 

no man. 

stroyth a * grete nombur of tbe pepul wythout regard of r* Pa g e 129.] 
any person had, or degre, so doth thys dyscord and 496 
debate in a commynalty, where so euer hyt reynyth, 
schortly destroyth al gud ordur and cyuylyte, and vt- 
turly takyth away al helth from thys polytyke body 
and trarcquyllyte. 500 

28. ItVpset. — Truly you say wel ; for eue?i so hyt l. owns this has 
hath byn from the begynnyng, I trow, of the world beginning of the 
vnto thys day. Thys hathe euer byn a grete destructyon wor ' 

to euery commyn wele ; thys hath destroyd more then 
any pestylens, as Lyuius wrytyth. 505 

29. Pole. — "Wel, thes, Master Lvpsef, wych I haue p. sayshewiii 

. . , , . now speak of the 

now notyd are the most comiuyn dyseasys, touchyng, as diseases which 
hyt were, the helth of thys polytyke body, wherof to beauty and 
speke we fyrst purposyd. Other ther be yet cowcernyng body?oimc! he 
the beuty and strenghth of the same, to the wych now 
we wyl dyrect our communycatyon. Ther ys a grete There is a want 
mysordur as touchy??g the beuty of thys same body, . 
wych fyrst you schal see. The partys of thys body be not 513 
proporcyonabul one to a nother : one parte ys to grete, priests are too 

n jiii l 1 j/i • 1 1 many, and good 

a nother to lytyl; one parte natn m hyt ouermany clerks too few; 

pepul, another ouerfew. As, prestys are to many, and 

yet gud clerkys to few ; monkys, frerys, and chanonys deformyte in the 


are to many ; and yet gud relygyouse men to few. 
Prokturys and brokarys of both lawys, wych rather proctors and 
trowbul mewnys causys then fynysch them justely, many, and good 
are to many ; and yet gud mynystrys of justyce are to g 
1 In margin of MS. 


522 few. M.erchantys, carying out thyngys necessary for our 

[♦Page 130.] owne pepul, are ouennany ; *and yet they wych schold 

servants and bryng necessarys are to few. Seniantys in mewnys 

are too many, housys are to many, craftys me»i and makers of tryfullys 

and craftsmen , 7 , •■ , « -i j /> i 

and tmers too are ™ many ; and yet gud artytycerys be to lew • and oc- 

These things cupyarys and tyllarys of the ground are to few. Aftur 

produce^ great fays, maner the partys in proportyon not agreyng, but 

hauyng of some to many, and of some to few, lene much 

530 enormyte, and make in thys poly tyke body grete and 

mo?zstrose deformyte. 

30. Lvpset. — Thys ys more euydent then may be 

denyd. Wherfor, procede, I pray you, ire your cora- 

534 muny[catyon]. 

The body is 31. Pole. — Ther ys also in the strenght of thys 

times past, and body perceyuyd no smal faute. Hyt ys weke and febul, 

!"ifagaiis d t efend no thyng so strong as hyt hath byn in tyme past. We 

enemies. are now & j. faj S tyme nother so abul to defend our 

539 selfe from iniurys of ennemys, nother of other by featys 

of armys to recouer our ryght agayn, as we haue byn 

here before tyme ; wych thyng schold be manyfestely 

knowne by sure experyence, yf occasyon of warre schold 

There never were hyt requyre ; for thys ys certayn and playn. Ther was 

captains as now, never so few gud captaynys here in our curetrey as ther 

be now, nor, as I thynke, neuer so smal nombur of them 

546 wych be exercysyd in dedys and featys of armys, in 

whome chefely stondyth the strenghth of euery cu??trey. 

as anybody may Thys ys clere to al them wych wyl co?zsydur wyth them- 

s8€ who will 

compare the selfe indyffere?2tly the state of our reame as hyt ys now, 

state of the realm 7 /» *-l __l .l-i j/i i i a j. i p i 

[* Page i3i.] anc *> cooler *nyt wytne tne old state before, when we 

ttwas/ What were ^ re( ^ an d f ear y^ °f 0llT ennemys and curetreys al 

about. Wherfor we nede not to dowte but that our 

553 cufttrey ys now weke, and no thyng so strong as hyt 

hath byn in old tyme. 

Debyiyte.i 32. Lvpset. 2 — Sir, as touchyng thys, when I re- 

l. says this is membyr the nobul actys of our aunceturys, by whose 

1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. Le. 


powar hath byn subcluyd both Skotland and Fraunce, I 557 
caw not but thynke hyt true that you say, and that our 
polytyke body ys not so strong as hyt hath byn in tyme 
past, nor as hyt schold be now of necessyte. Wherfor 
I wyl not be obstynate, but playnly confesse our weke- 
nes and debylyte. 562 

33. "Sole. — Thes are, blaster Lupse^, the most general p. says he wiu 

now speak of 

fautys commyn to the hole body wych now came to my particular faults. 

mynd as necessary to be spoken of for our purpos here 

at thys tyme. Wherfor now a lytyl we wyl examyn 

the fautys wych we schal fynde sundry in the p«rtys, Fautys in the 

partys sundry. 1 

as hyt were, sepa?*at from the hole ; as in the hede, 
handys, and fete, wych I before notyd here toresembyl 569 
thes partys in man?zys body. As, to the hede (yf you 
remerabyr) I resemblyd the offycerys and rularys in 
euery commynalty, in whose faute to se here in our cun- 
trey hyt ys no thyng hard ; for thys ys general almost 
to them al — both pryncys, lordys, byschoppys and pre- ah princes, lords, 
latys — that euery one of them lokyth chefely to theyr seek their own 
owne profyte, plesure, and commodyte, and few ther be pleasure, 
wych regard the welth of the commynalty ; but, vnder 577 
the pretense and colure therof, eue?y *one of them [*Pageis2j 
procuryth the pryuate and the syngular wele. Pryncys Princes and lords 
and lordys syldon loke to the gud ordur and welth of rents; 
theyr subiectys ; only they loke to the receyuyng of 
theyr rentys and reuenuys of theyr landys, wyth grete 582 
study of enhaunsyng therof, to the ferther maynteynyng 
of theyr pompos state ; so that yf theyr subiectys dow if these are paid, 
theyr duty therin, justely paying theyr rentys at tyme « 8 j n k or swim." 
appoyntyd, for the rest they care not (as hyt ys com- 
mywly sayd) " whether they synke or swyme." By- 
schoppys also, and prelatys of the church, you se how Prelates care only 
lytyl regard they haue of theyr Soke. So that they the flock, 
may haue the woll, they lytyl care for the sympul 
schype, but let them wandur in wyld forestys, in daunger 591 
1 In margin of MS. 


Judges seek of wolfys dayly to be deuouryd. Jugys and inynystrys 


of the law, you see now lytyl regard, also, they haue 

594 of gud and true admynystratyon of justyce. Lucur 

and affectyon rulyth al therin ; for (as hyt ys commynly 

"Matters be and truly also sayd) " materys be endyd as they be 

ended as they 

befriended;" frercdyd. Yf they juge be hys frend whose causeys 
intretyd, the mater lyghtly can not go amys, but euer 
hyt schalbe fynyschyd accordyng to hys desyre. Thys 

Thus it may be fautys you may see in offycerys and rularys both smxit- 

seen that in the 

Tiead is great uall and temporal ; wherby you may most playnly per- 


[* Page 133.] ceyue how lytyl they regard theyr *offyce and duty, by 

603 the reson wherof in the hede of thys commynalty ther 

ys reynyng a grete dysease, the wych, as me semyth, 

Frenecy.' may wel be comparyd to a frency. For lyke as in a 

and the state is frency matt co?2syderyth not hymselfe, nor can not tel 

as a man in a J J J J > 

frenzy. what ys gud, nother for hymselfe, nor yet for other, 

608 but euery thyng doth that cumyth to hys fancy, wyth- 
out any ordur or rule of ryght reson, so dow our offycerys 
and rularys of our curctrey (wythout regard other of 
theyr owne true profyt or of the comniyn, — forgettyng 
al thyng wych perteynyth to theyr offyce and duty) 
613 apply them selfe to the fulfyllyng of theyr vayn plesurys 
and folysch fantasye ; wherfor they be taken, as hyt were, 
wyth a coramyn frenesye. 

34. livpset. — Syr, thys ys wythout fayle true, nor 

cm not be denyd. 

it is the same 35. Pole. — Ther ys also, lykewyse, in the fete and 

hands: in the handys, wych susteyn the body and procure by 

620 labur thyngys necessary for the same, as hyt were, a 

commyn dysease. For bothe the fete and they handys, 

Plowmen and (to whome I resemblyd plowmen and laburarys of the 

negligent, ground, wyth craftys mew and artyfycerys, in procuryng 

of thyngys necessary) are neclygent and slo to the exer- 

cyse therof wych perteynyth to theyr offyce and duty. 

626 Plowme7j dow not dylygently labur and tyl they ground 

1 In margin of MS. 


for the bryngyng forth of hutys * necessary for the fode [*Pagei3*.] 
and sustena?ice of man ; craftys nie?i also, and al arty- 628 
fycerys, schow no les neclygence in the vse of theyr 
eraftys : by the reson wherof here ys in our cumtrey hence there is 

dearth and 

much darth therof and penury. penury. 

36. Lvpsef. — Sir, thys you dow, as me semyth, but l. requires proof 

, __ . , . of this. 

only say. You nother proue hyt by argume?ite nor 

37. Po?e. — Me semyth hyt nede no more to dow so, p. says it is clear; 
then to schow the lyght of the sone by a ca?^dyl, thys 636 

mater ys so open to euery ma?mys ye. For thes many 

and grete waste groundys here in our eimtrey, the grete look at the waste 

grounds, and the 

lake of vytayle and the skarsenes therof, and darth of lack of food, 
al thyng workyd by ma?mys hande, dow not only schow 
the grete neclygence of the rest of our pepul, but in the 641 
plowme?^ also and artyfycerys dothe arge and declare 
manyfest lake of dylygence. For thys ys sure — yf our 
plowme?? here were as dylygent as they be in other if plowmen and 

urtificcrs were us 

partys (in Fraunce, Italy, or in Spayne) we schold not diligent as they 
haue so much wast ground, voyd and vntyllyd, as ther pa rts, there 

7 r , o ii.lt_ m- j_ i would be less 

ys now ; and yf our artyfycerys applyd themselfe to la- waste Iandj an(t 
bur as dylygewtly as they dow in other cuntreys, we n ; s a s nu ^ctuL . f 
schold not haue thyngys made by ma?mys hande so 
skase and so dere as they be now here commyrcly. For 650 
thys ys a certayn truth, that the pepul of Englond ys our people are 

given to idle 

more gyuew to ldul glotony then any pepul of the world ; gluttony, 
wych ys, to al them that haue experyence of the man- 
erys of other, manyfest and playn. Wherfor *we may L* Page 135.1 
boldely affyrme thys clysease to reyne both in the handys 655 
and fete of thys polytyke body, and justely, as me 
semyth, compare hyt to agoute. For lyke as inagoute Goute.i 
the handys and fete ly vnprofytabul to the body, thehands and 
hauyng no powar to exercyse themselfe in theyr natural J^t' 8 
offyce, but be as dede, wythout lyfe and quyknes to 
procure thyngys necessary for the body ; so, in thys nee- po^tnij 
1 In margin of MS. 


662 lygence of the plowmen and artyfycerys, thys polytyke- 
body lytli as dede, wythout lyfe and quyknes, lakkyng 
al thyng necessary for the fode and natural sustenance 
of the same. Wherfor we may wel, for thys cause, 
compare thys dysease reynyng in thes pm*tys vnto the 
which renders goute in mannys body, wych so occupyth the handys 

hands and feet -i-i-ii «• 

useless. and the iete that they he not abul to dow theyr onyce 

669 and natural exercyse. 

(37.) And thus now, Master Jsvpset, you haue hard 
the most general dyseasys in thys polytyke body, and 
in the partys of the same, to the wych al other party- 
cular run vnto, non other wyse then smal brokys to 
674 grete ryuerys. "Wherfor, now folowyng our processe, 
we wyl go seke out the fautys and lake of thyngys 
necessary, and commodyouse also, for the maynteynyng 
Pemuia reru)» of the welth of thvs bodv ', wvch thyng to fynd ys no' 

comw»m'um(?)i J J ' J JO J J 

[* Page me.] thyng *hard. For I thynke ther ys no man so wythout 
eyes can see the yes but he seeth playnly the grete pouerty of thys reame, 
realm." and the grete lake of thyngys necessary and commody- 

681 ouse to the maynteynyng of a true co?nmyn wele. 

l. man-eis how 38. ItVpset. — Sir, in thys behalfe I can not agre 

considering 8 tii e wyth you, 2 but rather I maruayle that you can say so ; 

arantrj° fthe ^ or ^ys reame hath byn callyd euer rych, and of al 

Chrystundome one of the most welth ys. For, as touchyng 

686 wole and lede, tyn, yron, syluur and gold, ye, and al 

thyngys necessary for the lyfe of man, in the habundance 

wherof stondyth veray true ryches, I thynke our cuntrey 

may be comparyd wyth any other. Wherfor, me semyth,. 

you schold not complayne much of the pouerty of our 

691 reame. 

p. replies that 39. Po?e. — Master LupseZ, you speke lyke a man of 

like a manoftiie the °ld world and not of thys tyme. For thys ys vn- 

compares'the dowtyd and ce?-taynly true, that our yle hathe byn the 

present* the most welthy and rych ile of Chrystu^dome, and not 

696 many yerys of goo ; but yf you co??sydur hyt wel, and 

1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. you in. 


examyn the state therof as hyt ys now, co»iparyng hyt 697 
wyth the same in auncyent tyme, I suppose you schal 
fynd grete alteratyon therin. You schal fynd, for grete 
ryches and lyberalyte in tyme past, now grete wrechyd- 
nes and pouerty ; and for grete abmidance of thyngys 
necessary, grete skarsenes and penury. Wych thyng 702 
you schal not dowte of at al, yf you wyl fyrst loke to 
the grete multytude of heggarys here in our cu/ztrey in Look- at the 


thys lake and skarsenes *of pepul. For thys ys sure, [*Page!3:.] 

that in no cu?itrey of Chrysfrimdome, for the nombur of 

pepul, you schal fynd so many beggarys as be here in 707 

Englond, and mo now then haue byn before tyme ; wych 

arguth playn grete pouerty. Then, ferther, yf you 

herken to the complaynt of al statys and degres, you 

schal dowte of thys mater no thyng at al. The plow- au ranks, from 

the plowman to 

maw, the artyiycer, the marchant, the ge?itylmaw, — ye, the prelate, com- 

. , -l -i 7 14. i it. Plain of the lack 

lordys and pryncys, byscnoppys and prelatys, — al wyth f money. 
one voyce cry they lake money, and that they be no 714 
thyng so Avelthy and rych as they haue byn in ,tyme 
past. Thys ys the co??sent of al statys, no?? except, al 
in thys agre ; and hyt ys no thyng lyke that al schold 
complayn without a cause. "VVherfor, me semyth, hyt 
cannot be dowtyd but that ther ys here among vs grete 719 
pouerty. And as for the lake of thyngys necessary, who 
can deny, when he lokyth to the grete darth of corne, Look also at the 
catayle, vytayle, and of al other thyngys necessary, a and cattle and 
coramyn darth arguth grete lake 1 Yf ther were abund- 
ance and plenty, hyt coude not be long so dere ; for 724 
abundaunce euer makyth euery thyng gud chepe. 
AVherfor, now, in thys darth of al thyngys, we must 
nedys co?2fesse grete lake, penury, and skarsnes *of [*Pagei38.] 
thyngys necessary to the nrayntemmce of our co?nmyn 

40. Lvpset. — Sir, [as] x me semyth, thys ys not wel l. says beggary 
prouyd : for, fyrst, as touchyng [the] ' multytude of beg- povert>"but 
'MS. torn off. idleness; 


732 garys, hyt arguth no pouerty, but rather mu[ch] idulries 

and yl pollycy ; for hyt ys theyr owne cause and necly- 

ge?zce that they so begge ; — ther ys suffycyent enough 

here in our cuntrey of al thyngys to maynteyne them 

and as to the wy thout beggyng. And where as you bryng the com- 

ranks, why, men playnt of al statys for an argument of pouerty, me 

howeveTrich" semyth that prouyth hyt but sklendurly ; for thys ys 

they may be. gure — mew g0 ex ty me xyc^eg ana \ money, that yf they 

had therof neuer so grete abundaunce and plenty, yet 

741 they wold complayne; ye, and many of them fayn 

pouerty. You schal fynd few that wyl corefesse them- 

selfe ryche, few that wyl say they haue enough. How 

compare our be hyt, yf we wyl justely examyn the mater, and com- 

people with 

Italy, &e. pare our pepul of Englond wyth the pepul of other 

cuntreys, I thynke we schal fynd them most rych and 

747 welthy of any co?ranyns aboute vs ; for in Fraunce, Italy, 

and Spayn, the comniynys wythout fayle are more 

myserabul and pore then they be here wyth vs. And 

As for the lack as touchyng the darth and lake of thyngys necessary, 

of food, that is . 

the fault of the hyt ys wyth vs as hyt ys m al other placys. When the 

prouysyon of God sendyth vs sesonabul weddur for the 

753 frutys of the ground, then we haue abmzdaunce; and 

when hyt plesyth hym other wyse to pimnysch vs, then 

[♦Page 139.] we must lake, and lay no *faute in our pollycy. Wher- 

so don't lay aii for, me semyth, you nede not to lay to vs here in our 

this blame on us. 

cuwtrey thys grete poue?'ty, nor yet thys gret lake of 

758 thyngys necessary ; except hyt be such as co???myth by 

the prouydence of God, wych by no wyt nor pollycy of 

mare may be ameredyd. 

p. owns that the 41. PoZe. — M.aster luvpset, I haue spyd by you that 

poverty of other 

countries is you are loth to graunt your curetrey to be pore, specyaily 

greater than our 

own, when you compare hyt wyth other where you see grettur 

764 pouerty then wyth vs. But, Master Lvpse£, when we 

speke of the pouerty of our cu?itrey, we may not then 

co??ipare hyt wyth them wych be more pore then hyt ; 

for thys ys no dowte, but that ther ys grettur poue?-ty 


among the commyn pepul in other pa?-tys then wyth vs 768 

in Englond. But therin I wyl wyth you agre, blaster 

Lvpsef, "bycause we haue hefore our yes a true co???myn 

wele, as we haue descry hyd hefore, wych we wold set 

and stahul here in our cuwtrey. "We must therfor euer 

loke to that, schowyng al the fautys, mysordurys, and 773 

lakkys here among vs, wych may he any impedymeratys 

"therto. And so, although perauenture our curctrey be but it is poorer 

not so pore as many other he, yet thys ys sure, — hyt ys wiui so much 

more pore then hyt hath hyn in tyme past, and such flourish.' eannot 

pouerty reynyth now that in no case may stond wyth a 

veray true and. floryschyng co??imyn wele ; for thys ys 779 

sure, — that thys multytude of heggarys here in our cuw- 

trey schowyth much pouerty, ye, and, as you say, also 

much *idulnes and yl pollycy. Hyt ys no dowte hut [*Pagei4o.] 

hyt arguth suffycye^tly hoth, and thys complaynt These complaints 

•curayth not, as I sayd, also of nought ; for though hyt nothing. 

he so that men may dyssembyl and fayne grete pouerty, 

where as noft ys, yet I thynke, in dede, hyt ys not so 78G 

alway. Al men wold not so agre in dyssymylyng, some 

state schold he co?«tent, and no thyng cowplayn. But, 

Master "Lvpset, 1 thys ys certayn and sure, — the come of 

thys reame ys in few yerys maruelusly spent, wych you 

may know surely by the ahu?idance therof in other 791 

partys, where as you schal fynd as grete plenty therof 

as in the myddys of Englond. Wherfor, no dowte, ther 

ys gretyr pouerty then hath hyn in tyme past, and 

grettur then may (as I sayd) wyth the commyn wele 

and prosperouse state of our curctrey wel agre and stond. 796 

And so ther ys, lyke wyse, such lake of thyngys neces- The lack of com 

and things 

sary, wych cumyth not only by the co?nmyn ordynance necessary does 
and prouysyon of God, but for lake of gud ordur and finance of God. 
polytyke rule (as heraftur, when we schal seke out the 
ground and cause of the same, hyt schalbe more euydewt 
•and playn) ; such lake, I say, ther ys therof here among 
1 MS. le. 


803 vs that may not be suffryd wyth the true co?rcmyn wele. 

Wherfor, notwythstondyng that we haue not most ex- 

iiiis poverty treme poue?-ty, yet such hyt ys as hath not byn before 

must be re- , _ . .. 

formed. many yerys here rn our cuwtrey, and such as must be- 

reformyd, yf we wyl restore the comruyn wele aftur such 

[* Page 141.] * forme and fascyon as we haue descrybyd before, wyth 

809 a juste pollycy. 

l. owns the 42. JjTpset. — S*V, therin I agre to you wel. How 

poverty is greater 

than need be. be hyt, surely our cuntrey ys not so pore as many other 
be ; nor yet so pore as me thought, by your resonyng, 
813 you wold haue had me to confesse. But surely ther ys- 
grettur pouerty then nede to be, yf ther were among vs. 
gud pollycy ; for thys eue?y man may see, — that some 
haue to much, some to lytyl, and some neue?* a wyt. 
Wherfor, wythout fayle, a mysordur ther ys wherby 
818 rysyth thys pouerty. 

43. "Pole. — Hyt ys enough that you wyl now at the 
p. complains of last graunt me that. But now let vs loke ferther yet to 

the dirt and 

dilapidations of the vtward thyngys requyryd to the mayntenance of our 
"nd towns. S ' commyn wele in thys polytyke body. Dow you not see 
Male cuite a grete faute in our cytes, castellys, and townys, con- 

cernyng the byldyng and clene kepyng of the same V 
825 Ther ys no cure nor regard of them, but euery man for 
hys tyme only lyuyth and lokyth to hys plesure, wyth- 
out regard of the posteryte. 
l. quite agrees, 44. "Lvpset. — Surely that ys veray truth ; as touchyng 

and speaks of 

what he saw in the gudly byldyng of cytes and townys, I trow in the 

France. world ther ys not les regard then here in Englond, wych 

831 ys to al them manyfest wych haue byn laburyd and' 

trauaylyd in other pa?*tys. Me thought, when I cam 

fyrst into Flaunders and Fraunce, that I was translatyd, 

[* Page 142.] *as hyt had byn, into a nother world, the cytes and 

townys apperyd so gudly, so wel byldyd, and so clene 

kept ; of the wych ther ys in eue?y place so grete cure 

837 and regard, that euery towne semyd to me to stryue- 

1 In margin of MS. 


wyth other, as hyt had hyn for a vyctory, wyeh scbold 838 
be more heutyful and strong, bettur byld and clennur 
kept ; such dylygens they put al to that purpos. And, 
•contrary, here wyth vs they pepul seme to study to fynd 
meanys how they may quyklyst let fal into ruyn and 
•dekey al theyr cytes, castelys, and townys. Euery Here every 
gefttylma?? flyth into the cuwtrey. Few that inbabyt to the country 
■cytes or townys ; few that haue any regard of them ; by t0 ve " 
the reson wherof in them you schal fynd no pollycy, no 846 
cyuyle ordur almost, nor rule. 

45. "Bole. — Piaster Lvpse£, thys ys veray wel sayd p. thinks this 

i-toi-ii i i -i verv we ^ 8a *d' 

of you. Beior I had much to dow to make you to con- 

fesse such fautys as we spake of ; but now me thynke and asks him to 

go on. 

you wyl begyn to corcfyrme them, and to fulfyl your 
promys also, made at the begynnyng of our communy- 852 
•catyon : that was, to put me in remembraunce of such 
mysordurys as you also yourselfe, by long experyence, 
had notyd ; and I pray you, Master Lvpse£, so to dow. 

46. Isrpset — Wel, sir, seyng that you wyl haue me 

to take that parte apon me now, certayn thyngys wych 857 

I haue notyd as grete detrymerctys and hurtys to our 

■co?nmyn *wele, and, namely, co?^cernyng the vtward [* Page us.] 

thyngys requyryd to the mayntena?ice of thys polytyke 

iDody that you speke so much of, I wyl schow you. 

And fyrst, as touchyng the bryngyng in and carying out \oe a v<*ih «& 

•of thyngys necessary for vs, I haue obseruyd, as me He complains 

semyth, a grete faute here in our cu??trey ; for ther ys exports cattle, 

i n , t j j i n corn, wool, tin, 

•co?zuenauns ot many thyngys necessary to the vse of our i ea d : for which 

i ii t. i £c J i~ j.i j> l i we receive wines, 

pepul, more then may be wel sufferyd, both of catayl, fine cloths> silkSj 
and corne, wol, tyn, and led, and other metallys, wher- ^sucMrMes: 
of we haue no such abu?zdaunce, that our cmitrey wyth 
commodyte may lake so much. And for thes thyngys, 
wych ys worst of al, ther ys brought in such thyngys 
almost only as we may not only lake ryght wel, but such 
as be the destructyon of our pepul, and of al dylygent 872 
1 In margin of MS. Bead sfoaywyrj /cat tgaywyij. 


all of which we exercyse of art ys and craftys here in our crmtrey; as, 

should either « -. i n 

be better without, many sortys of clelycate wynys, fyne clothys, says and 
ourselves. ' sylkys, bedys, combys, gyrdyllys and knyfys, and a 

thousand such tryfelyng thyngys, wych other Ave myght 

wel lake, or els, at the lest, our owne pepul myght be 
878 occupyd wyth the workyng therof, wych now, by the 

reson therof, are much corrupt wyth idulnes and slothe. 

And in thys behalfe, me semyth, hyt ys a grete hurte to 
Hurtofciothyng.i the clotliyarys of Englond, thys bryngyng in of French 

clothe, the cause why I nede not to open, wych to eue?y 
The wines also maranys ye ys manyfest. And thys bry«gyng in of such 

impoverish the 

[*Page i«.] abuwdaunce ol wyne ys a grete i??rpoueryscnyng to *many 

gewtylme-n, wych nowadays can kepe no house wythout 

wyne5" 1g in ° f theyr sellarys ful of dyue?'se kyndys of wyne. Before 

887 tyme, I am sure, hyt was nothyng so, when thys land 

was more floryschyng then hyt ys now. Hyt causyth, 

as well as the also, much dru?zkennes and idulnes among our commyn. 

pepul and craftys me?i in cytes and townys, wych, 

drawen by the plesure of thes delycate wynys, spend 

892 theyr thryft and consume the tyme in co??zmyn tauernys, 

to the grete destructyon and ruyne of the pepul. 

p. says this is 47. PoZe. — Thys ys troth that you now say, but we 

truth ; but the 

fault is with the must take hede to lay the faute when as hyt ys ; for 
that ys the faute of the pepul, M.aster Isrpset, and not 
897 of the abimdaunce of wyne. 

48. liVJpset. — That ys troth, and yet, for al that, by- 
cause me?i are so prone of theyr corrupt nature and redy 
to plesure, me semyth hyt were nothyng amys yf the 
occasyon were taken from them, wych ys surely much 
902 incresyd by thys grete abu?zdaunce of wyne. I wold not 
l. would have yet nother but that some schold be brought in for the 

some wine, 

plesure of nobul men ; but herein mesure were gud. 
i3ry«gywg in of And so, lykewyse, of sylkys and says, cowuenyent hyt 
and says, ys that some we haue for the apparayle of the nobylyte ; 

nobility; ° " but yet therin I note a nother grete mysordur, in the 

1 In margin of MS. 


apparayle, I say, of our pepul. For now you se ther ys but aUwm have 
almost no marc co?itent to were cloth here made at home silks' from over 
in our owne curatrey, nother lynyn nor wolen, but euery 
maw wyl were such as ys made beyond the see, as cham- Poland f 

•> j j ■> J\ormandy.i 

let, says, fustyanys, and sylkys ; by the reson wherof and this rains 

home crafts. 

dyuers *craftys here fal in dekey, as clothyers, weuerys, [*Page us.] 
worstyd-makyrs, tukkarys, and fullarys, wyth dyue?-se 
other of the same sort. Thys thyngys folow, and be 915 
annexyd as comniyn effectys to the bryngyng in of such 
thyngys as Ave myght bettur lake, then haue in such 
abu??daunce as we haue now co?mny?dy. 

49. Po?e. — Thys wych you say I trow eue?y ma?z p. says none can 

deny it. 

seth. No man can deny them, who delytyth not in 
obstyuacy. 921 

50. JdVpset. — Ther ys a nother thyng as playn as l. Another fault 
thys, the wych, though hyt be in dede no les faute then 

the other, yet hyt ys taken for no?z at al, but rather 

for grete honowre and prayse, and that ys, 'the excesse Excesse in dyat.< 

in dyat, and the mysordur therin, wych al me?i of juge- 

me?zt playnly dow see ; for ther was neuer so grete 927 

festyng and ba?;kettyng, wyth so many and dyuerse 

kynclys of metys, as ther ys now in our days cowmy??ly 

vsyd, and specyally in mean me?mys housys. Now Now "a mean 

eue?y mean gentylma?a for the most parte wyl fare as fare as weu as 

wel as before tyme were wont pryncys and lordys ; and \™ ce » use 

thys they take for theyr grete honowre, wych, in dede, and tins they 

„ take as an 

ys a grete dyshonowre and manyiest destructyon and honour. 
detryme?zte to the commyn wele su?idry ways : as wel 935 
by nuryschyng many idul glottonys, wherof spryngyth 
much syknes, as by the bryngyng in also of grete 
skarsenes of catayl, corne, and al other vytayl ; for thys 
may be a co?nmyn prouerbe, "many idul glotonys "Many idle 

gluttons make 

make vytayle dere. victuals dear." 

51. "Pole. — Thys mysordur ys also manyfest. Hyt 
may not be wyth reson denyd. 942 

1 In margin of MS. 


Excessein 52. Lvpset. — And what thynke you in byldyng? 

Though men Thoughe you found a faute before in the yl byldyng of 

U [*PageH6.] our cytes and townys, yet, *me semyth, gewtylmew and 

th* degfef ^ the nobylyte are in that behalfe oue>- sumptuouse. They 

byld co?ftinynly aboue theyr degre. A mean maw wyl 

948 haue a house mete for a pry wee, wych, me semyth, ys 

no thyng cowuenyent to hys state and co??dycyon. 

p. says this is an 53. "Sole. — "Wei, "Master Lvpset, as touchy rig that, 

build of timber so long as they byld but of tymbur and stone here get 

and stone got at., . , ,-• , •. , , 

toome- a t home in our owne cuwtrey, wythout gyltyng and 

daubyng the postys Avyth gold, me semyth hyt may be 
954 sufferyd ryght wel ; for hyt ys a grete omamewt to the 
cuwtrey, and many mew are wel set a-worke therby. 
How be hyt, as you say, when mew wyl passe theyr 
state and degre, that myght be sparyd ryght wel. 
l. The result of 54. Lvpset. — Mary, Syr, that ys the thyng that I 

is decay from chefely note ; for now you schal see many me?? byld 
to keep it in more then they themselfe, or theyr heyrys and success- 
ors, be cottuenyently abyl to maynteyn and repayre. 
And so such housys as by some are byldyd to theyr grete 
963 costys and charge, by other are let downe, and sufferyd 
to fal into ruyne and dekey, bycause they were byldyd 
aboue theyr state, cowdycyon, and degre. 

55. Po7e. — Of that sort, Master Lvpset, you schal 
p. The greatest not fynd veray many. But the gretyst faute in our 
gilding the posts byldyng ys, the cowsumyng of gold apon postys and 

wallys ; for then hyt neuer cowmyth aftur to other vse 
970 or profyt, — only a lytyl for the tyme hyt plesyth the ye. 
f* Page 147.] Hyt ys a vayn pompe, * and of a late days brought in 
to our cuwtrey. 

56. "Lvpset. — They are no smal fautys bothe to- 
gyddur, nor caw not be excusyd by any gud reson. And 

take of tyiiage.i ferther, also, me semyth ther ys a grete faute in tyllage 
l. complains of of the ground. Ther ys no maw but he seth the grete 

the enclosing of 

arable lands. enclosyng \n ewery -parte of herabul land ; and where as 

1 In margin of MS. 


was come and fruteful tyllage, now no thyng ys but 978 
pasturys and playnys, by the reson wherof many vyl- 
lagys and townys are in few days ruynate and dekeyd. 

57. Pole. — Thys hath byn thought a faute many a p. approves of 
day ; but yf the mater be wel examynyd, perauenture 

hyt ys not so grete as hyt apperyth, and so ys jugyd of 
the commyn sorte. For seyng hyt ys so that our fode 984 
and nuryschyng stondyth not only in corne and frutys 
of the grounde, but also in bestys and catayl, no les 
necessary then the other, ther must be prouysyon for we must have 
the bredyng of them as wel as for the tyllyng of the and sheep for ' 

, , , . . , . . , - , wool, and without 

erthe, wych caw not be wythout pasturys and enclosure pastures we can 
of ground. For thys ys certayn, wythout pasturys such 
multytude of catayl wyl not be maynteynyd as ys re- 991 
quyryd to vs here in our cuntrey, where as lakkyth the 
manyfold and dyuerse frutys wych ys had in other cun- 
treys for the sustenance of man. "Wherfor, I thynke 
hyt veray necessary to haue thys inclosyng of pasturys 
for our catayl and bestys, and specyally for schepe, by 996 
whose profyte the Avelth *and plesure here of thys reame [♦ Page i*8.] 
ys much maynteynyd. For yf your plenty and aburcd- 
aunce of wolle were not here maynteynyd, you schold 
haue lytyl brought in by marchaundys ivom other partys, 
and so we schold lyue wythout any plesure or com- 
modyte. 1002 

58. "Lvpset. — Sir, as touchyng that, I reme??ibyr what l. says if we had 

ji« * 11.P j.i i_ i m fewer imports and 

you sayd before : — yf we had fewar thyngys brough[t] exports we Bll0uld 

in from other partys, and les caryd out, we schold haue abundanaTthan 

more commodyte and veray true plesure, much more now- 

then we haue now: thys ys certayn and sure. But 1007 

now to our purpos. Thys ys wythout fayle, that, 

seyng nature hath denyd vs many kyndys of frutys 

wych grow in other partys to the nuryschyng of the 

pepul, hyt ys necessary that we schold haue more increse 

of bestys and catayl then ther ys ther ; but yet you There is 

i i , i i , -i 7 moderation in 

know wel ther ys in al thyngys a mesure and mean. all things. 





To much cure of 
scliype, and lytyl 
of other bestys, 
horsey oxen. 1 
The sheep die of 
scab and rot, in 
consequence of 
the fat pasture. 



There is little 
attention paid to 
the breeding of 


and though we 
have much 
pasture we have 
few cattle. 



The pasture- 
farms get into 
the hands of a 
few rich men, 
and the poor are 

Ingrossyng of 

"We haue to much regard and study of the nuryschyng 
of schype and wyld bestys here in our cuwtrey. Hyt 
can not be denyd. And therfor me semyth we also are 
ofte-tymys justely pwjnyschyd therfore ; for commynly 
they dye of skabe and rottys in grete no??^bur, wych 
cumyth chefely, aftur myn opynyon, by cause they are 
nuryschyd in so fat pasture. For a schype by hys 
nature, and also a dere, louyth a lene, barren, and drye 
ground. Wherfor, when they are closyd in ranke pas- 
turys and butful ground, they are sone touchyd wyth the 
skabe and the rotte ; and so, though we nurysch ouei* 
many by inclosure, yet ouer few of them (as exp«yewce 
schowyth) come to the *profyte and vse of maw. And 
as touchyng other catayl and bestys of al sortys, I 
thynke wyth vs ther ys commywly oue;* lytyl regard of 
the bredyng of them. Few me» study the increse of 
that sort ; but as sone as they be brought forth, com- 
mynly they be other kyld where they are brede, or sold 
to them wych purpos not to bryng them vp to the cora- 
myw profyt. And so thys, notwythstondyng that we haue 
oue?' much pasture, yet we haue of such bestys ouer few 
wych are brought to the profyte of maw, and be neces- 
sary to the mayntenawce of the vtward wele of a com- 
mynalty ; of the wych thyng, perauereture, rysyth a parte 
of thys grete darthe both of vytayl and come, as I 
thynke here aftur, in hys place, you wyl more largely 
schow and declare. Now here hyt ys suffycyent for me 
to note thys as a co?ranyn faute, and that hyt ys no 
thyng necessary for the nuryschyng of our bestys to 
haue so grete inclosurys of pasturys, wych ys a grete 
dekey of the tyllage of thys reame ; and specyally when 
the fermys of al such pasturys nowadays, for. the most 
parte, are brought to the handys of a few and rycliar 
men, wych wyl gyue other gretyst rent or fyne for the 
vse therof ; wych thyng I note as a nother grete faute 
1 In margin of MS. 


concernyng our purpos now intendyd. For by thys 1049 

bothe they pore mew are excludyd from theyr lynyng, 

and, besyde that, the ground also wors tyllyd and inhaunsyng of 

re/itys. 1 

occupyd, remeynyng in the handys of them who therof 

take lytyl regard. Thes few thyngys now are come to 

my mynd, wych I haue notyd, concernyng the *dekey [*Pa g ei5o.] 

of ryches and other vtward thyngys necessary to the 1055 

welthy mayntenance of our polytyke body. How be 

hyt, to say the truthe, thes same al folow and be an- 

nexyd and couplyd to such fautys as you yourselfe 

notyd before. 

59. "Sole. — I caw not tel you that, but yf hyt were 1060 
so in dede, yet hyt ys not much amys to haue them more 
partycularly exercysyd, wych you in few wordys haue 
suffycyently downe. Wherfor now, Mastur ~Lvpset, aftur p. says it remains 
that we haue notyd the most general fautys and mys- the"misorders" 
ordurys that we can fynd now at thys tyme, bothe in ment^nhe™' 
the polytyke body and also in the vtwarde thyngys of 8tate> 
necessyte requyryd to the welthy state and veray com- 1067 
myn wele here of our cuwtrey, thys remeynyth (accord- 
yng to the proces of our communycatyon at the begyn- 
nyng appoyntyd) to note also, and, aftur the maner 
beguw, schortly to touch the mysordurys and yl gouern- 
awce wych we schal fynd in [the] ordur and rule of the 1072 
state of our curctrey ; the wych ordur and rule we before 
haue declaryd to resembyl the soule in maraiys body. 
For euen lyke as the soule gyuyth lyfe, gouernyth, and 
rulyth the body of mm, so doth cyuyle ordur and poly- 
tyke rule (as we sayd before) gouerne and stabyl the 1077 
polytyk body in euery cu?ztrey, cyte, and towne. And Fautys in the 
here, Master 'Lvpset, aboue al, we must be dylygent, for it is more 

difficult to spy 

as much as hyt ys more hard *to spy the fautys therin, [*Pageioi.] 
then such as we haue notyd before. For lyke as hyt ys than it has been 

, . . ,ii- ii with those 

mucli easyar also to spy the sykenes in ma?znys body already noted; 
then the syknes of mynd wych many men perceyue no- 1083 
1 In margin of MS. 


1084 thyng at al, wych then be indede most greuusly dys- 

easyd when the[y] lest perceyue hyt ; so I feare me that 

and we have we haue many dyseasys or mysordurys (cal them as you 

many disorders 

which are unfeit. wyl) here in the ordur and gouernawce of our curatrey, 

wych no thyng at al are perceyuyd nor felt ; for they 

are 1 , by long custume and. law in processe of tyme, so 

1090 growne among vs, so cowfyrmyd in our hartys, that we 

hardly caw cowceyue any faute to remayn therin. But 

I trust I schal not haue you so styffe, Master Lvpse£, 

nor so fer from true jugemerat, but that you wyl gyue 

place euer to reson manyfest and playn. 

1095 60. liTpset. — That I wyl surely, yf I may perceyue 

hyt, for I neuer louyd blynd obstynacy ; but, contrary, 

l. win be careful I schal beware, as nere as I can, that you schal not make 

too much. me to graunt such thyngys to be mysordurys and fautys 

1099 wych in dede are no??, at al. 

61. Po7e. — Thys I remembyr we agred apon before ; 
but yet, bycause hyt ys a gud poynt, I am wel content 
that we agre apon thys bargyn onys agayne. And thus 
1103 now let vs begyn. 


p. says England 1. [Pole.] — Hyt ys not vnknown to you, Master 

many years Lvpse£, that our cuwtrey hathe byn gouernyd and rulyd 

princes* whose thes many yerys vnder the state of pryrccys, wych by 

pSi^^wht.* they 1 re S al P owar and prywcely authoryte, haue jugyd 

[* Page 152.] *al thyngys perteynyng to the state of our reame to 

6 hange only apon theyr wyl and fantasye ; insomuch that, 

what so euer they euer haue co??ceyuyd or purposyd in 

theyr myndys, they thought, by and by, to haue hyt put 

in effecte, wythout resystens to be made by any pn'uate 

1 MS. are so. 2 In margin of MS. 


mare and subyecte ; or els, by and by, they haue sayd that 10 

mere schold mynysch theyr pryrecely authoryte. For 

what ys a pryrece (as hyt ys coreimyrely sayd) but he may 

dow what he wyl ? Hyt ys thought that al holly hang- 

yth apon hys only arbytrymeret. Thys hath byn 

thought, ye, and thys yet ys thought, to perteyne to the 15 

maiesty of a pryrece — to moderate and rule al thyng 

accordyng to hys wyl and plesure ; wych ys, wythout 

dowte, and euer hath byn, the gretyst destructyon to This has been a 

great destruction 

thys reame, ye, and to al other, that ewer hathe come to this realm. 

therto. Thys I coude declare to you, yf hyt were nede, 

by long and many storys ; but I thynke ther ys no mare 21 

that equally wyl coresydur the state of our reame, but he 

seth thys ryght wel. For, Master Lvpse£. thys ys sure 

and a gospel word, that curetrey care not be long wel No country can 

prosper under a 

gouernyd nor maynteynyd wyth gud pollycy where al long not chosen 

by election. 

ys rulyd by the wyl of one, not chosen by electyon, but 

co?reinyth to hyt by natural successyonj for *syldon [* Page 153.] 

Kings by succes- 

seen hyt ys that they wych by successyon co/reme to sion are seldom 
kyngdomys and reamys are worthy of such hye au- 
thoryte. 30 

2. "Lvjiset. — Sir, take you hede here what you say ; l. implores Pole 
for thys poynt that you now touch wyl seme, perauereture treason. 

to many, to sowne to some treson. For what ! Wyl you 

make a kyng to haue no more powar then one of hys 

lordys 1 Hyt ys commyrely sayd (and, I thynke, truly) a 35 

kyng ys aboue hys lawys ; no law byndyth hym ; but He thinks a king 

that he, beyng a pryrece, may dow what he wyl, bothe 

lose and bynde. Thys, I am sure, ys commyrely 

thought among the nobullys here of our reame, ye, and 

al the hole co?remynalty. 40 

3. Tole. — Master Lvp^W, thys ys one of the thyngys p. says this is 
that I spake of at the begynnyng, wherby we are diseases, and the 
dyseasyd and perceyue hyt not, by the reson wherof we m^ many 
are bothe in more grefe and daunger also ; but yf we 

wyl examyn thys mater wel, we schal sone fynd such 45 


46 faute therin that we may wel cal hyt the rote of many 
it is ail very well other. For thys ys sure — lyke as hyt ys most perfayt 

if the prince is ' 

worthy, but very and excellent state oi pollycy and rule to be gouernyd 

is unwortiiy: hy a prywce, and al thyng to he suhiecte to hys wyl (so 

that he he suche a one that in wysdome and vertue he 

51 so fer excellyth al other as doth the maiesty of a pryrace 

[♦page 154.] the pn'uate state *of the sympul commynalty) so hyt 

ys of al the most pestylewt and pernycyouse state, most 

ful of peryl, and to the commyn welth most daungerouse, 

to he rulyd hy one, when he ys not of suche hye vertue 

56 and perfayte wysdome that, for the same only, he ys to 

he preferryd ahoue al other, and most worthy therfor to 

he rular and pry?ice. Wherfor, sythen hyt ys so, that 

as, for one worthy our prywcys are not chosen of the most worthys hy 

there are many . , _ , -, . 

unworthy. electyon, but by the ordur oi our reame, how so euer 

hyt chaunce, come hy successyon, I thynke hyt no thyng 
62 expedyent to commyt to them any such authoryte and 
prywcely powar, wych ys to syngular vertue and most 
perfayt wysdome only due and cowuenyent. For 
though hyt he so that some one may chaunce hy succes- 
syon to he borne worthy of such authoryte, yet thys ys 
67 sure, — bycause syldom that happenyth, and many for 
it is better to one be no thyng worthy the same, — that bettur hyt ys 
ment by * par " to the state of the commyn wele, to restreyne from the 
pry/ice such hye authoryte, co?ranyttyng that only to the 
commyn counseyl of the reame and parlyamewte as- 
Prerogatyfe.' semblyd here in our cu/ztrey. For such prerogatyfe in 
powar grauntyd to pryrccys ys the destructyon of al 
74 lawys and pollycy. Thys you may almost in experience 
[* Page 155.] dayly see; for ther be few lawys *and statutys, in 
Licence from the pa?*lyame7itys ordeynyd, but, by placardys and lycercce 
pensations from opteynyd of the prynce, they are broken and abrogate, 
harm^ 6 ' ° an & so *° the commyn wele dow lytyl profyt ; euen lyke 
as dyspewsatyonys haue dow in the Popys law, wych 
80 hathe byn the destructyon of the law of the churche. 
1 In margin of MS. 


Wlierfor tyl thys be redressyd, lytyl schal liyt avayle to 81 

deuyse neuer so gud statutys, ordynancys, and lawys, 

wych now be but as snarys set for a tyme, aftur, at the 

lyberty of the prynce, to be losyd agayne. Thys ys the 

rote and mother of many mysordurys here in our cuwtrey. 85 

Nor you schal not thynke that a prynce were then in a prince would 

,- Pill 1 1 1 1 1 n0t tDen ^ ' n 

wors case then any ot hys lordys, wych hath lyberty to worse case than 

dow what he wyl ; but, contrary, forasmuch as to Mow 

reson ys veray true lyberty, the pry nee ys no thyng in 

boundage therby, but rather reducyd to true lyberty. 90 

And whereas you say the kyng ys aboue hys lawys, 

that ys partely true and necessary, and partely both 

false and pernycyouse. And schortly to say, so long as 

the kyng ys lyuely reson, wych ys the only hede and 

rular of reamys by the ordur of nature, so long, I say, 95 

he ys aboue hys lawys, wych be but, as you wyl say, 

rayson dome, hauyng no powar to consydur the cyrcum- 

sta??cys of thyngys ; but when the prynce ys lyuely, or, 

rather, dedely affectyon, then, I say, he ys subiecte to 99 

hys lawys, and bounden to be obedyente to the *same, [* Page isc.] 

wych obedyence ys, in dede, true lyberty. For, be you 

assuryd, thys ys a grete faute in euery reame, — any one it is > a great 

fault for one man 

maw to haue such authoryte to dyspense wyth the com- to be able to 

myn lawys and wyth the transgressorys and brekarys of the laws, and it is 

the same ; to dystrybute al grete promocyonys and tyranny. 

offyce ; to make and breke legys and peace wyth other 

natyonys and pryncys about ; — to leue, I say, al such 107 

thyngys to the fre wyl and lyberty of one, ys the open 

gate to al tyranny. Thys ys the grounde of the de- 

structyon of al cyuylyte, thys enteryth and turnyth vp so 

downe al polytyke ordur and rule. For thys ys sure — 

the wyt of one cowmynly can not compas so much as One can't com- 

.. r> ^^ <• P ass M mucn 

the wyt of many m materys ot pollycy; tor hyt ys as many; 
commynly sayd " many yes see bettur then one." Wher- "many eyes see 

better than one." 

for, to be schort, and so to conclude, to attrybute so 

much to the wyl and plesure of one, can not be wythout p^r^f 



the ruin of the 

L. is surprised 
at this, and 
thinks a prince, 
without the 
authority of a 
prince, would 
give much 
trouble to the 


[* Page 157.] 


P. says if they 
were chosen for 
their virtues, 

they might have 


hut usurped 
authority, or 
authority by 
is pernicious ; 
and though we 
have a wise 
prince now, 
still it is a fault, 


[* Page 158.] 


the grete ruyne and destructyon of the commyn wele, 
and of al gud and iust pollycy. 

4. "Lvpset. — S/r, I maruayle much at your communy- 
catyon ; for me semyth you alow the state of a pryrcce, 
and wold not but that we schold be gouernyd therby, 
and yet you wyl not gyue hym the authoryte of a pryrcce, 
wych stowdyth in thys, that by hys regal powar gyuera 
to hym by the coftsent of the hole commynys, he may 
moderat al thyng accordywg to hys plesure and wyl; or 
els hyt schold be necessary to cal veray oft the commyn 
co?iseyl of parlyament, and so oft as any grete causys 
incydent requyryd the same, wych perteyne to the hole 
body of the *reame ; wych were no smal trowbul to the 
co??miyns of thys reame. Therfor I can not see but yf 
you wyl haue a kyng, you must also gyue hym the 
powar pe?-teynyng to the maiesty of the same. 

5. "Pole. — Master Lvpsef, yf kyngys and pry?icys in 
reamys were by electyon chosen, such as, of al other, 
for theyr pryncely vertues, were most worthy to rule, 
hyt were then veray co?2uenyent they schold haue al 
such authoryte as ys awnexyd to the same ; but sythen 
they be not so, but come by successyon, you see they be 
syldom of that sorte, as I sayd before, but, rulyd by 
affectyon, draw al thyng to theyr syngular lust, vayn 
plesure, and iwordynat wyl. Hyt can not be denyd but 
to the commyn wele such authoryte, other vsurpyd or 
by prerogatyue gyuen therto, ys pernycyouse and hurt- 
ful to the commyn wele ; and here in our cuwtrey (frely 
to speke betwyx you and me) a grete destructyon to our 
curctrey, wych hath byn perceyuyd by our for-fatherys 
days, at dyuerse and many tymys, and schold be also now, 
yf we had not a nobul and wyse pry??ce, wych ys euer 
content to submyt hymselfe to the ordur of hys conseyl, 
no thyng abusyng hys authoryte. But *al be hyt 
that he of hys gudnes abusyth hyt not at al, yet, to vs 
wych now study to fynd al fautys in the pollycy and 


rule here of our cuwtrey, hyt may wel appere to be 153 
notyd as a grete faute, for as much as lie may abuse hyt as he may abuse 

his authority if 

yf lie wyl, and no restreynt ys had therof by the ordur he win. 
of our law ; but rather, by law such prerogatyue ys 
gyuen to hym, in so much that, as you sayd ryght wel 
before, hyt ys almost treson to speke any thyng agayne 158 
the same. Therfor we may not dowte but hyt ys a 
faute, and much more the greuus bycause we are bend 
to the defence of the same, and skant perceyue thys 
grefe in our pollycy. 

6. "Lvpset. — Sir, thys I can not deny, but that a l. asks how the 

, fault can be 

faut ther ys, as me semyth, therm ; but how hyt schold redressed ? 

be redressyd and reformyd agayne, I can not yet se, but 

by much more incorcuenyence insuyng the same. 166 

7. PoZe. — Wel, as for that, we schal see when tyme p. replies, 

m i We'll see about 

and place hyt schal requyre. Now let vs bo[ljdly that another 
affyrme thys to be a grete mysordur in the polytyke rule 
here of our curctrey, seyng the kyngys here are taken by 
successyon of blode, and not by fre electyon, wych ys successyon of 


in our pollycy a nother grete faute and mysordur also, 

and of vs now specyally to be notyd, seyng that we haue 173 

purposyd before, euer as a marke to schote vnto, the 

veray and true commyn wele, wych can not long stond 

in such state whereas pryweys are euer had by successyon Kings by suc- 

cession are a 

of blode; * specyally yf we wyl gyue vnto hym suche [* Page 159.] 

. great fault, as 

regal and pryrccely powar as we dow in our cuwtrey ; for they generally 
though some tyme hyt may fortune such a prywee to be 
borne wych wyl not abuse such powar, yet, for the 180 
most parte, the contrary wyl haue place. Wherfor we 
now, wych seke the best ordur, must nedys cowfesse thys 
thyng to be a faute in pollycy ; for in al lawys and po- 
lytyke ordur, thys ys a rule — such thyng to determe as, 
for the most parte, ys best, though some tyme the con- 185 
trary may happu/?. and fal. How say you, ys hyt not 
so, blaster ~Lvpset 1 

1 In margin of MS. 


l. hardly knows 8. IiYpset. — Syr, in. thys mater I can skant tell you 

while Pole's' what I schal say; for a the one parte, when I here 

reasons seem , r i -l i 7 i i n 

probable, y° ur resonys, me seme they are probabyl and lyke the 

tobfaSnsT" 13 tmth > but a tlle 0ther S y de ' wllen X loke to the eX P e " 

them. ryence, and cowsydur the mane?ys, custome, and nature 

193 here of our curetrey, 1 me semyth the contrary, and that 
hyt schold be veray expedyent to haue our prywce by 
successyon of blode, and not by electyon ; in so much as 
the ende of al lawys and polytyke rule ys to kepe the 
cytyzyns in vnyte and peace and perfayte cowcorde 

Nothing more among themselfe. For in no curctrey may be any grettur 

hurtful than civil 

war, and pestylens, or more pernycyouse, then cyuyle warre, 

sedycyon, and dyscordys among the partys of the po- 
[*Page i6o.i lytyke body. Thys ys the thyng that hathe * destroy d 
202 al coramyn welly s, as to you hyt ys bettur knowen then 
to me. Wherfor we must beware of al occasyon of such 
myscheffe, to the wych, aftur myn opynyon, your sen- 
tence makyth a way. For what thyng may be deuysyd 
occasyon of more stryffe among vs, then to chese our 
207 kyng by electyon of lordys and perys of the reanie 1 For 
if we chose our then euery ma?i wold be kyng, euery maw wold juge 
civil war would' bymselfe as mete as a nother ; and so, ther schold be 
neyause. f a cyon and party s, wyth grete ambycyon and enuy; 
and so, also, at the end, euer sedycyon and cyuyle warre. 
212 For our pepul be of that nature that, yf they had such 
lyberty, surely they wold abuse hyt to theyr owne de- 
structyon. . Therfor, me semyth, for as much as we be 
vsyd to take our prywce by successyon of blode, thys 
216 fre electyon that you so prayse may not be admyttyd. 
p. says though 9. PoZe. — Wei, Master LvpseZ, nothwystondyng 

Lem e to S be e good, S that by gud reson you seme to defend thys custume 
they are easily \ on g ysyd in our reame and natyon, yet, yf we remembyr 
our purpos wel and, ordur of resownyng, hyt schal be no 
thyng hard to take away your reson at al. Thys you 
222 know ys our purpos, — to fynd out the best ordur that, 
1 " pepul " written above. 


by prudent pollycy, may be stablyschyd in our * reame [*PageiGi.] 

and cuntrey, and to fynd al fautys wych repugne to the 

same, of the wych thys I notyd to be one pryncypal 225 

and chefe. For what ys more repugnant to nature, 

then a hole natyon to be gouernyd by the wyl of a 

pry/zee, wych euer folowyth hys frayle fantasy and vn- 

rulyd affectys 1 What ys more contrary to reson then al 229 

the hole pepul to be rulyd by hym wych co?nmynly 

lakkyth al reson. Loke to the Eomaynys, whose com- The Romans and 

Greeks always 

myn wele may be exampul to al other, wych, lyke as elected their 

theyr consullys, so lykewyse theyr kyngys, chose euer 

of the best and most excellent in vertue. loke, also, 234 

vnto Lacedemonia, and in al other nobul cuntrey s of 

Grece, where the pepul were rulyd by a prynce, and you 

schal fynd that he was euer chosen by fre electyon. 

Thys successyon of pryncys by inherytaunce and blode succession by 

inheritance was 

was brought in by tyrannys and barbarus pryncys, brought in by 
wych, as I sayd, ys contrary to nature and al ryght 
reson ; wych you may se, also, more euydently, by suc- 
cessyon in pnuate famylys, wherin you see that yf the 
sone be prodygal and gyuen to al vyce and foly, the 
father ys not bounde to make hym hys heyre ; where as 244 
ys gud pollycy, but hath lyberty to chose hym anoother 
where as he thynkyth conuenyent and best. Much 
more hyt ys to be admyttyd in a reame, that yf the 
prynce be not mete to succede hys father, that then a 
nother ys to be * chosen by the fre electyon of the cyty- [*Page issl] 
zyns in the cuntre. "Wherfor we may thys surely con- 
clude, that best hyt ys for the conseruatyon of polytyke 251 
ordur and iust pollycy, a prynce to be chosen by fre 
electyon at lyberty. And yet, "NLaster Lvpse£, I wyl 
not say nor affyrme, but as the state of our reame stm he thinks 
ys, and here in our natyon, hyt ys bettur to take hym country to take 
by successyon of blode, for the avoydyng of al such succession. y 
dyscorde, debate, and confusyon as you before sayd; but, 
~M.aster Lvpsef, that ys not best of hys nature, wych, of 258 


259 ij thyngys wych "both be yl, ys only the bettur. Troth 
As our people and hyt ys, as our pepul be now affectyd, and as the state 

country now are, 

succession is bad, of our reame ys, yl hyt ys to take our pry?ace by succes- 

worse. syon, and much wors by fre electyon ; and yet yf we 

wyl stablysch a true commyn wele wythout al tyranny, 

264 and wythout al wrechydnes of the pepul and rnysery, 

we must nedys graunte thys best to he, and most con- 

uenyent to nature, to take a prywce electyd and chosen 

of al other for hys wysdome and vertue most worthy 

to reyne. We may not consydur what ys best and most 

269 corauenyent to our pepul now as they he, hut what 

schold be most conuenyent to them gouernyd and rulyd 

by cyuyle ordur and resonabul lyfe, accordyng to the 

He maintains excellent dygnyte of the nature of man. And thys ther 

that both their 

opinions are ys no repugnance betwyx your opynyon and myne in 

thys grete mater, for both be true, yf we ponder them 

[♦Page 168.] aftur such maner as I haue * before sayd and openyd at 

large. Therfor, yf you thynke best, let vs procede 

ferther in our co/nmunycatyon ; for thys ys sure — both 

to gyue to our prynce such regal powar and hye pre- 

rogatyfe, and also to haue hym by successyon of blode, 

280 y s a grete faute in our pollycy and much dystant from 

al cyuyle ordur. 

l. can see it is 10. "Lvpset. 1 — StV, you haue now satysfyd me ryght- 

to have our king wel ; for now I see that, notwythstondyng that hyt ys 

y succession, 'bettur, as our pepul are affecte, to haue our prynce by 

but if we would successyon of blode, yet, yf they wold lyue in true 

liberty, we should lyberty and obserue the cyuyle lyfe conuenyent to the 

elect him. nature of man, best hyt were to haue hym chosen by fre 

288 electyon. Therfor, I pray you, go forward, and let vs 

examyn some other mysordurys in our pollytyke ride 

and ordur of lyfe. 

p. a like fault is 11. "Pole. — A lyke faute vnto thys, but not so grete, 

primogeniture, ys in the successyon of pri'uate men. You know by 

in pwuat the ordur of our law. the eldysft] brother succedyth, ex- 

successyon.* L J 

1 MS. Le. 2 In margin of MS. 


cludyng al the other from any parte of inherytaunce. 294 
Thys ys a thyng, as me semyth, fer out of ordur, vtturly 
to exclude the yongur hretherne out of al potrtys of the 
herytage, as though they were not the chyldur of that 
father nor bretherne to the heyre. Reson and nature Reason and 

. ill-ill i nature require 

vtturly requyryth that they chyldur, wych be as partys that children of 
of the father and mother, schold also be admyttyd to should share the 
partys of the patrymony, that, euen lyke as *they haue ^[.p^fiM.] 
brought them forth in to the lyght, so theyr godys 302 
myght maynteyn and succur them aftur in theyr lyfe. 
Wherfor, vtturly to exclude them ivom al, as though None should he 

excluded asthough 

they had commyt some grete offence and cryme agayn they were guilty 

of crime. 

theyr parewtys, ys playn agayn reson, and semyth to 
mynysch the natural loue betwyx the father and the 
chyld, and also increse enuy and hates betwyx them 
wych nature hath so bounden togyddur. For betwyx 309 
bretherne 1 vndowtydly thys thyng squeakyth much of 
the broderly loue wych nature hath plantyd and rotyd. 
And so thys may not be denyd to be a nother mysordur 
in our polytyke rule and gouernarcce. 313 

12. "Lvpset. — Syr, as touchyng thys, I maruayle l. marvels much 
much also what you mean. Me semyth you are aboute esteems as faults 
to take vtturly away our pollycy and hole ordur of thys honour. "" 
our reame. You note such thyngys to be fautys wher- 

in restyth al the honowre of our cuwtrey, and wych ys 318 
the ground of al gud ordur and cyuylyte. I trow here 
aftur you wyl geddur and note many grete fautys and 
mysordurys in many other thyngys, that thys begyn of 
such thyng wych I and many mo take for gud law 
and pollycy. 323 

13. "Sole. — Wei, as for that, Master Lvpse£, you p. says to try to 

, tj-ii j.j.j.iij>j.- treat of all faults 

know wel that we purpos not to touch al iautys m our were folly# 
maner of lyuyng ; for that, as I sayd at begynnyng, 
wer infynyte and grete foly, but only to note such 
thyngys as in general repugne to the co??imyn wele 328 
1 " brother and brother," written aboue. 


329 before descry by d, and such, as, for the most parte, are 

[* Page 165.] taken for no fautys at al ; * of the no?nbur of whome ys 

thys wych we speke of now, and other perauewture we 

p. asks what schal, as tyme requyryth, open and touch. But, Master 

the laws of Tjvpset, to retorne to the purpos, let me here a lytyl 

inheritance. i • ,-, , i , . , 

your mynd m thys mater some what more at large. 
335 1 4. Lvpse/. — Syr, wyth a gud wyl. Fyrst, me thynk- 
yth that thys may be a sure and certayne ground for the 
l. says laws rest of our coramunycatyon — that lawys are made for 

were made for 

the people, not the pepul, and for the ordur of them, and not the pepul 

the laws : for the lawys ; the wych, therfor, must be applyd some 

what to the nature of them. Wherfore, al such lawys, 

341 ordynyarccys, and statutys, wych cowteyne the pepul 

in gud ordur and rule, are to be alowyd and iustely to 

be receyuyd. Thys, I thynke, was wel corcsyderyd of 

them wych fyrst instytute thys law of inherytaunce. 

Englishmen are They wel coresyderyd the nature of our pepul, wych by 

have' heads or nature be somewhat rude and sturdy of mynd, in so 

andThes^ heads much that yf they had not in euery place some hedys 

bythi8 8 iawof an< ^ gouernarys to tempur theyr affectys rude and vnruly, 

inheritance. theyr wold among them be no ordur at al ; and ther- 

350 for hyt was not wythout cause, as hyt apperyth, or- 

deynyd and stablyschyd, that in euery grete famyly the 

eldyst schold succede, to maynteyne a hede, wych, by 

authoryte, dygnyte, and powar, schold bettur cowteyne 

354 the rudenes of the pepul. For thys ys both certayn 

inands of great and sure — that yf the landys in euery grete famyly 

divided between were dystrybutyd equally betwyx the bretherne, in a 

families would smal processe of yerys they hede famylys wold dekey, 

ecay- and by lytyl and lytyl vtturly vanysch away ; and so 

they pepul schold be wythout rularys and hedys, the 

360 wych then, by theyr rudenes and foly, wold schortly 

dysturbe thys quyat lyfe and gud pollycy, wych by 

many agys they haue lade here in our curatre : such 

schold be the dyssensyon and dyscorde one wyth another. 

[*Page io6.] And so, me semyth, the mayntenance of thes hedys *ys 


the mayntenaurcce of al cyuyle ordur and poly tyke rule 365 

here in our natyon. Wherfor, Master Pole, yf you take Take away this 

law, and you ruin 

thys away, hyt apperyth playnly you schal take away our nobility, 
the foundatyon and ground of al otir cyuylyte ; and, the commons, 
besyd thys, you schal therwyth bryng in the ruyne of 
al nobylyte and auncyent stokkys. For yf you from no- 370 
bullys onys take theyr grete possessyonys, or mynystur 
any occasyon to the same, you schal, in processe of 
yerys, corcfounde the nohyllys and the coramynys to- 
geddur, aftur such maner that ther schalbe no dyfferens 
hetwyx the one and the other. Thys apperyth to me, 375 
except, Master Pole, you caw answere to thes resonys, 
wych seme playnly to conclude contrary to your sen- 
tence. For as touchyng that you say thys mane?* of in- He cannot grant 

i i i n it tnat ** ' s contrary 

heryta?zce to be contrary to the law of nature, that I can to the law of 
not graunt, for as much as the dyspo[sy]tyon of thes 
worldly godys lyth not ewer in the fre wyl of man, to 
dyspose at hys lyberty ; but, by ordur of law cyuyle, 
may be dysposyd, orduryd, and bounden to the mayn- 
tenance of gud pollycy, the wych repugnyth, aftur my 
jugement, no thyng at al to the law of nature and 385 

15. "Bole. — Wei, Master ~Lvpset, notwythstondyng 
your resonys seme to be strong and of grete weyght, yet 
yf we can put before our yes the conimyn wele before 
declaryd, hyt schal not be hard to make to them answer. 390 
How be hyt, they *haue also somewhat of the truth [* Page 167.] 
mynglyd with al • for surely aftur, as you say, the the people need 
rudenes of our pepul requyryth hedys and goue?*nourys sure iy the 
to conteyne them in ordur and qnietnes, and though m^htha^some- 
hyt be not necessary at al, yet in grete famylys thys thmg< 
maner of successyon may be sufFeryd ryght wel. How 396 
be hyt, some prouysyon for the second bretherne, by the 
ordur of law, also wold be had, and not to leue them 
bare to the only curtesy of theyr eldyst brother, whose 
loue oft-tymys ys so cold and weke, that he may wel 400 


401 suffyr hys brethern to lyue in grettur pouerty then ys 
comienyent to theyr nobylyte. But yf you wold suffur 
thys addycyon and moderatyon to be yoynyd therto, 
your resonys schold proue ryght wel, in grete housys 
(as pryrecys, dukys, erlys, and barorcnys) such maner of 
in great houses successyon to be alowyd as cowuenyent. But now, a 


may be borne, the other parte, to admytt the same co???mynly among 

"gentlemen"! al gentylmera of mean sorte, what so euer they be, thys 

ys not tollerabyl; thys ys almost, as you sayd, agayn 

410 nature and al gud cyuylyte; for thys bryngyth in 

among the multytude ouer grete inequalyte, wych ys the 

of this we may occasyon of dyssensyon and debate. You may take of 

from the Romans, thys exampul of the auncyent Romaynys, whose lawys, 

me semyth, be drawen out of nature ; wyth whome al 

415 herytagys be equally dyuydyd by ordur of law, and not 

left to the affectyon of the father, wych cowtmyrcly ys 

more bent to one chyld then to a nother ; but euen as 

they be of nature wythout dyfferens brought forth, so 

whose children wythout dyfferercs they equally succede in theyr inheryt- 

thetoheritaiice. a?zce left to theyr famyly. And thys, "blaster Lvpsef, 

[* page 168.] *you may see how that both your resonys and myn also 

may haue place, yf they be wel applyd and indyfferewtly 

weyd ; for euen lyke as hyt ys among the nobyllys con- 

uenyent to succede aftur such maner, for the mayntenance 

425 of the hedys and of nobylyte, so hyt ys agayn reson and 

al cyuyle ordur to admyt the same among al the pepul 

This fault came co?wmywly. But, Master Lvpse£, thys faute sprange of 

of entailing lands, ' '■ . 

whereby every a certayne arrogawcy, wherby, wyth the intaylyng of 

Jack would be a., T , , , , , , ' ■ -, 

gentleman. landys, euery Jake wold be a genvmva&n,*- and euery 

430 gentylmaw a knyght or a lord, as we sch'aLschow here 

aftur in hys place. Wherfor, Master Jjvpset, now yf 

you thynke thys to be a faute, aftur such maner as hyt 

ys now declaryd, let vs procede, and seke out for other 

434 of the same sorte. 

L. says this is a 16. "Lvjiset. — Syr, you say wel ; for surely you haue 

so in few wordys declaryd your niynd in thys behalfe, 


that I can not deny but that herin lyth a mysordvur ; but 437 

at the begynnyng hyt apperyd a veray strange thyng 

vtturly to take away our mane? 1 of successyon, wych so 

many yerys hath byn alowyd, and, as me thought, not 

wythout grete reson. I thynke also, veryly, that at the • 

fyrst ordynance of our lawys, euen as you say, that thys 442 

nianer of successyon was only in grete famylys, and yet 

not wythout some prouysyon for the other bretherne, as and instances 

they haue yet in Fraunce, Flaundres, and in Italy; where the other 

[where] the second brother hath euer some castel or towne f°" s are prov 

appoyntyd to hym *by the ordur of theyr law and cus- [*Pagei69.] 

tume in euery grete famyly. But truly I can not but 

corcfesse thys maner, to be receyuyd among al men of 449 

mean state and degre, to be vtturly agayne al gud cyuy- 

lyte, and wythout fayle rysyth of the ground that you 

wel haue notyd. I haue euer thought thys maner of He speaks of the 

. fault of entailing 

mtaylyng ol landys commynly not to be alowyd by juste lands, especially 
pollycy. Wherfor, me thynke, thys ys a faute worthy ^^^ ,es ' 
now to be spoken of also ; for thys intaylyng, specyally landys -' 
aftur such mane? - only to the eldyst sone in euery base 456 
famyly, makyth many rechles heyrys, causyth them 
lytyl to regard nother lernyng nor vertue, in as much 
as they are sure to be inherytarys to a grete porcyon of 
intaylyd land; and so, by thys assurans, they gyue 
themselfe to al vanyte and plesure, wythout respecte. 461 
The wych, I thynke, they wold not dow yf they were 
in dowte of such possessyonys, and the hole inherytaunce 
to hang apon theyr behauyour and beryng. 

17. Pole. — As for that, Master ~Lvpset, the law doth 
command no such intaylyng, but permyttyth hyt only. 466 

18. Lvpse/. — Mary, that ys the thyng also that it might be 

T p j_i i • j i i • , i suffered in noble 

1 reproue ; lor though, in grete housys such intaylyng families. 

may be suffryd for the mayntenarcce of the famyly, yet 

in the basse famylys, commynly thys to be admyttyd, 

* surely hyt ys no thyng co/?uenyent, for as much as hyt [*Page no.] 

1 In margin of MS. 


472 bryngyth in grete inequalyte, and so much hate and 

malyce among the comniynalty. "Wherfor thys ys no 

smal errore in the ordur of our law, and may wel he 

couplyd wyth the other. 

p. goes on to 19. PoZe. — Let vs admyt hyt then to be so, and go 

speak of the ills ' J J ° 

which arise from forward. Ther ys a nother maner and custume touch- 

holding lands by 

knight's service, yng tnes heyrys m our cuntrey, no lesse, altur my mynd, 
to be reprouyd, then the other before notyd ; and that 

Abuse in wardys.i ys thys : — you know wel wyth vs, yf a mare dye wych 

holdyth hys landys by knyghtys seruyce of any superyor, 

482 leuyng hys heyre wythin age, hys landys fal in to the 

handys of the sayd superyor and lord ; he dnryng hys 

nonage to be in the ward, tuytyon, and goue?'naunce of 

when the heir, the same. Thys apperyth to me fer agayn reson. Fyrst, 

age, is subject to hyt ys nothyng conuenyent the heyre to be in gouern- 

those who are not 7 i j> i i ± -i j.ii 

related to him. aunce and rule oi hym wych ys to hym nother kyn nor 

488 alye, by the reson wherof he hath lytyl regard of hys 

bryngyng vp in lernyng and vertue ; and, ferther, hys 

landys to be in the handys of hys superyor, wythout 

[*Page Hi.] any counte therof to be had, ys yet les comienyent *and 

492 more agayne reson, specyally seyng they haue also such 

They may marry powar apon they heyre, that they may, afturward, mary 

him to whom they 

will. hym at theyr lyberty wyth whome they thynke best 

and most for theyr profyt. Thys, me semyth, ys a 

playne seruytute and iniury, and no guard, to be admyt- 

497 tyd in gud pollycy. How say you to thys, Master 

LvpseZ, thynke you not so ? 

l. thinks this 20. "Lvpset. — Syr, ther be many thyngys here in our 

custom just and , , £ 7 •. •■ ,-. 7 . ,, 

reasonable curetrey wych, yf a man consydur lyghtly and luge them 

euerely, may appere much contrary to reson and gud 

502 pollycy ; but they same, a lytyl bettur consyderyd, and 

depelyar weyd, schal seme not only to be tollerabyl 

enough, but also iust and resonabul, of the wych nombur 

I thynke thys to be one wherof we now speke. For yf 

506 you consydur the ground and the ordyna?zce of the law 

1 In margin of MS. 


at the fyrst begynnyng, I suppose you wyl not so much 507 

reproue the mater as you dow. For thys we fynd in 

storys and in the fyrst instytutyon of our comyn law, and refers to the 

origin of the 

that at such tyme as Wyllyam the Corcquerour subduyd custom. 

our cu?itrey and stablyschyd our lawys, certayn landys 

were gyuen out of grete famylys to inferyor personys 512 

for theyr seruyce downe to them before, vnder such con- 

dycyon that when so euer they decessyd, leuyng theyr 

heyrys wythin age, that then thes landys duryng the 

nonage schold retorne to the superior agayne, by whose 

bunfyte hyt ca?n to the famyly and stoke, and the same 517 

man also to haue such powar to mary hym as he thought He ought to have- 

power to marry 

best and most conuenyent ; how be hyt, no thyng com- as he may choose. 

pellyng hym therin at al, but only by gentyl and gud 

exhortatyon mouyng hym tberto, for hys profyt and 

synguler co?nfort : the wych, me semyth, much resonabul, 522 

uonsyderyng *they bunfytys come al fro?n hym by the [* page 172.3 

wych the hole famyly schold be maynteynyd. And as 

'or count duryng the nonage, why schold he make any, 

aeyng for that tyme hyt ys as hys owne 1 For the landys 

were gyuett at the fyrst begynnyng vnder such condycyon, 

as I sayd before. Wherfor hyt ys not so vnresonabyl 528 

for hym to haue both ward and maryage, and of the 

I.andys no thyng to be contabul. 

21. PoZe. — "Wei, blaster LvpseZ, set what face you p. cannot be 

, , , persuaded that 

wyl apon thys mater, you can not persuade me thys ordur the custom is 

to be gud, specyally when I loke to the perfayt co??zmyn e °° ' 

wele wych I wold myght be stablyschyd here in our 534 

cuntrey. Let hyt be so that at the tyme of the fyrst 

entre of the Conquerour, or tyranne (cal hym as you 

wyl) thys maner myght be for the tyme conuenyent • 

but now, yf we wyl restore our cuntrey to a perfayt state, 

wyth a true commyn wele, we must schake of al such 539 

tyrannycal custumys and vnresonabyl bandys, instytute 

by that tyranne when he subduyd our cuntrey and but owns that 

natyon. I can not deny but, as you say, they wych 


the land had gaue theyr landys to theyr seruarctys myght put sucli l 

power to make „ 

conditions; oorcdycyon both oi ward and maryage ; and so hyt may 

i ms. so such. appere somewhat resonabul al theyr successorys to he 

bounde, aftur that inaner, to them wych consydur the 

[*Page 173.] tyme of the tyrawne. But we must loke a lytyl *hyar, 

548 and cowsydur the tyme of nature to the wych we wold 

forme our commyn wele ; and then we schal fynd thys 

bondage to be vnresonabul among cyuyle pepul purpos- 

yng to lyue in a just pollycy. Wherfor, Master Lvp- 

552 set, let vs no more dowte of thys mater. 

and l., acknow- 22. Lvpse£. — Syr, you eue?" stoppe my mouth wyth 

ledging that it 

"smells of thys co?isyderatyon of the perfayt state ; to the wych, 

ttup. ' glVe wythout fayle, thys maner dothe somewhat repugne ; for 

surely hyt smellyth a lytyl of tyranny. Wherfor, 

557 bycause I wyl not wyth no sophystycal reson repugne 

to the manyfest truthe and equyte, therfor I wyl co?zfesse 

• thys to be a grete errore in our cowmyn wele and 

pollycy, without ferther lettyng you to procede in the 

rest of your co??^munycatyon. 

p. thinks he does 23. PoZe. — Master Jjypset, therin you dow wel ; for 

save time. yf you schold tary our communycatyon wyth sophystycal 

argumeratys, we schold not thys day note halfe the erorys 

565 wych I purpos to talke wyth you of. For ther ys no- 

thyng so true and manyfest, but the suttylty of mannys 

reson may deuyse somethyng to say contrary, and to im- 

pugne the same, as in thys wych now I wyl speke of, 

wych, me semyth, ys so manyfest an errore in our law, 

570 that no ma?i may hyt deny ; and yet I caw not thynke 

but you wyl fynd somewhat to lay agayne hyt. 

l. win never 24. liTpset. — Hyt may wylbe ; but I promys you, 

sak e C of victory, as I haue sayd befor, I wyl not repugne for no study 

nor desyre of victory, but only for the inuewtyon of the 

[* Page 174.] truth and equyte; for you know *wel that dowtyng 

and laying somewhat agayne the truth makyth hyt oft- 

tymys to appere more manyfest and playn. Therfor 

let vs see what thyng hyt ys that you thynke so many- 

579 fest a faute. 


25. Po7e. — Syr, hyt ys touchyng appellatyonys in Abuse by remo 
causys and remouyng by wrytt. You know ryght wel p. goes on to 
hyt ys -wyth vs conraiynly vsyd, that yf any mare haue removaurf 
any cowtrouersy in the schyre where he dwellyth, yf he canses by wnt * 
he purposyd to vex hys aduersary, he wyl by wryte re- 

moue hys canse to the court at "Westmynstur ; by the 585 
wych mean oft-tymys the vniust cause preuaylyth, in 
so much as the one party ys not peraueretur so abul as 
the other to wage hys law, and so justyce ys oppressyd, 
truth ouerthrowne, and wrong takyth place. Thys, me 
thynk, ys playn, except you haue any thyrig to lay 590 
agayne hyt. 

26. Lvpse^. — Syr, as touchyng thys mater, me thynke l. says the 
you dow amys ; for you lay the faute, wych ys in the the party who 
party, to the ordynarece of the law, for the parte ys to not with the law? 
blame wych thys wyl vex hys adue?-sary for hys plesure 

or profyt ; but the ordynarece of the law ys gretely to be 

alowyd, wych, for by cause oft-tymys in the schyre by 597 

partys, made by affectyon and powar, materys are so 

borne and bolsteryd that justyce care not haue place 

wyth indyffere?2cy, hath ordeynyd that by wryte * the [* Page 175.] 

cause myght be remouyd to London to indyfferent juge- 

me?«t, where as the partys be nother of both knowen 602 

nor by affectyon fauoryd. Therfore in the law, touchyng 

thys behalf e, I thynke ther ys no faute at al. 

27. PoZe. — Then, Master Lvpse£, me thynke you 
pondur not al wel and depely. For thought hyt be p.'s answer is 

„ , . . . that the law 

trothe, as you say, a iaute ther ys m the one party, wych should only allow 
so malycyously vexythe hys aduersary, yet the law ther- j USt cause ascer- 
by ys not excusyd, wych so sejiiyth to the malyce of tained - 
mare, so lyghtly admyttyng the remouyng of the cause 610 
before sentence be gyuera, and before hyt be knowen 
perfyttely whether the mater schold be borne by any 
powar or partys in the schyre or not ; for in such case, 
as you say ryght wel, appellatyon ys necessary and re- 614 
1 In margin of MS. 


615 mouyng of the cause to indyffere/it jugeniewt. But as 
Causes ought not the ordur ys, I thynke you see ther ys faute, hothe in the 

to be removed out 

or the shire, or to party and in the maner of the law, and that not only 
in remouyng by wryte materys out of the schyre, but 
lyke wyse horn the jugys of the commyn law to the 
620 chauncery and to the hyar counsel by iniurcctyon ; the 
wych thyng, as hyt apperyth, lettyth much justyce and 
trowblyth the hole ordur and processe of the law. How 
say you, Waster Isrpset, thynke not you thys to be truth 1 

and to this l. 28. livpset. — Syr, wythout fayle, I can not deny 

but other the law other the mynysterys therof, are 

626 somewhat to esy in grauntyng and admyttywg such ap- 

pellatyon and iniunctyon before the materys examynyd 

[♦Page 176.] and tryed, other in the curctrey *or before the jugys in 

the comvayn law ; for thys were resonabul, that at the 

lest they schold tary tyl the party found hymselfe 

greuyd wyth the sentence wych he jugyd to be wronge- 

632 fully gyuera. Thys ys vndowtydly a grete faute in the 

ordur of our law, and causyth many pore mew to be 

wrongefully oppressyd. Therfor, agreyng apon thys, 

let vs go forward. 

Faute in long 29. "Pole. — Ther ys also a grete faute wych apperyth 

sutys.l . 

p. has another cowcernyng the processe in sutys of causys. I see 
suSfakesome- ma W mewnys materys heng in sute ii, iij, or iiij yere 

to^eterm^ne""" 3 an ^ more > anc ^ Caw n0 ^ ^ e fy n y scn yd ', the Wych CaUSyS 

which might be f themselfe be not so obscure but theM myght be de- 
finished in fewer L,/ J JO 
days. fynyd in fewar days then they heng yerys, the wych, 

me thynke, can not be wythout some faute in the ordur 

643 of the law. For though hyt be so that thes hungry aduo- 

catys and cormora??tys of the court study much to delay 

causys for theyr lucre and profyt, yet I thynke hyt caw 

not be denyd but ther ys some faut also in the ordur of 

the law and in pollycy. For thys ys sure — yf hyt were 

wel ordryd, justyce schold not be so defettyd, nor the 

649 processe therof so be stoppyd, by euery lyght and 

1 In margin of MS. 


couetouse sergeant, proktor, or attornay. "Wherfor me 650 
thynke we may justely no??zbur thys among the other 
before notyd. How thynke you, "Master Lvpse£, ys 
hyt not so 1 

30. Lvpset. — Syr, schortly to say, thys I dow l. says it is 

wonderful to see 

thynke, that yf they mynystres were gud, I suppose ther tilings which 

were instituted 

*wold be no grete faute found in the processe of the [»Pagei77.] 
law nor ordur of the same ; for the couetouse and gredy iU . 
myndys of them destroyth al law and gud pollycy, 
wych ys a maruelouse thynge, to see them wych were 659 
fyrst instytute for the mayrctenance and settyng forward 
of true justyce and equyte, now to be the destruetyon 
of the same wyth al iniury. 

31. "Pole. — "Wei, Master Jjvpset, thys ys no dowte, 

the mynysters be the gretyst cause of al such mysor- 664 
durys ; but yet thys may not be denyd, as me thynke, p. thinks minis- 

tcrs fire the 

but that ther ys a lake also in the ordur of the law at greatest cause of 
the lest ; for as much as hyt suffryth such delays by false 
mynystres, and makyth no prouysyon therfore, hyt caw 
not be excusyd. 669 

32. IiVpset. — Syr, as touchyng that, I aggre to you 
also, that ther ys a certayn lake also in the ordur of the 

33. Vole. — That ys enough now to vs, whose purpos 673 
ys to serch out the commyn errorys, fautys, and defectys 

in our polytyke rule. Therfor let vs procede aftur the 

maner begu«. Me thynke, to descende to thys parte, 

the ordur of our law also in the punnyschment of theft Pu»nyschment of 

ys ouer-strayte, and faylyth much from gud cyuylyte. 

For wyth vs, for euery lytyl theft, a niare ys by and by p. says for every 

. , , little theft men 

hengyd wythout niercy or pyte ; wych, me semyth, ys are hanged with- 

agayne nature and humanyte, specyally when they steyle out mercy- 

for necessyte, wyt[h]out murdur or manslaughter co??i- 682 
myttyd therin. 

34. "Lvpset. — Syr, I can not tel why you schold cal L- says the 

punishment can- 
1 In margin of MS. 


not be too severe: thys ordur oue?*-strayte, wych ys not yet, by al hys 

it does not deter ' .„ , ^ ^n ^ . i 

[* Page 178.] straytenes, suffycyent to make *lelonys to be ware one 

men rom s ea - ^y another. I thynke yf we coud deuyse a puftnysch- 

me?it more strayttur then deth, hyt were necessary to he 

ordenyd and receyuyd among vs ; for you know the 

690 gretenes of the offence ys such agayne the co?mnyn wel, 

wych dysturbyth al quyet lyfe and peacybul, that no 

payne ys [equal] to the punnyschinent therof. 

p. mi intains his 35. PoZe. — Syr, yet, me thynke, a iuste moderatyon 

were to he had therin ; for though hyt he so that the 

695 offens he grete agayne the commyn wele, yet when hyt 

ys downe apon grete necessyte, and wythout murdur, 

and at the fyrst tyme specyally, bettur hyt were to fynd 

some way how the ma?z myght he brought to bettur 

To hang him is ordur and frame ; for by and by to heng hym vp, ys, 

wythout fayle, ouer-strayte and to much seueryte. When 

701 hyt ys downe wythout respect, specyally cowsyderyng 

that hyt avaylyth not also to the repressyng of the 

faute, as, by long tyme and many yerys, we haue had 

proue suffycyewt. 

can you devise 36. Lvpsef. — Syr, yf ther myght be a way deuysyd 

by gud pollycy wherby they myght be brough[t] to some 

707 bettur ordur, hyt were not to be refusyd, but necessary 

to our purpos. 

we shall see. 37. PoZe. — That we schal se here aftur in hys 

place ; now hyt ys enough yf you wyl cowfesse hyt to 

be ouer-strayte. 

712 38. IiVpset — Yes, that ys no dowte, yf we coude 

[* Page 179.] fynd a *way to tempur and refrayne thayr malyce by 

other meane then by deth, as I thynke hereaftur you 

wyl schow. 

Purcnyschmerct of 39. PoZe. — Sir, in hys place thys thyng I wyl not 


p. says the omyt. But now to our purpos. A lyke seueryte 1 

SSUSta!" fy 1 ^ in tne puwnyschmerct of treson, wherby, you know, 
not only the heyre and al the stoke losyth hys landys, 
1 In margin of MS. 



but also the credytorys holly are defaytyd of theyr dette, 720 
what so euer hyt be, wythout respecte ; wych thyng ap- 
peryth ouerstrayte also. 

40. LvpseZ. — Syr, me thynke you po»dur not wel l. thinks he does 
the gretnesse of thys faute, wych of al other ys the greatness of the 
most haynouse. Wherfor the traytour ys not only to 

be punnyschyd in hys body and godys, but also in 726 
hys chyldur and frendys ; that, by hys exa?/?pul, other 
may beware of so grete a cryme. 

41. PoZe. — Syr, al thys were resonabul, ye, and ouer- 
lytyl, yf they were of counseyl wyth the traytour. 

42. LvpseZ. — That, by the law ys presupposyd and The prince may 


vtturly presumyd to be truth ; and in case be that they 

be not gylty at al, the pry/zee, yf he wyl, may pardon 733 

such punnyschme?it. 

43. PoZe. — That ys trothe ; but thys hangyth only a weak thread 
apon the wyl of the prynce — a veray weke thred in such 

a case. Wherfor, as I sayd, an excepcyon were to be 
requyryd by the ordur of the law, wych apperyth ouer- 738 
strayte in that pu/myschment, lyke as in the other be- 
fore rehersyd. 

44. LvpseZ. — Syr, al be hyt here may * be much [*Pageiso.] 

and this L. 

spoken in thys mater agayne your sentence, yet by cause grants, 
hyt leynyth to equyte and coresyence, aftur my mynd 
also, I wyl not be obstynat, but graunt thys to you, lest 744 
I schold let you otherwyse then ys conuenyent now to 
our purpos. 

45. PoZe. — Ferther, also, in the accusyng of treson, Aecusyngof 

' ' J ° ' treson.) 

ther ys, me semyth, ouer-grete lyberty ; for wyth vs, yf p. says there is 
a maw accuse a no ther of treson, though he proue hyt in accusing' o/ 7 
not, yet he ys not purcnyschyd, but frely pardonyd by reason - 
the custume here vsyd, wych ys playn agayn al gud 751 

46. LvpseZ. — Syr, in that I care not wel agre wyth in this l. cannot 


you ; for in so much as they cryme ys so grete, only 
1 In margin of MS. 


755 suspycyon ys to be accusyd, wythout any dede, to the 
wych, yf tlier were purcnyschmewt greuus by the law 
appoyntyd, ther wold neuer be accusatyon tyl the dede 
were downe ; and so the state of the cojnmyn wele 
schold neuer be stabyl nor quyat. Wherfor, not wyth- 
760 out cause, apon suspycyon only, euery rnaw may frely 
accuse other of treson. 
Light causes of 47. Po?e. — Master Lvpse£, you say in that ryght 

suspicion not to 

be admitted. wel, that, bycause the cryme ys so grete, suspycyon only 
ys to be accusyd, so that hyt be probabyly co??ceyuyd ; 
765 for euery lyght suspycyon in such grete causys ys not 
to be admyttyd, as hyt ys wyth vs in custume and vse ; 
and that ys the faute only that I fynd here in our 
[* Page i8i.] 48. *Lvpse£. — Syr, he that apon lyght suspycyon 

He who accuses 

lightly should accusyth any maw of so grete cryme, surely were worthy 

be punished. 

to be pmznyschyd. Ihys 1 cam not deny; and so in 
772 admyttyng such lyght suspycyon to be accusyd, our law 
ys some what ouer-lyght agayn the accusarys. 

49. PoZe. — Thes, Master Jjvipsef, are the most gen- 
eral thyngys touchyng the ordur of our commyn law, 
wych, among infynyte other, I haue pykyd out and 
777 thought to be notyd now at thys tyme, for the restoring 
p. now proposes of a iust pollycy. Wherfor, except you remembyr any 
spu-ituaHauits. other, we may procede to the fautys in the sprytual 
parte callyd; for of thys body ther be also no smal 
mysordurys, and, peraue?zture grettur, then in thys. 
Before this l. 50. "LvpseV — Syr, you schal dow well, for me 

anothermatter : semyth you haue sayd metely in thys behalfe. How be 
hyt, I maruayle that one thyng you haue so let pas con- 
785 cernyjzg the eommyn law, wych, though hyt be no faute 
in the ordur therof, yet me thynke hyt stondyth not 
Commyn law in wel. The thyng ys thys, that our co???myn law ys 
The common law wryten in the French tonge, and therin dysputyd and 
French, tought, wych, besyde that hyt ys agayne the co??imyn 

1 MS. Le. 2 In margin of MS. 


wele, ys also ignomynyouse and, dyshonowre to oui' 790 
natyon ; for as much as therby ys testyfyd our subiec- and testifies to 

our subjection by 

tyon to the Normawnys. Thys thyng apperyth to me the Normans, 
not wel ; for co??imyn law wold euer be wry ten in the 
co??zmyn tong, that euery maw that wold myght vnder- 
stond the bettur such *statutys and ordynawcys as he [*p ag ei82.] 
ys bounden to obserue. 

51. "Pole. — Master Lvpse£, thys ys wel notyd of you; 797 
for surely thys ys a thyng that no maw by reson may 

wel defend. And the same also ys in the law of the T o whi ch p - adds 

church-law in 

Church, wych apperyth to me no lesse necessary to be Latin, 
pnt in our mother tong then the other. 

52. livpset. — Syr, as touchyng that, here aftur in 802 
hys place we may examyn and try out the truth herin ; 
for, pe?-auewture, the reson ys not al one. For by the 
reson therof we are in onr curttrey constreynyd to lerne 

the Latyn tong, wych ys necessary to them wych wyl l. thinks Latin 


lyue togyddur in gud cyuylyte, bycause al the lyberal 
artys are cowteynyd therin. 

53. "Pole. — Wel, Waster Trvpset, let vs not entur in- 809 
to thys dysputatyon now, bnt euen, as you say, dyffer 
hyt to hys place, and now procede to the sprytualty, 
wherin the fautys are open to the world. And fyrst, p. notes the 

Pope's power and 

and aboue al other, cowcernyng the authoryte gyuew to his dispensations, 

the hede, or els by many yerys vsurpyd apon vs tyraw- 

nycally — I mean the authoryte of the Pope. You know Authoryte of the 

he takyth apon hym the dyspensatyon of al lawys stab- 

lyschyd by God and man, the wych by money hys 817 

offycerys dow sel ; as hyt wer proclaymyng aftur thys 

maner, 2 " who so euer wyl breke such lawys and such, 

let hym bryng thys some of money, and I schal dyspewse 

* wyth hym." Thys ys a intollerabul vsage and custume. [* Page 183.] 

-r-r n l -nr.T it i, .,i n which are intoler- 

How thynke you, Master Lvpset* ys hyt not thys ? able. 

54. LvpsetA — Yes, truly abuse ther ys therin ; but 823 

1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. mater. 

3 MS. le. 4 MS. Le. 


824 yet in the law I can not tel ; for necessary hyt ys to 

haue one hede to moderate and tempur the straytenes 

of the law, or els we schold haue veray oft general 

l. says the Pope's couresellys : and, hesyde that, such authoryte commyth 

power is derived 

from Christ. to hym from our Mastur Chryst, wych in the Gospel 

829 gaue that to Sayn Petur and to al hys successorys also. 

"Wherfor that authoryte may not he taken away, except 

you wyl take away the ground of our relygyon wythal. 

55. PoZe. — Nay, Master ~Lvpset, 1 not so. I wyl not 

name any poynt of the Gospel at-al. How he hyt, her- 

834 in ys grete coratrouersy nowadays, the wych I wyl not 

here examyn ; hut hreuely I wyl schow you myn 

p. says Peter's opynyon therin : take hyt yf you lyst. I thynke the 

not like that authoryte gyuere to Sayn Petur was no thyng of that 

usurp P ° P6S sor * w y c h nowadays the Popys vsurpe, hut hyt was only 

to declayre penytent heartys cowtryte for ther syn to he 

840 ahsoluyd from the faute therof, and that hyt schold he 

The power to n o more imputyd to them. And as for the dyspensa- 

dispense with 

laws was given tyon of lawys, wych aftur were ordeynyd hy maw, was 

cardinals by man. also hy maw gyue?z to the See of Eome. I mean not to 

the person of the Pope, hut to hym and to his College 

[* Page 184.] f *Cardynallys also, wych, at the fyrst, were chosen 

hy theyr vertue and lernyng, mew of auncyent wysdome 

847 and sage. They were not made hy money, as they are 

now, and of al age, wythout respecte. Wherfor, thys 

ys my sentence :— the Pope hathe no such authoryte 

to dyspe?zse wyth general lawys made hy the Church, 

nother hy the powar gyue?i to hym hy God, nor hy ma«. 

The power given For hys powar gyuere to hym hy God exteredyth only to 

absolution of sin the ahsolutyon of syn; and that wych hy mare was 

gjnen, was not gyuere only to hym, but to the hole 

cumpany of the See of Eome : and so he, in abusyng thys 

powar, destroyth the hole ordur of the Church. Thys 

857 ys clere, as I coud hy many storys confyrme, yf I 

thought ther were any dowte therin. But now, as I sayd, 

1 MS. le. 



therfor I thynke I may affyrme grete mysordur to be in 859 
the vsurpyng of thys authoryte. 

56. livpset. — Syr, as touchyng the dyspe?2satyon, in this l. agrees. 
wythout dowte grete faute ther ys ; and surely that he 

hath no authoryte therto, but only by the consent of ma?i, 

me thynke schold be veray truth. Wherfor in the 864 

abuse therof ys no les detryment to the law of the 

* Church, then ys to the comrnyn law here of our cuntre, [* Page issj 

by the prerogatyue of the pry?zce. Let vs therfor agre 

apon thys. 

57. "Sole. — Of thys same ground spryng} T th also Appeiyngto 
another grete mysordur, in appellatyon of such as be Appeal to Rome 

is another 

callyd spmYual causys. In a grete cause nowadays, "misorder." 

sentence can not be sure nor fyrme ; for the one party 

wyl by and by appele to Eome, as who say that wythin 873 

our reame ther were nother wysdome nor justyce to ex- 

amyn such materys. Thys ys not only grete hurte to 

the co?nmyn wele, but also grete schame and dyshonowre 

to our cuntrey. 

58. Lvpse£ — Why, but then, me semyth, you wold l. pleads for the 

. . power of appeal. 

no appellatyon, be the sentence neue?" so miuste, wych 
ys agayne the ordur of any comrnyn wele. Whereas 880 
appellatyon ys euer admyttyd to the hede and to hyar 
authoryte. Wherfor, seyng you graunte the Pope wyth 
hys College of Cardynallys to be hede, made and admyt- 
tyd by the consent of man, you must nede admyt also 
appellatyon therto. 885 

59. Hole. — Syr, as touchyng thys, you say wel; for in which p. 
appellatyon I dow not vtturly take away ; but I wold 

haue hyt moderate, aftur gud reson, that euery tryfylyng 

cause schold not be *referryd to Eome, as hyt hath byn [*Page JS6.] 

long in vse. 

60. Lvpsef. — As for that, I wyl graunte you to be a 
grete faute, lyke as hyt ys in the comrnyn law by re- 
mouyng of causys to London by wryte. 893 

1 In margin of MS. 


p. what think 61. Pole. — Then let vs go forward. What thynke 

you of first fruits 

to Rome ? you by the law of JExmatys 1 Ys hy t not vriresonahyl 

nna ys. j^g f vrs t frutys to ruw to Pome, to maynteyne the pompe 

897 and pryde of the Pope, ye, and warre also, and dyscord 

among Chrystim pry^cys, as we haue seen by long 

experyence ? 

l. thinks the 62. livpset. — Wei, Sir, that ys no more but to 

practice is 

abused. schow the abuse of the thyng ; for the wych you may 

not vtturly take away the ordynawce of the law, wych 
903 was euer for a gud purpos, as in thys. Thes fyrst frutys 
were appoyntyd, as I conyecture, to maynteyn the ma- 
iesty of our hede, and magnyfycence of the See, and also 
to defend our Church iioni the subiectyon of the ennemys 
of Chrystys fayth. Wherfor, bettur hyt were to prouyde 
908 a gud vse of thes thyngys, then vtturly to take them 

63. PoZe. — Wei, blaster ~Lvpset, to make you a 

breue answer, I thynke thes causys that you lay now 

haue no place. For, fyrst, as for the magnyfycence and 

[* Page is-.] maiesty of the Church stondy th * not in such possessyonys 

and pompe, but in stabylnes and puryte of Chrystyun 

p. says the lyfe : thys ys a thyng clere and manyfest. And as for 

defend the the defence of the Church, [hyt] perteynyth not to the 

Pope and hys See, but rather to the Emperour and 

918 other Chrystuw pry?zcys : wherfor to pyl theyr cuntreys 

for thys purpos, ys not just nor resonabul; and thys 

schortly I thynke remaynyth no just cause wy thes 

annatys schold be payd to Eome. 

l. says you harp 64. Lvpse£. — Syr, I parceyue wel al thes thyngys 

upon one string. - ,i -i -rr i , 

henge apon one threde. You harpe apon one stryng 

cowtynually, wych in hys place I thynke you wyl te?w- 

925 pur. Therfor now, bycause I wyl not be obstynate 

and offend agayn my gost, denying the playn and 

manyfest truth, I wyl no more repugne in thes causys. 

65. "Pole. — The same mysordur that ys in appella- 

1 In margin of MS. 


tyonys and annatys, also, to the See of Eome, ys also Appeiyng to the 
in appeiyng to the Court of the Byschope of Canterbury, Appeal to the 

Court of Arches 

callyd the Arches, whether as causys are remouyd wyth- a fault. 
out examynatyon or sentence before gyuen in the 

66. Lvpset. — Ther ys no dowte but ther ys also 934 
grete abuse therin. 

67. PoZe. — And what say [you] by the prerogatyfe Pm-ogatyf of 
gyuen to the same Byschope of Canterbury, wherby he Probate in the 


hath the probatyon of testame?<te and the admynystra- court an evil, 
tyon of intestate goclys, by the reson wherof they *be [*Pagei88.] 
sequestryd fro?n the profyt of al the frendys of hym 
wych so dyed intestate, and be spoylyd of the rauynys 941 
and pollyng offycerys ? 

68. LvpseZ. — Syr, in thys ys also grete faute I can 
not deny. 

69. Po?e. — And what thynke you by the law and Yong prestys.i 
co??imyn ordynance wych permyttyth prestys, in such Young priests 

are another evil. 

nombur as they are now, to be made at xxv yere of age 
— an offyce of so grete dygnyte to be gyuen to youth so 948 
ful of fraylty ] Thys apperyth to me no thyng conueny- 
ent, and contrary to the ordynance of the Church at the 
fyrst instytutyon. 

70. livpset. — Sir, that ys truth, and that ys the 
cause that at that tytne prestys were of perfayt vertue, 953 
as now, co?ztrary, they be ful of vanyte, 

71. Po7e. — And how thynke you by the law wych Yongfrerys.i 
admyttyth to relygyon of al sortys, youth of al age Youths are 

admitted to 

almost ; insomuch that you schal see some frerys whome religion, 
you wold juge to be borne in the habyte, they are so 
lytyl and yong admyttyd therto? 959 

72. IiYpset. — Surely of thys, aftur my mynd, They are its 


.spryngyth the destructyonof al gud and pmayt relygyon. 
For what thyng may be more contrary to reson then to 
see hym professe relygyon wych no thyng knowyth 963 
1 In margin of MS. 


964 what relygyon menyth 1 Thys ys vndowtydly a grete 
erroure in al ordur of relygyon. 
celibacy should 73. "Pole. — And what thynke you by the law wych 

be abolished. 

Prestysmaryage.i byftdyth prestys to chastyte 1 Ys not thys, of al other, 

most vnresonabul, specyally in such a nvultytude as ther 

ys now 1 

970 74. "Lvpset. — Syr, in thys many thyngys may be 

sayd ; but bycause I wyl not repugne agayne my cow- 

The law was scyence, I wyl say as Pope Pius dyd, that grete reson 

introduced with 

good reason. in the begynnyng of the Church brought that law" into 

the ordur of the Church ; but now grettur reson schold 

975 take the same away agayn, and so I wyl confesse 

that 2 2 

[* Page 189.] 75. * PoZe. — Master "Lvpsef, you are veray esy in 

the admyssyon of thes fautys in the spmYualty. I 

thy rake you spye many thyngys amys in that ordur and 

980 degre. Wherfor cesse not, I pray you, such to open as 

now come to your memory. 

l. is afraid to ten 76. ItWpset. — Syr, as touchyng thys poynt, yf I 

all he knows on 1nl •• , T , tii-it 

this subject. schold recyte al that 1 know, 1 schold be tedyouse to 

you playnly herin. Wherfor I wyl not entur to that 

985 campe, forbycause that you haue notyd such as be most 

capytal, wych, yf they were stoppyd, schold schortly 

remedy the rest, wherof I wold speke. 

Having noted 77. Tole. — Wei, then, Master Lvpsef seyng that we 

errors of law, 

haue now examynyd the most general and co?nmyn 

errorys wych we haue obsemyd to be in our law, both 

991 sprytual and te??zporal, as they haue come to our re- 

membra?zce now, let vs now here aftur, by lyke maner, 

errors of custom examyn the custumys most commynly vsyd wych seme 

come next. , , ., , , 

to repugne to gud cyuylyte. 

78. liVpset — Mary, Syr, thys ordur ys gud ; for then 
we schal note and touch much wych ys now to our 
997 purpos. 

1 In margin of MS. 

2 The remainder of this sentence is cut off in the binding. 


79. "Pole. — Fyrst and most pryrccypal of al yl cus- The evil educa- 
tumys vsyd in our curctre comm.jnly, aftur my jugeme?at, nobiuty. 

ys that wych touchyth the educatyon of the nobylyte, Education of 

whome we see custu??zmabyly brought vp in hu??tyng 

and haukyyig, dysyng and cardyng, etyng and drynk- 1002 

yng, and, in coraclusyon, in al vayn plesure, pastyme, 

and vanyte. And that only ys thought to perteyne to a 

gentylman, euen as hys propur fayte, offyce, and duty, 

as though they were borne therto, and to no thyng els 

in thys world of nature brought forth. 1007 

80. liVpaet. — "Wy, Sir, I pray, what wold you haue L - asks what 

Pole would have. 

them to dow ] Go to plow and to carte, or to serue some 
other craft to get theyr lyuyng by, as a thyng requyryd 
of necessyte 1 

81. "Pole. — Master Lvpse^, what I wold haue them p. wm ten wm 


to dow now, the place ys not here to schow and declare, 

wych hereaftur I wyl not omyt ; but that thys they dow 1014 

hyt ys certayn, and to al men by experience knowen ; 

wych, aftur myn opynyon, ys no smal destructyon of our 

commyn wele *that we now seke and desyre to see stab- [• Page 190.] 

lyschyd here in our cuwtre ; for of thys poynt hangyth a 

grete parte of the veray welth of the hole commynalty. 1019 

82. Lvpsetf. — Surely thys thyng ys amys. "VVherfor 
procede you ferther. I wyl not repugne agayn so 
manyfest a truthe. 

83. PoZe. — A nother yl custuiue among the nobyllys P- g^es another 

bad custom : 

ther ys, that euery one of them wyl kepe a court lyke every noble keeps 

a prince-like 

a prywce ; euery one wyl haue a grete ldul route to court, 
wayte apon hym, to kepe hym cumpany and pastyme, Kepyng of ouer- 
as he that hath in hymselfe no comforte at al, nor wyth- 1027 
in hys mynde, hart, and brest, no cause of inward re- 
yoycyng, but hangyth only of vtward vanyte. 

84. LvpseZ. — Syr, me semyth you take thys mater 
much amys ; for now-a-days in thys, as hyt ys C07n- 
mywly jugyd, stondyth the honowre of Englond. 1032 

1 In margin of MS. 


and adds, in this 85. PoZe. — Nay, Master Lupse£, truly to say, in 

stands, not the 

honour, but the thys stondyth the beggary of Fnglond, as we sayd be- 

Engfend, fore ; specyally yf you cowsydur what custume ther ys 

among them wyth al, both in theyr dyat and theyr ap- 

1037 payrayl. For yf the nobyllys, ye, and many of theyr 

seruantys, be not appayraylyd in sylkys and veluettys, 

they thynke they lake much of theyr honowre ; and yf 

they haue not at dyner and souper xx dyschys of dyuerse 

metys, they lake they chefe poynt that pe?-teynyth to 

1 042 theyr honowre, as they thynke, wych ys ryse and sprowge 

of a long custume, noyful, wythout fayle, to the coramyn 

Pompos fare and wele many ways. For thys excesse in dyat bryngyth in 


manyfold sykenes and much mysery, lyke as thys ipom- 

pos apparayle doth induce much pouerty. Thes are 

[* Page i9i.]" thyngys as clere to al mew as the lyght *of the day. 

1048 How thynke you, Master ~Lvpset, ys hyt not thys? 

which l. can't 86. LvpseZ. — Truly thes thyngys I can not deny, 


and specyally thys custume of nuryschyng such an idul 
trayne dysplesyth me. Hyt ys a thyng vsyd in no 
cu?itrey of the world I trow. A knyght or a mean 
1053 ge?^tylma?^ schal haue as many idul men here wyth vs in 
Englond as schal in France, Spayn, or in Italy, a grete 
lord, senyor of many townys and castellys. 

87. Pole. — Why, but then, some maw perauewture, 

wold say and ax, what dow they then wyth theyr pos- 

1058 sessyonys and ryches? Dow they hepe hyt togydur in 

coffurys and cornarys, wythout applying hyt to any 

profyt or vse 1 

They use their 88. "Lvpset. — Nay, not so, Sir, but they mary theyr 

France. chyldur and frendys therwyth, and so kepe vp the 

honowre of theyr famyly therby. You schal neuer see 

now of any gud famyly, as they dow wyth vs, go a 

1065 beggyng, or lyue in any grete mysery. They wyl suffur 

no such dyshonowre and schame ; but wyth vs hyt ys 

cowtrary. I haue knowne yongur bretherne go a beg- 

1 In margin of MS. 


gyng, where as trie eldur hath tryumphyd and lyuyd in 1068 
plesure, lyke a grete prynce of a crmtrey. 

89. Pole. — Truly thys haue I knowne also. Wher- p. passes on to 
for I can not hut laude that custume of straungerys, and j^e church.' ™ 
dysprayse ourys also, wych ys so ferre frome al gud 
gentylnes and humanyte, of the wych sort many other 1073 

also he, hut thes now touchyd as most general in the 

temporalty. Let vs, Pilaster Lupse^, *now lykewyse loke [*Page 192.] 

to the custumys of the sprytualty. How thynke you by 

the maner vsyd wyth our hyschoppys, ahhottys, and 

pryorys, towchyng the nuryschyng also of a grete sorte Nuryschyng of 

of idul ahhey-luhharys, wych are apte to no thyng hut, The idle lubbers 

kept by prelates. 

as the hyschoppys and ahhotys he, only to ete and 
drynke 1 Thynke yon thys a laudahul custume, and to 1081 
he admyttyd in any gud pollycy 1 

90. Lvpse^. — Nay, surely thys I caw not alow, hyt l. can't allow 
ys so euydent a faute to euery mannys ye ; for hy thys 

mean al the possessyonys of the Church are spent as yl 

as they possessyonys of te?npo?*al me??, co??trary to the 1086 

institutyon of the law and al gud cyuylyte. 

91. Vole.— And what thynke [you] hy the maner of glSsLd 
electyonys, both of hyschoppys, ahhotys, and p?-iorys, J^^ on 
wych are made other hy the pry??ce or some other grete the ele ^ tl0T1 of 
ma??nys authoryte 1 May thys he alowyd as a gud cus- 1091 
tume in our cuntie 1 

92. "Lvpset. — Sir, yf the ordur of the law were oh- 
seruyd therin, hyt were no faute, peraue??ture at al, hut 
were ryght wele to he approuyd. 

93. Po/e. — But now, you must rememhyr, we speke 1096 
not of the maner of the law, hut of vnresonabul custumys 
wych haue more powar then any law, aftur they he hy 
long tyme confyrmyd and receyuyd co???my??ly. 

94. Lvpse/. — Thys custume vndowtydly ys vnreson- which is 


ahyl, and grete destructyon of the gud ordur m the 
Church rysyth therof. 

1 In margin of MS. 


and the education 95. PoZe. — Ther ys a nother grete faute wych ys 

[* Page 193.] the ground of al other almost, and that *ys corecernyng 

Educatyon of the the educatyon of them wych appoynt themselfe to be 

clergy; they may J * Jrx J 

mona3tf h 4l p i in mGn °^ ^ ne Church. They are not brought vp in vertue 

vertiief «»d thp a n* and lernyng, as they schold be, nor wel approuyd therin 

before they be admyttyd to such hye dygnyte. Hyt 

1109 ys not coreuenyent me» wythout lernyng to occupy the 

place of them wych schold prech the word of God, and 

tech the pepul the lawys of relygyon, of f he wych cora- 

who are very myrely they are most ignora?zt themselfe ; for commynly 

you schal fynd that they can no thyng dow but pattur 

vp theyr matyns and mas, mumblyng vp a certayn 

1115 nombur of wordys no thyng vnderstonde. 

96. Iivpset. 2 — Sir, you say in thys playn truth ; I care 
not nor wyl not thys deny, 
if priests were 97. PoZe.- — Ye, and yet a nother thyng. Let hyt be 

only ignorant, 

they might be that they prestys were vnlernyd, yet yf they were of 
perfayt lyfe and studyouse of vertue, that by theyr ex- 
ampul they myght tech other, thys ignorance yet myght 

but they are be the bettur suffuryd ; but now to that ignorance ys 

joynyd al kynd of vyce, al myschefe and vanyte, in so 

1124 much that they are exampul of al vycyouse lyfe to the 

lay pepul. How say [you], Master Jjvpset, ys not thys 

also a playn truth e and manyfest 1 

98. Iivjiset. 2 — Yes, truly, in so much that almost 

which even chii- they infantys now borne into the lyght perceyue hyt 

dren perceive. 

[♦Page 194.] playnly. 1 her ys no mare that lokyth * into our maner 
of lyuyng that may dowte of thys. 
1131 99. PoZe. — Master LvpseZ, you are in thys materys 
veray esy to persuade. You make no obiectyonys, aftur 
your maner in other thyngys ; wherfor I somewhat 
feare that we admyt ouer-quykly thes fautys in the 
Church, for some prZuate hate that we bere agayne the 
1136 prestys and prelatys therin. 

100. LvpseZ. — Syr, feare you no thyng [in] that 
1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. Le. 


mater; for I promys you I wyl and dow pondur our 1138 
mane?'ys wythout affectyon or hate, but, as nere as I carc, 
wyth indyffere^t jugement loke vnto theni. 

101. [Pole.] — And as for thys ignora?2ce and vycy- p. says the people 
ouse lyfe of the clergy, no maw caw hyt deny but he the same 
that, peruertyng the ordur of al thyngys, wyl take 

vyce for vertue, and vertue for vyce. And thought 

hyt be so that the temporalty lyfe much aftur the 1145 

same trade, yet, me semyth, they are not so much to 

be blamyd as they wych, for the puryte of lyfe, are 

callyd spmYual ; for as much as they schold be the 

lyght, as hyt ys sayd in the Gospel, vnto the other, and 

not only by word, but much more by exa??ipul of lyfe, 1150 

wherby chefely they schold induce the rude pepul to the 

trayn of vertue. Wherfor surely thys ys no smal faute 

in our custume of lyfe. To the wych we may joyne He adds that 

also a nother yl custume, that prestys be not resydent R egy deHee apoii 

apon theyr bu?zfycys, but other be in the Court or in ^s\lmt\na 

gret inewnys housvs, ther takyng theyr plesure ; by the * lve at court ' or 

o j j i j o j i } j ln g rea t m en s 

reson wherof they pepul lake theyr pastorys, wych houses - 

geddur the wol dylygently, wythout regard of the profyt 

of theyr schype. 1159 

102. liV^set. — Syr, thys ys as clere as the lyght of 
the sone. Wherfor I wyl not repugne therin ; but I 
wold wysch that you myght as esely hereaftur see the 
way to amend such faute as we may se hyt. 

103. PoZe. — As touchyng that we schal se, Master 1164 
Lupsez*, hereaftur. How be hyt, as you sayd before, it is easy to see 
*hyt ys wythout fayle more esy to spye x fautys then [* Page 195.] 

-, 1 1 • • j i ii , t an( l then speaks 

to amend one, and yet ij thyngys hyt ys to correk f the difficulty 
[and] amend errorys in dede, and to schow the maner thern! endlng 
and mean how they schold be reformyd and amewdyd. 
For as the one ys ful of hardnes and dyffyculty, and by 
the prouydewce of God, put only in the powar of pryncys 117i 
of the world, so the other ys facyle and esy, and open 
1 In margin of MS. 


1173 to euery prude?it man and polytykc; lyke as to schow 

the passage and way through rough and asper mow- 

taynys ys not hard nor fill of dyffyculty, but to passe 

the same ys no smal labur, trauayle, and payne. But 

He goes on to now, thys set aparte, Master Lupse£, let vs go forth and 

notice the evil of , , 1 

having divine serch out other yl custumys, yi we reme?nbyr any, here 

in our curatre. And herin me thynkyth hyt ys an yl 1 

saying of semyce custume in our Church vsyd, that as dyuyne seruyce ys 

in straung tong. 2 

sayd and song aftur such maner as hyt ys co??imynly ; 
as, fyrst, that hyt ys openly rehersyd in a straunge tonge, 
1183 no thyng of the pepul vnderstond ; hy the reson wherof 
the pepul takyth not that truth that they myght and 
ought to receyue, yf hyt were rehersyd in our vulgare 
church music too tong. Second, touchyng the syngyng therof, they vse 

elaborate, and i _ 

better suited to a fascyon more comienyent to mynstrellys then to 

recreation than -. . j_ ^» x-i i .tit 

devotion. deuoute mynystyrys oi the dyuyne seruyce ; lor playnly, 

as hyt ys vsyd, thys ys truthe, specyally consyderyng 

1190 the wordys be so straunge and so dyuersely desca?ztyd, 

hyt ys more to the vtward plesure of the yere and vayn 

recreatyon, then to the inward comfort of the hart and 

mynd w?'t7i gud deuotyon. How say you, Master Lvp- 

1194 set, ys hyt not thys as I dow say ] 

l. marvels that 104. livpset. — Sir, in thys mater somewhat I mar- 

Pole should 

[*Page 196.] uayle what *you mean ; lor you seme to alow, by your 
Lutheran fashion communycatyon, the Lutheranys maner, whome I vnder- 
stond 3 to haue chaungyd thys fascyon long vsyd in the 
Church. They haue theyr seruyce, such as hyt ys, al in 
1200 theyr vulgare tong operaly rehersyd. I wold not that 
we schold folow theyr steppys. They are yl masturys 
to be folowyd in gud pollycy. But me thynk, by thys 
in the service; mane?', you wold also haue the Gospel and al the spryt- 
ual law put into our tong ; and so by that mean you 
1205 schold see as many errorys among vs here in Englond, 

1 MS. a nyl. a In margin of MS. 

3 " I vnderstond " marked through and " we haue " written 
over in MS. 


as be now in Almayn among the Lutheranys, in schort 1206 
space. Wherfor, "Master Pole, I thynke hyt ys bettur but he would 

rather things re- 

to kepe our old faseyon both in our dyuyne seruyce and main as they arc, 

in kepyng the law in a strannge tonge, then by such 

new maner to bryng in among vs any dyuersyte of sectys 

in relygyon. 1211 

105. PoZe. — Master Jjvpset, I se wel in thys you 
wyl not be so sone persuadyd, as in other thyngys be- 
fore you were. You are, me semyth, aferd lest we p. taxes Mm with 

being afraid. 

schold folow the steppys of thes Lutheranys, wych are 

fallen into many errorys and gret confusyon by tbys 1216 

mean, as you thynke, and new alteratyon. But here, 

Master ~L\])set, fyrst you schal be sure of thys. I wyl There is some 

not folow the steppys of Luther, whose jugemewt I and his disciples. 

estyme veray lytyl ; and yet he and hys dyscypullys be 

not so wykkyd and folysch that in al thyngys they 

erre. Heretykys be not in al thyngys heretykys. Wher- 1222 

for I wyl not so abhorre theyr heresye that for the hate 

therof I wyl fly from the * truth. I alow thys maner [* Page 197.] 

of saying of seruyce, not bycause they say and affyrme 

hyt to be gud and laudabul, but bycause the truth ys 

so, as hyt apperyth to me, and the frute therof so many- 1227 

fest ; wych you schal also corcfesse, I thynk, yf you wyl 

cowsydur indyffererctly the mater a lytyl wyth me. 

And fyrst, thys ys certayn and sure — that the dyuyne The Gospel in a 

J ' ° J J J •' straunge tong.i 

seruyce was ordeynyd to be sayd in the Church for the service should be 
edyfying of the pepul, that they, heryng the wordys of ofthe^eopie," 8 
the Gospel and the exa??zpullys of holy sayntys, pro- 
fessorys of Chrystys name and doctryne, myght therby 
be sterryd and mouyd to folow theyr steppys, and be 1235 
put in remembrance therby of the lyuyng and doctryne 
of our Master Chryst, Hys apostyllys and dyscypullys, 
as the chefe thynge of al other to be pryntyd and grauyd 
in al gud and Chrystyan hartys. Wherfor, yf thys be 
true, as I thynke you caw not deny, thys folowyth of 1240 
1 In margin of MS. 


and must be said necessyte — that we must other haue the dyuyne seruyse 

in their own . 

tongue, or else to be sayd in our owne tong commynly, or els to pro- 

thera Tatin! uyd some mean that al the pepul may vnderstond the 

Latyn co?zuenye?itly ; wych I thynke surely was the 

1245 purpos of the Eomaynys, when they fyrst instytute al 

dyuyne seruyse to be rehersyd in that tong, euerc lyke 

as hyt was of the !N"orma?inys at such tyme when they 

ordeynyd al our commyn lawys in the French tong to [be] 

tought and dysputyd. But now, Maste?' Lupsef, seeyng 

1250 that thys ys not conuenyent and skant possybul as the 

state stondyth, I thynke hyt ys bothe necessary and 

expedyent to haue rehersyd thys dyuyne seruyce in our 

[* Page 198.] owne vulgare *tong ; yee, and also touchyng the Gospel, 

The Gospel 

ought to be to haue hyt holly in our tong to be co??uertyd, I thynk 

translated into 17 t. < 

the vulgar of al most expedyent and necessary. I 1 or what reson 

maybe read by J s n y^' men ^° ^ e hounden to a law, and to loke therof 

the people. nQ ^ Q ^y ^ e fmte that ys of other cowmyn lawys, as 

cyuyle co?icord here in thys lyfe and polytyke justyce 

1259 and vnyte, but also for euerlastyng lyfe and perpetual 

joy heraftwr to be had by the obseruatyon therof; and 

by the brekyng and transgressyon of the same, perpetual 

damnatyon : and yet to haue hyt closyd in a straunge 

tong, as they pepul were no thyng bounden ther^o nor 

1264 to them wry ten 1 ? I trow thys be no reson, but playn mad- 

nes and foly. Hyt ys necessary, as I sayd before of the 

co?wmyn law, to haue hyt co?^uertyd into our tong ; but 

of the Gospel, surely hyt ys much more necessary and 

Errors do not much more expedyent, so that hyt were wel trawslatyd 

Bible being and by wyse counseyl examynyd, that theyr be no err- 

orys therin. For as touchyng the errorys that men run 

in now-a-days, vndowtydly hyt ys not by the reson of 

but from lack ^he Gospel put into the vulgare tong, but rather for lake 

of good teachers. r r o °' 

Evils which arise of gud techarys and instructarys therin. Wherfor, that 

from malice „ 

ought not to be thyng wych commyth partely by the malyce ol maw, 

attributed to the - , , „ •, , •„ , ,, & • j. 

[* Page 199.] arca partely for lake ot gud pollycy,* ys m no Gase to 
Gospel. ^ e ^tryjjutyd to the Gospel iustely ; except we wyl at- 


trybut the cause of warr to wepun, and the cause of al 1277 

dyseasys to mete and drynke, and so vtturly, therfor, 

cast away both wejmnand mete and drynke. Hyt ys Do not lay faults 

where there are 

a co??zmyn faute m resonyng, to lay a faute ther as now none. 

ys, and to note many thyngys as causys wych indede 

are not at al; as, aftur my mynd, in thys our purpos 1282 

you dow, "Master Lupsei. For surely thys dyuersyte of 

opynyon now-a-days reynyng, ys no thy?2g to be attry- 

bute to the commynyng of the Gospel in the vulgare 

tong. Of thys dowte you no more. "VVherfor let vs 

wythout feare confesse thys to be a grete faute, and an it is a great fault 

yl custume vsyd in our Church, — that we haue not the not the Gospels 

Gospellys in our mother tong, and that we haue our tongue, 

seruyce sayd in a straunge tong, of the pepul not vnder- 

stond ; and much more the mane?* of syngyng, wych al and that our 

singing is so 

holly doctorys reprouyd in theyr tyme, when hyt was "curious," 
not so curyouse as hyt ys now. |Dow no more but. 
thynke, yf Saynt Augustyn, Jerome, or Ambrose herd 1294 
our curyouse dysca?ityng and canteryng in churchys, 
what they wold say. Surely they wold cry out apon 
them, and dryue them out of churchys to tauernys, 
comedy s, and cbmmyw plays, and say they were no thyng 
mete to kendyl and styr Chrystyan hertys to deuotyon 1 1299 
* and loue of celestyal thyngys, but rather to ster wanton [* Page 200.] 
myndys to vayn plesure and wordly pastyme wyth fitted to please 
vanyte. Of thys, Master Tjvpset, 2 aftur my mynd, ther an opro 
ys no more dowte ; how thynke you now 1 

106. "Lvpset. — Sir, your communycatyon hathe 1304 
brough[t] me to a depe cortsyderatyon, wherby, truly, I l. speaks of the 
perceyue wel, that many thyngys here in mawnys lyfe, ' tu y 
aftur they be vsyd, and by commyn opynyon many 
yerys admyttyd, though they be neuer so repugnant to 
reson and gud humanyte, yet to pluk them out of 1309 

1 At the bottom of this page of the MS. the following 
words are written : — Prouysyon to stoppe f olysch wrytarys and 
lyght bokys of the gospel. 2 MS. le. 


and clanger of mennys hertys and myndys, hyt ys hard and ful of gret 

dyffyculty ; in so much, that, al reson to the co?itrary, a 

grete wyle schal appere no reson at al, as in thys ex- 

1313 ampul we may take manyfest experye?&ce. For, vn- 

dowtydly, reson coracludyth bothe necessary and expedy- 

ent to be, to haue al lawys in the vulgare tong, as hyt 

hathe byn always to thys day vsyd in al other cuwtreys 

and wel instytute commyn welys ; as in Eome, Athenys, 

The people and Lacedemowia. And yet our pepul, beyng long cus- 

used to the old tumyd to the co?ztrary, wyl not only thynke hyt straunge 

tMnktheTnew an ^ erronyouse, but also, at the fyrst begynnyng, schal 

one erroneous. j U g e a j re iygy 0n to be tumyd therby vp-so-downe, ye, 

1322 and vtturly destroy d ; such ys theyr blywdnes and foly 

only by long tyme rotyd in hart. Notwythstondyng, 

But he agrees Master Pole, I thynke now, to vs wych seke the mean 

with Pole that 

the service should most comxenyerat to restore the perfayt state before of 

you descrybyd, hyt must nedys appere necessary to haue 

al lawys, both of relygyon, and cyuyle and polytyke, in 

1328 our mother tong coraiej'tyd, and al dyuyne seruyce both to 

. be sayd and song in the same in euery church co?7imynly. 

r* Page 2oi.] And *so, consequently, I am agred wyth you to take 

thys as an yl 1 custume, repugnyng to our purpos, to haue 

al closyd in thys straunge tong of the old Eomanys, or 

1333 rather of other barbarns pepul wych succedyd them. 

The privileges 107. PoZe. — M.aster Jsvpset, you say wel. But how 

ought not to be say [you] by the pryuylegys wych, partely by lawys 

and partely by long prescryptyon of tyme and custume, 

are gyuen to the Church and ecclesyastycal personys ? 

Exemptyonof Thynke you that thys ys corauenyent, that prestys 

prestys and 

reiygyouse.2 scnold neuer for no offence be callyd before a secular 
juge and puraayschyd temporally, yf they 3 offend in 
1341 such fautys as requyre temporal puwnyschmewt ; as rob- 
bery, murdur, and theft, and such other lyke casys ? 
l. would yield 108. "Lvjiset. — Sir, I wold some thyng schold be 

their dignity. gyuen to the dygnyte of presthode, and that they 

MS. a nyl. 2 In margin of MS. 3 MS. he. 


schold not be punnyschyd wyth so grete seueryte as 1345 
other be. 

109. Pole. — I wot not what yon mean by your 
gyuyng somewhat to the dygnyte of presthode. Wold 
you that therby they schold escape puwnyscheniewt 

rather then other 1 ? Me semyth, contrary, yf they dow p. thinks if they 

do amiss they 

amys, they schold be more purcnyschyd, and rather then should be more 

other ; forasmuch as the faute in them ys more greuus than others. 

then hyt ys in other. And so, by that mean, they schold 1353 

be compellyd,* at the lest by feare of puraiyschme?it, [* Page 202.1 

wheras by loue they can not be inducyd, to dow that 

thyng wherin stondyth the veray dygnyte of presthode, 

and so be worthy to be honowryd indede. For thys ys 

sure — that only for theyr vertue they schold be hon- Priests should 

, , . , n /> ., 1 . , be honoured for 

owryd, and therby from the commyn pepul, as hyt their virtues. 

Were, exemptyd, wych yf they folow, the pepul schal 

gyue them gladly al worthy honowrys, and nurysch 1361 

them wyth theyr laburys and trauayle, in grete quyetnes 

and tranquyllyte ; and thys exemptyon indede ys to be 

gyue?i to the dygnyte of presthod, and not that they They must not 

may haue lyberty, wythout punnyschement, to offend al transgress aii 

lawys frely. For by thys mean, as me semyth, al the aw8 ' 

dygnyte of presthode ys vtturly dekeyd ; for-as-much 1367 

as by the reson of such pn'uylege grauntyd of pryrccys The evil con- 
sequences of their 
to the dygnyte of them, euery lude felow, now-a-days, privileges. 

and idul lubbur, that can other rede or syng, makyth 
hymselfe prest, not for any loue of relygyon, but for by- 
cause, vnder the pretense therof, they may abase them 1372 
selfe in al vayn lustys and vanyte, wythout punnysche- 
ment or reproue of any degre : such ys theyr pn'uylege 
and exemptyon. How say [you], Master Tjvpset, ys 
hyt not thys 1 

110. "Lvpset. — Sir, I can not wel tel what I schal say, l. confesses that 

, . . .. . the spiritual 

your resonys are so probabyl ; specyally consyderyng courts have 

that, among themselfys and in theyr spmYual courtys, 

they haue no * pu/myschemewt determyd by law con- [* Page 203.] 


in not punishing uenyent to such fautys and crymys of them comniyttyd, 


wych yf they had, yet me thynke hyt schold be more 

coreuenyent that theyr causys schold he intretyd before 

theyr owne jugys. But now, seyng they are ouer-fauer- 

abyl therin, I care not but co^fesse thys pn'uylege to 

1386 be pernycyouse, specyally in such a multytud of ryb- 

baudys as be now-a-days in the ordur of presthode. 

Such pryuylege, at the fyrst begynnyng of the Church, 

when prestys were perfayt and pure of lyfe, were veray 

expedyent, and, breuely to say, no les then they be now 

1391 dyscoreuenyent. 

what about 111. [Pole.] — And what thynk 1 you by exemptyon 

abbeys, & c ., of relygyouse housys and collegys from theyr byschoppys 

Sl^TfiL to the See of Eome - Ys th y s resonabyl 1 

byschoppys.* n2 Lvpse*.— Syr, yf they byschoppys dyd no 

1396 offyce therin accordyng to the ordur of the law, as they 

dow not, wherin lyth a grete faute also, as hyt ys opera 

to euery mawnys yes, that thyng were vndowtydly to be 

l. does not reprouyd ; but as the world ys, I caw not myslyke that 

"inislike" this. i i i i -i i • -i . 

at al : for though they be not wel, yet they be in bettur 
case then they other. 
1402 113. "Pole. — Thys ys enough that you grant both to 
be nought. 

114. "Lvpset. 3 — That care not be denyd. 
The privilege of 115. "Pole.— And what thynke you by pWuylegys 

sanctuary seems ,-iji i 7i r ij. an 

a mischief to graretyd to churchys and al say[njtuarys ? Care you juge 

fncourage'man tliem to be coreuenyent ? Thynke you that hyt ys wel, 

to crime. a maw - vv } ien jj e ^ath. commyttyd wylful murdur, or out- 

1409 ragyouse robbery, or of purpos deceyuyd hys credytorys, 

to rure to they sayntuary wyth al hys godys, and ther 

to lyue quyetly, inyoyng al quyetnes and plesure ? Thys 

thyng, me semyth, ys a playn occasyon of al myschefe 

and mysery, and causyth much murdur in our curetrey 

1414 and natyon. For who wyl be aferd to kyl hys ennemy, 

[* Page 20*.] * yf he may be sauyd by the pryuylege of sayntuary ? 

1 MS. thyng. 2 In margin of MS. 3 MS. Le. 


116. "Lvpset. 1 — Syr, to defend thys me thynke ther l. thinks it need 
ys no reson. How be hyt, for the saueguard of mannys 

lyfe, I thynke hyt gud that such holly placys schold 1418 
haue prmylege, at the lest that hys ennemy may not 
pluke hym out at hys lyberty, nor yet in such place to 
venge hys iniury. 

117. PoZe. — "Wei, Master ~Lvpset, as touch yng that, 

we schal see in hys place. Hyt ys enough now that 1423 
you se grete niysordur therin. 

118. Isvpset. — Yes, surely, that ys no dowte. 

119. PoZe. — Thys, Master ~Lvpset, you haue now 
hard such mysordurys as come to my remembraunce 
now at thystyme, bothe concemyng ourcommyn lawys 1428 
and custumys of our cuntrey ; by the reson w[h]erof our 
co??zmyn wel stondyth not in the perfayt state, wych we 

haue before descrybyd. Wherfor, bycause hyt ys late p. propose? to 
we wyl now dyffer the rest of our co?nmunycatyon tyl 
to-morow, except you remembyr any other wych we 
haue not spoken of yet. 1434 

120. Lvpset. — Syr, I thynke you haue notyd the 

most general *fautys concern yng both lawys and cus- [»p a ge205.] 
tume also. How be hyt, bycause we speke of custume, l. has one move 
ther cummyth to .my remembrance a nother yl custume, 
concernyng the thyng wych, by hys propur name, Ave cal 
custume, and, I trow, rysyth nother of law nor yet of re- custume ? 
sonabyl custume. The thyng ys thys, the grete custume it is the excessive 

, „ , „ , dues on imports. 

payd by marcnauntys tor bryngyng in oi commodytes 
to our reame. They pay ouer-ruuch, by the reson wher- 1443 
of, they haue les wyl to trauayle for the coramodyte of 
the rest of the commynys. "Wherfor we lake many 
thyngys that we myght haue, or at the lest much bettur 
chepe then we haue co?nmynly. 

121. Po?e. — Syr, thys ys truthe that you say; but p. says it was 
I trow thys was notyd at the lest in general, when we 

spake of the lake of thyngys to be brought in by our 1450 
1 MS. Le. 2 In margin of MS. 


1451 mercharctys. N otwy thstondyng hyt was wel remewi- 
bryd. Wherfor, yf you haue any other of the same 
sorte, present them to remembrance. 

122. livpset. 1 — Syr, I remewbyr non other now at 

thys tyme, and yf case be that any come to my memory, 

1456 hyt schalbe no thyng amys to put them forth in our 

l»Page 206.] communycatyon, that we schal haue 2 *to-morow, 3 when 

we schal speke of the restoryng of thes fautys rehersyd 


They adjourn. 123. PoZe. — Xay, Mastur Lvpset, 1 bycause thys 

mater ys grete, let vs dyffer hyt ij or iij days, 3 that 

we come somewhat the bettur instructe to such a grete 


1464 124. LvjJset. 1 — Syr, you say wel, and so let hyt be. 

1 MS. Le. 

2 The following words are written at the hottom of this 
page of the MS. : — Abuse in prywtywg of al bokys wyth 

3 Compare "yesturday's communycatyon " in line 17 on 
next page. 

[end of PART I.] 




1 . [Pole.] — * Master 'Licpset, 1 to schow you in the p Page ij 
begynnyng the dyffyculty of thys day's communycatyon, undertaking is 
I am sure hyt nedyth nothyng at al, wych oft-tymys cn l ' 
haue before had in your mouth thys saying (wych to- 4 
day we schal perceyue truth) — that much esyar hyt ys 
to spye a hundred fautys in a commyn wele, then to 
amende one ; euen lyke as hyt ys in ma?znys body of 
corporal dyseasys, they wych of euery man may wel be 
perceyuyd, but of euery man they can not be curyd. 9 
Wherfor, "Master Lvpse£, yf we haue put any dylygence 
before in serchyng out the nature of a true commyn 
wele, and they lakkys and fautys therof in ourys, we and win be useless 
must now thys day put much more, for as much as the proposed for the 

P . -LJ.1J. ij.j?i_li diseases of the 

processe 01 our communycatyon hytherto ys but 01 lytyl couri try, 

or no value, except we fynd out conuenyent remedys 

prudewtely to be applyd to such sorys and dyseasys 

in our poly tyke body before notyd in yesturday's com- 17 

munycatyon. Therfore, Master Lvpse£, me thynke we 

schal dow wel yf, in our fyrst begynnyng, we cal to 

Hym who, by Hys incomparabul gudnes and incompre- and he appeals to 

,,,.! ^ ,-, iii-ii God to illuminate 

hensybyl wisdome, made, gouernytn, and rulytn al their hearts and 
thyngys, *that hyt may plese Hym so, by Hys Holy mu, pp age2>] 
Spryte, from whom to mankynd commyth al gudnes, 
vertue, and grace, to 2 yllumynate and lyght our hartys 
and myndys (wych wythout hym can no truthe perceyue) 25 
1 MS. Lep. 2 MS. so to. 


26 that we may see the cowuenyent mean of restoryng to 
our polytyke body hys perfayt state and commyn welth, 
of vs before descrybyd ; "wych, yf we desyre wyth pure 
affecte and ardent mynd, I dowte no thyng but we schal 
hyt optayne. 
in which l. 2. "Lvpset. — Syr, you say ryght wel ; for yf the old 

wrytarys and poetys, in descrybyng of storys and 

33 other theyr fansys, callyng to the musys and to theyr 
goddys, thought therby to optayne some spryte, succur, 
and ayde, to the furderyng of theyr purpos, how much 
more ought we of the Chrystyan floke in such a grete 
cause, wych to our hole natyon may be so profytabul, 

38 surely to trust of succur and ayd ; specyally consyderyng 
remembering the the promes of God made to vs hys faythful and approuyd 

promise of God. 

pepul, wych in hys Gospel hath promysyd to vs, surely 
to optayne what so euer we ax of hys Father in hys 
name, that ys to say, what so euer vndowtydly schal 
[♦Pages.] redounde to hys *veray glory and true honowre. 

44 3. "Pole. — Master luvpset, that ys wel admonyschyd 

of you. Wherfor, Master Lupse£, let vs now take thys 

They hear a occasyon wych now ys present. Here in thys chapel 

of the Holy by and by schal be a mas sayd in the honowre of the 

Holy Goste, the wych we may fyrst here, and wyth pure 

49 hart and aifecte cal for that lyght of the Holy Spryte, 

wythout the wych marcnys hart ys blynd and ignorawt 

of al vertue and truthe. 

4. "Lvpset. — Master Pole, so let hyt be ; and then, 
aftur masse, we may retorne to thys place agayne, as I 
54 trust, lyghtyd wyth some celestyal lyght to furnysch 
our profytabul co?remunycatyon thys day instytute. 

Having heard 5. PoZe. — Now, Master ~Lvpset, syn we haue hard 

mas, and aftur that, as I trust, we haue conceyuyd some 
sparkyl of the celestyal lyght, let vs fyrst breuely de- 
clare the ordur and processe of that wych we wyl talke 
60 of thys day, that our communycatyon may not vt- 


turly be spent in wanderyng wordys and Avaueryng 61 

6. Isrpset. — Syr, that ys wel sayd ; for, aftur myn 
opynyon, al obscuryte and darkenes, both in wrytyng 
and in al co?mnunycatyon, sprywgyth therof. 

7. Po/e. — Syr, in thys processe we wyl take nature p. proceeds to 

describe the 

for our exarapul, and, as nere as we can, foknv hyr course to be 
steppys, Avych, in the generatyon of the nature of man, ges ts that 
*fyrst formyth hys body, Avyth al conuenyent instru- [*Pa g e4.] 
nie?itys to the settyng forth of the natural bewty conwe- 
nyent to the same, and aftur puttyth in the prec[y]ouse 
and dyuyne nature of the soule — a sparkyl of the godly 72 
and ete?Tial reson. So, fyrst, we wyl — receyuyng of 
nature the mater therof — forme and adorne thys po- the order of 

nature should be 

lytyke body wyth al thyngys co?menyent and expedyent followed, 
to the same ; and then, secondaryly, intrete and touch 
al such thyngys as perteynyth to the polytyke gouern- 77 
a/?ce of the same body ; — thys general rule of experte 
physycyonys, in curyng of bodyly dyseasys, as much as 
we caw, ewer obseruyng, — that ys to say, fyrst to inserch 
out the cause of the dyseasys, wythout the wych the 
applying of remedys lytyl avaylyth. 82 

8. "Lvpset. — Syr, thys ordur lykyth me wel, wych which suits l. 
agreth much Avyth our processe before taken ; for euen 

lyke as we haue, obsmiyng thys ordur, found out the 
mysordurys in our commynalty, so hyt ys veray co?i- 
uenyent by the same ordur to reson of the remedys 87 
expedyent for the same. 

9. "Pole. — "Wel, Master Lupsef, then, let vs procede. p. recapitulates 

a part of what 

Fyrst, yi you remembyr, aftur that we had declaryd has been said, 

what hyt ys that we cal the true co???myn wele, and 

aftur began to serch out such co?mnyn fautys and lakkys 

as we coud fynd in our cuntrey concemjng the same, 93 

Ave agreed that Ave haue, co??syderyng the place and fer- 

tylyte therof, grete lake of pepul, the multytude wher- Consumptyon.i 

1 In margin of MS. 


96 of ys, as hyt were, the ground and ftmdatyon of thys 

[*Pageo.] our commyn *wele; the wych lake we callyd, as hyt 

were, a cowsumptyon of the polytyke body, of the wych 

now, fyrst, ys requyryd to enserch out the cause : the 

wych, Master Jjvpset, schal not be hard for to dow. For 

and then de- thys ys a necessary truth : — in as much as man growy th 

scribes the lack 

of people, and not out of rokkys nor of tres, as fabullys dow fayne, but 
spryngyth by natural generatyon, thys lake must nedys 
come as of a pryrccypal cause, that maw doth not apply 

natural genera- theyr study to natural procreatyon. For though hyt be 
so that many other exteryor causys may be therof, as 
107 batyl and pestylens, hungur and darth, wych haue in to 
many curetreys brought penury of pepul, as we may by 
experyence see in many cuntres desolate therby ; yet 
now, to our purpos, the pryrecypal cause of our lake of 
pepul can not be attrybute therto. And yet yf percase 
112 hyt were so in dede, the way and mean to suffyce, mul- 
typly, and encrese them agayn to a coraienyent nowbur, 
ys only natural generatyon. Thys may not be in any 
case denyd. How say you, Master Lvpse^, ys hyt 
not so 1 

winch i,. says is 10. "Lvpset. — Sir, thys ys no dowte; thys ys the 

increase man and only way to increse, not only mare by the course of na- 
ture, but al other lyuyng creaturys here apon erth wych 
are not gendryd by putrefactyon. 

How man is to 11. "Pole. — Wei, Master Lvpsetf, then we must now 

be allured to . 

this natural deuyse the mean lor the remouyng of such impedymerctys 

and lettys as be to thys cause, and so to allure maw to thys 
124 natural procreatyon, aftur a cyuyle ordur and polytyke 
fascyon. For though nature hath gyuen to mare, as to al 
other bestys, natural inclynatyon to hys increse ; yet, by- 
cause mare ys only borne to cyuylyte and polytyke rule, 

and how he is to therfore he may not, wythout ordur or respecte, study to 

be enticed to 

matrimony. the satysfactyon of thys natural affecte. And for thys 
cause hyt hath byn ordeynyd, I trow, from the fyrst gener- 1 
atyon of mare, that he schold coupul hymselfe in Ian ful 


matrymony, and so therby multyply and increse. So that 132 

thys remenyth, Master Lvpse^, in thys mater, now specy- 

ally to vs, hauyng the lyght of Chrystys Gospel, to de- 

uyse * some waye to intyse ma?z to thys lanful maryage [* Page 6.] 

and couplyng togydur. Wherfor, Master Juvjpset, 1 thys 

you schal vnderstand and take as a ground for the rest 

of al our communyeatyon of thys day folowyng : — that 138 

yf maB wold folow euer ryght reson and the jugerae/it if man would but 

therof, reme?rabryng alway the excellence and dygnyte f au its couid be 

of hys nature, hyt schold be no thyng hard to bryng 

maw, wythout many lawys, to true cyuylyte : hyt schold Plato igiur in m 

'Republica' nul- 

he nothyng hard to remedy al such fautys as we haue las telit le s eB -' 2 

befor found in our commynalty. But, Master Lvpse£, 144 

thys hathe byn tryde by processe of thousandys of yerys, 

thys hath byn corecludyd by the most wyse and polytyke 

men : — that man, by instructyon and gentyl exhortacyon, but lie cannot be 

care not be brought to hys perfectyon. Wherfor hyt fection by 

was necessary to descend to the corestytutyon and or- 

dynareee of lawys cyuyl and polytyke, that where as 150 

man, blyndyd by atfectys and vanytes therof, wold not 

folow the trade of ryght reson, he schold, at the lest by 

feare of pu«nyschmeret, be crmstraynyd to occupy lryra- only the fear of 

punishment can 

selfe and apply hys mynd to such thyngys as were con- compel him to 
uenyent to hys excellerete nature and dygnyte ; and so B ' 
at the last, by long custume, be inducyd to folow and 156 
dow that thyng for the loue of vertue wych befor he 
dyd only for fere of the purenyschnieret prescrybyd by 
the law. Thys ys the end and vertue of al law, thys which is the end 
ys the faute that commyth therof, that mare, custumyd 
other for feare of payne or desyre of reward, myght 161 
folow the prescryptyon and ordynarece therof ; and so, 
fynally, only for loue folow vertue and fly from vyce, 
as that thyng wych, yf ther were no payne prescrybyd 
by law, yet he wold abhorre as a thyng coretrary to the 
nature of mam and to hys dygnyte. Thys thyng, 166 
1 MS. le. 2 In margin of MS, 


1G7 'Master Lvpsef, Avych breuely I haue touchy d, yf al men 

coud' pe?*ceyue, as I sayd before, hyt schold "be lytyl nede 

of many lawys ; but for bycause the multy tude of me?i be 

in this communi- so corrupt, frayle, and blyndyd Avyth pestyle?it affectys, 

cation we must 

consider man's we must cov&jaxa the imbecyllyte of them and wekenes 

mina] of mynd, and apply our remedye accordyng therto, 

[*Page7.] '*folowyng the exa??ipul of experte physycyonys, wych 

174 are constraynyd to Avorke in theyr scyence accordyng to 

the nature of theyr patyentys. Thys Ave must now 

and try to dis- dow, and here aftur also, in the rest of our communy- 

cover some 

means to allure catyon ; euer studying some meane to allure the grosse 

him to do as he 

ought; and rude pepul to the folowyng of that wych Ave schal 

179 juge necessary to be downe for the co??se? , uatyon of gud 

cyuyly te. As uoav, to retorne to our purpos agayne, seyng 

that is. to marry, that matrymony ys the only or chefe mean polytyke to 

increse thys multy tude to a just nombui agayne, Ave 

must both by pnuylege and payne induce men therto, 

and study to take aAvay al obstaculys and lettys wych 

185 we fynd therto ; in the Avych thyng, Master Lvpsrf, let 

me here some Avhat of your mynd. 

12. liVpset. — Syr, bycause you Avyl so, thys I schal 

say, as touchy ng the obstaculys and lettys Avherof you 

speke. You put me in remembra?<!ce of a thyng wych 

190 to you I dare speke ; for I Avot not whether I may speke 

thys a-brode, but in that I submytt myselfe to your 

l. refers to the jugemewt. The thyng ys thys : — I haue thought long 

law of chastity 

in the Church and many a day a grete let to the increse of Chrystiuj 

hindrance to the pepul, the laAv of chastyte ordeynyd by the Church, 

popufaTion, whych byndyth so gret a multytude of men to lyue ther- 

196 aftur ; as al secular prestys, mo?zkys, frerys, channonys, 

and nurznys, of the Avych, as you knoAV, ther ys no smal 

no?;ibur, by the reson A\ r herof the generatyon of ma?z ys 

maruelously let and mynyschyd. Wherfor, except the 

ordyna?zce of the Church Avere (to the wych I wold 

201 neue? 1 gladly rebel) I Avoid playnly juge that hyt schold 


be veray comienyent somethyng to relese the band of 202 

thys law ; specyally co?zsyderyng the dyffyculty of that and wouu have it 


grete vertue, in a mane?' aboue nature, for the wych, as 
I thynke, our mastur Chryst dyd not bynd vs therto by 
hys precept and co?«mandeme?it, but left hyt to our ar- 
bytryment whether Ave wold study to stryue agayne 207 
nature, whose instyncte only by specyal grace we may 
outcome. Wherfore hyt apperythe to me, to releyse 
thys law veray necessary. 

13. PoZe. — Wei, Piaster ~Lvpset, thys wych you say p. thinks tins 
ys not al wythout reson. Wherfor notwythstondyng in the beginning, 
ther be grete argumer^tys of the contrary parte, yet by- n " t a ^ 
cause we wyl not as many physycyonys dow, wych, 
wyle they dyspute of the dysease, let theyr patyentys 215 
dye; *so now in thys place, when we seke remedy, [*Page8.] 
consume the tyme in argumentatyon, but breuely 
therin schow you myn opynyon, wych much agreth 
vnto you. For thys I thynke, Master LvpseZ, to be a 
playn truth : — that euen lyke as thys ordur of chastyte, 
at the begynnyng of the Church and settyng forth of 221 
Chrystys relygyon, was for that tyme veray expedyent 
and necessary, so, for thys tyme, al cyrcumstarcce con- 
syderyd, hyt ys no lesse co?zuenyent the rygoure of the 
same somewhat to relese ; for thys ys the nature of al and, as laws may 

i i t De changed, 

marcnys ordynarcce and cyuyle law, that, accordyng to 
the tyme, person, and place, they be varyabul, and euer 
requyre prudente correctyon and due reformatyon. 228 
Wherfor in thys mater I thynke hyt were necessary to 
te?npur thys law, and, at the lest, to gyue and admyt al 
secular prestys to mary at theyr lyberty, cowsydyryng he would allow 
now the grete multytude and nowmbur of them. But marry, 
as touchyng monkys, chanoraiys, frerys, and nurcnys, I 233 
hold for a thyng veray conuenyent and mete, in al wel- 
ordeynyd commyn welys, to haue certayn monasterys He would have 
and abbeys ; to the wych al such as, aftur lauful proue 


for such as are of chastyte before had, may retyre, and from the besynes 

inclined to 

chastity. and vanyte of the world may wythdraw 1 themselfe, holly 

gyuyng theyr my?idys to prayar, study, and hye con- 

te???platyon. Thys occasyon I wold not haue to be 

taken away from Chrystyan pollycy, wych ys a grete 

242 comfort to many febul and wery soulys, wych haue byn 

oppressyd wyth wordly vanyte. Eut as touchyng the 

secular prestys, I vtturly agre wyth you, and so that 

obstacul to take away, wych lettyth by many ways the 

increse of our pepul, as many other thyngys dow more 

247 also ; among the wych a nother chefe, aftur my mynd, 

serving-men do ys thys : — the grete multytude of seruyng men, wych 

in semyce spend theyr lyfe, neuer fyndyng mean to 

marry corcuenyently, but lyue alway as commyn cor- 

The remedy:— ruptarys of chastyte. "Wherfor ther wold be, as I 

nobiuty to keep thynke, an ordynance that no ge?ztylme?j, nor other of 

can set forward the nobylyte, take to hys seruyce grettur nombur of 

in ma nmony. me ^ then he ys abul to promote and set forward to 

some honest fascyon of lyuyng and lawful matrymony ; 

[*Page9.] and so by thys mean the multytude of them * schold be 

257 mynyschyd gretely. And for bycause that many ther 

be now wych caw not fynd gud occasyon of maryage, 

bycause of pouerty and lake of arte and craft to lyue, I 

Give those who wold thynke comienyent, for as much as we haue many 

marry, a house 

and a portion of wyldfys] and wastys in our cu?itrey, that the prywce and 
other nobul mew schold byld them housys in placys 
263 co?iuenyent; appoyratyng therto certayn portyon of theyr 
wast groundys, forestys, and parkys, wherof they take 
lytyl or no profyt at al, and gyue such tenemewtys . to 
theyr seruamtys, theyr heyrys, and assygnys, paying 

demanding only yerly a lytyl portyon as a chefe rent and recognysawce 

a nominal rent. 

of theyr lord. By the wych mean, as I thynke, they 

grete nombur of them wold be glad to set themselfe to 

matrymony ; and so we schold not only haue ( the pepul 

271 incresyd in nombur, but also the waste groundys wel 

1 MS. wythdray. 



occupyd and tyllyd, wych ys in our curetrey, as we haue 272 
sayd before, a grete rudenesse and faute. Thys thyng 
schold much intyse mere to maryage, specyally yf we 
gaue vnto them also certayn pryuylegys and prerogatyf, Privileges to 

those who have 

aftur the maner of the old and wyse Bomanys ; as to al fi ve children. 

such as by matrymony iucresyd the pepid wyth v. chyl- 

dur, that they schold pay nother taske nor talage, ex- 278 

cept he were worth a huredred markys in guddys ; nor 

he schold not be corestraynyd to go forth to warre, ex- Don't compel 

them to go to 

cept he wold of hys owne voluntary wyl, wyth such the wars. 

other lyke immunytes and pryuylegys, as may easely be 

founde. And not only aftur thys maner allure them 283 

to the procreatyon of chyldur, but also certayn paynys 

prescrybyng to them wych from matrymony for theyr 

plesur wold abstayne. As, fyrste, they schold euer lake 

al such honowre and exy[s]tymatyon as ys gyuere to 

maryed mere, and neuer to here offyce in theyr cyte or 288 

towne where they abyde ; and, besyde thys, me semyth 

hyt were a comienyent payne, that euery bacheler, ac- Bachelors to be 

cordyng to the portyon of godys and landys, schold shining in the 

yerely pay a certayn summe, as hyt were of euery poun ' 

pownde xij d., wych yerely cumyth in, other by fe, 

wagys, or land; and euery mare that ys worth in 294 

mouabul godys aboue iiiij li., of euery pound, iij d. ; the 

wych some schold euer be reseruyd in a co?nmyn place 

to be dystrybutyd partely to them wych haue more and the money 

to be given to 

chyldur then *they be wel abul to nurysch, and parte- [*Pageio.] 
ly to the dote of pore damosellys and vyrgynys. And many children, 
yf case be that they wych thys abstayne vtturly from an ""''S 1118, 
maryage dye in that maner, they schold be corestraynyd, when they die, 

i i i i distribute half 

by ordur of law, to leue the one halie ol al theyr gudys their goods, and 
to be dystrybutyd aftur the maner before prescrybyd ; ^7^1^ 
and prestys the hole : euer prouysyon made that no- 
thyng schold be alyenat to the fraud of the law. And 
so, aftur thys mean, I thynke in few yerys the pepul 
schold increse to a notabul nou?wbur. Thys I juge 307 . 


308 among other to be a syngular remedy for the sklendumes 
of our polytyke body. How say you, Master liupset, 
ys hyt not so 1 

14. Lvpset — Yes, truly; I thyreke hyt were alone 


313 15. Vole. — Then, Master Lupse£, now, co?iseque?itly, 

idleness is the we must seke remedy to the second dysease that we 

spake of before, wych we resemblyd to a dropcy ; for 

though thys body be weke, sklendur, and lakkyth 

natural strenghth, yet hyt ys bollen and swollen out 

318 wyth yl humorys, the wych we callyd before, by a 

symylytude, al idul personys. Thys dysease, yf we 

its cause must wyl cure, we must, as you know, remoue the cause, or 

be removed. 

els hyt wyl euer multyply and increse agayn. And, 

schortly to say, the cause pryncypal therof, aftur my 

Bad training of mynd, ys the yl and idul bryngyng vp of youth here 

the young. 

in our cuntrey, wych are mouyd therto wyth the hope 
325 of plesant lyuyreg in seruyce wyth the nobylyte, 
spmYual and temporal ; for mare naturally euer desyryth 
plesure and quyetnes. Wherfor an ordynance wold be 
made, that euery man, vnder a certayn payn, aftur he 
children to be hathe brought hys chyldur to vij yere of age, schold set 

put to letters or 

a craft. them forth other to letturys or to a craft, accordyng as 

theyr nature requyryth, aftur the jugemewt and powar 

Duties of the of theyr frendys ; of the wych mater also the curate of 


euery parysch schold chefely haue cure, as to one of the 

334 pry?zcypal thyngys perteynyng vnto hys offyce and 

Dropcy. 1 duty. And, as I sayd before, also thys hope in lyuyng 

in seruyce wyth the nobylyte must be cut away by the 

law befor rehersyd, that no mare schold nurysch gretter 

no?wbur then he ys abul to nurysch wel, and fynd to 

339 them some honest lyuyngys. That law schal helpe 

much to thys our purpos now, and be the occasyon of 

mayntenyng of artys and craftys : wherin, also, I wold 

thy nke hyt expedyent, 2 that who so euer were in 

1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. expedyent, also. 


any scyence or craft, nobul and excellent, he scliold by Premium to 

craftsmen accord- 

the lyberalyte of the prynce be rewardyd therfor, ingtotheex- 

ccllcncv of thtir 

accordyng to the excelle?zcy and dygnyte of hys craft ; crafts. 

the wych *thyng vndowtydly wold incorage basse [»i'ageii.] 

stomakys to endenur themselfys dylyge?itly to attayne 

in al artys and crafte gret syngularyte. And thys were 348 

also veray co?raenyent, that yf any ma?j had no craft at 

al, but delytyng in idulnes, as a drowne be doth in a 

hyue, suckyth vp the hurmy, that he schold be 

bamiyschyd and dryuew out of the cyte, as a person idle persons to 

be banished, 

vnprofytabul to al gud cynylyte. T-hys dyd the as was the custom 

Athenyens, wych wold suffur no ma??, to abyde in theyr 

cyte except he professyd some honest craft, or coud 355 

make a lawful rekenyng how he lyuyd in theyr com- 

mynalty, and of thys thyng also the offycerys in euery 

cyte chefely schold take regard ; and in the cu??trey the 

curate of the towne, wythe the ge?itylma?z chefe lord of 

the same, wych in hys courtys schold examyne thys 360 

mater wyth grete dylygence and care, as a thyng wych 

ys the ground of al the hole co??imyn wele. For lytyl 

avaylyth hyt to increse the no??zbur of pepul, except it is useless to 

prouysyon be made to take away thys idulnes and grete if idleness is 

dropcy. How say you, Master Lvpse£, thynke you not 

thys 1 

1 6. Lupset. — Herin, Syr, you say ryght wel. How l. asks how are 

the youth to be 

be hyt, thys ys a veray schort remedy ; you must schow brought u P ? 
somewhat more at large how the youth schold be 369 
brought vp in artys and craftys more partycularly. 

17. "Pole. — Nay, S?V ; not so. That ys not my p. says that is 

- ' . , , not his pvirpose 

purpos here now to dow ; ior nyt were nede then ol here. 
eue?y cure almost for to wryte a hole boke. I wyl 
only touch, as I sayd before, the most gene?*al poyntys, 
and the rest leue to the cure of them wych in euery 
cause haue ordur and rule ; whose prudence and pollycy 376 
schal euer see, accordyng to the tyme and place of 
eue?y thyng perteynyng to theyr offyce, the partycular 


379 remedye. But of thys we may be assuryd, that yf thes 

general thyngys before spoken were put in vse and 

effecte, they schold much remedy thys foule yl and 

Hespeakanow grete dropcy. Let vs, therfor, procede to the other 

busy next in ordur to thys ensuyng, wych, I trow, we callyd 

Paisy.i a palsy; for as much as many ther be wych occupy 

themselfe besyly, but to no profyt of the commynalty ; 

[* Page 12.] of the wych a grete *no?nbur we rekenyd then, as al 

387 such wych occupyd the??iselfys about vayn plesurys and 

nothyng necessary, as marchauntys therof and craftys 

in providing men, syngarys and playarys apon instruntewtys, lyuyng 

therby ; ye, and also a grete nombur of thes wych we 

cal relygyouse mew, and be not indede. The remedy 

392 wherof in general ha?igyth much of the remedy of the 

dysease before last rehersyd, for as much as the cause of 

the yl occupying of al such before notyd ys to satysfye 

To remedy tins, the appetyte of the idul route. Wherfore yf they were 

children must 

be brought 4p wel brought vp wythout ldulnes, the rote of thys 
dysease schold be cut away wythal. So they hange 
398 togydur. For who doth not see thys, that al thes 
merchantys and artyfycerys of vanyte schold vtturly 
perysch wyth theyr craftys, yf they were not niayn- 
teynyd by thys idul sorte, wych be they hauntarys of 
thes vayn plesurys and tryfelyng thyngys ] "Wherfor 
403 yf mew were so brought vp in youthe, so instructyd 
and formyd in tendur age, that they schold not delyte 
but in honest plesurys necessary and natural, thys 
mater wold sone be remedyd. Therfor, as I sayd before, 
the hedys, offycerys, and rularys, euer to thys must 

a good training haue theyr yes, to thys they must study ; for thys gud 

of youth is the , . , 

only cure. educatyon of youth m vert use exercyse ys the grounde 

of the remedying al other dyseasys in thys our polytyke 

body, euen lyke as in the cure of the bodyly dyseasys, 

412 the correctyon of corrupt and indygest humorys ys the 

chefe poynt in the cure of them al, as the thyng wyth- 

1 In margin of MS. 


out the wych al other medycyns lytyl schal avayle. 414 
"Wherfor thys ys, as hyt were, the chefe key wherby 
the rest of our song must he gouernyd and rulyd, and 
so in thys al dylygence ys requyryd. How he hyt, for- 
hycause that marc ys so frayle and gyuen to plesure, be- 
syde thys educatyon, hyt schalhe necessary to haue 419 
some other lawys for the correctyon of thys faute then New laws are 

required to 

he yet sfcablyschyd. As, for exarapul, thys, I thynk, regulate the 

schold he no thyng amys, fyrst, a ordynance to he had, aJU t^ a «, 

that merchantys *out of straunge cuntreys he cu?n- ^♦Pageis." 

mandyd vnder a ce?*tayn payn, not to hryng in any 

such thyng as schal allure our pepul to vayn plesure 425 

and pastyme ; among the wych thys grete abundance of 

wyne brough[t] in ys no smal occasyon of much hurte, 

by many ways, as hyt ys more euydent then nedyth to 

be schowyd. "Wherfor among the marchauntys an 

ordynance schold be had to hryng in only a certayn 430 

[quantytye] for the plesure of nobul men and them wych 

be of powar ; and so in thys poynt, schortly to say, and exporting 

thys schold also be comprehend yd, that marchauntys we have in 

schold cary out only such thyngs as we haue grete a un ancfc ' 

abundance of, and bryng in agayne thyngys necessary 

only, or, at the lest, such thyngys as schalbe for the 43G 

mayntenance of honest plesure, and suche as can not be 

made by the arte, labur, and dylygence of our owne 

pepul. Thys schold mynystur a grete occasyon to 

occupy bettur our idul route that we spake of before. 

And ferther, for the takyng away of thes yl-occupyd officers to be 

„ . . appointed to see 

personys in vayn craitys, the same onycerys m euery how people are 
towne wych schal see [th]at ther be no idul pe?'sonys emp ° ye " 
wythout crafte or mean to get theyr lyuyng, schal also 444 
take hede that they occupye no vayn and vnprofytabul 
craft to the co?nmyn wele. Thes offycerys schalbe as Duties of these 
the Censorys were in the old tyme at Rome, wyche schal 
see to thes materys, as wel as to the norabur and to the 
substance of pepul. To them hyt schal perteyne also, 449 


450 to ouerse the educatyon of vthe. To theyr cure schal 

"be commyttyd the redresse of many grete dyseasys in 

thys polytyke body. But of thys heraftur in hys place, 

when we come to speke of the polytyke ordur. And 

by thys mean I thynke we schold helpe much to the 

455 gud occupying of our pepul in honest and profytabul 

crafty s to the commyn wele. 

L. agrees, but 18. lirpset. — Syr, of thys ther ys no dowte but that 

persons are thes ordyna?zce schold be veray profytabul. But yet you 

haue left the one halfe of the yl-occupyd personys, and 

460 nothyng touchy d them at al. That ys to say, thes 

relygyouse personys in monasterys and abbeys. 

p. owns there 19. Po?e. — Surely you say troth. Of them ther ys 

[* Page H.] a grete no??ibur and vnprofytabul ; but, *Mastur Lvp- 

he does not wish se ^ as touchyng them, as I sayd before, I wold not that 

ae!tro b ed S '° be ^hes relygyouse mew wyth theyr monasterys schold vt- 

but he would turly be take away, but only some gud reformatyon to 

be had of them. And, schortly to say, I wold thynke 

468 in that bebalfe chefely, thys to be a gud remedy, that 

youth schold haue no place therin at al, but only such 

mere as, by feruent loue of relygyon mouyd therto, fly- 

wiio should be ing the daungerys and snarys of the world, schold ther 

admitted to them. _. _ . 

haue place. And yi that gape were onys stoppyd, 1 dare 

473 wel say theyr no??ibur wold not be ouer-grete : we schold 

haue fewar in nombur relygyouse men, but better in 

lyfe. But here ys not the place of them, nor to schow 

theyr reformatyon, the wych schalbe hereaftur when we 

schal speke of the reformyng of the fautys of the sp/ryf- 

478 walty. I care not tel how you brought them in and 

nombryd them among idul and yl-occupyd personys. 

How be hyt, to say the truthe, they are nother ydul, as 

they say, nother yet wel occupyd ; but, how so euer 

hyt be, theyr propur place ys not here in thys purpos ; 

He defers this and therfor we wyl dyffer thys mater, and so go forth 

present, to the next dysease and cure therof ensuyng to thys 

485 now spoken of last : and that was, as I remembyr, 


wych we then callyd a pestyleiis reynyng in thys poly- Pesiyieiw." 
tyke body, by the reson Avherof they partys were not 
wel knyt togydur, but dysseueryd asunder, no parte 
doAvyng hys propur ofFyce and duty. Thys ys, and euer 489 
hath byn, the gretyst destructyon that euer cam to any 
commyn wele. Thys ys the ground of al ruyne of and goes on to 

another disease 

pollycy, whrrof the cu?2tre of Ytaly ys iu our days most of the body 
manyfest exampul, where as by dyscord and diuysyon 
among themselfe ys brought in much mysery and con- 
fusyon. "Wherfor of thys thyng aboue al other most 495 
cure must be had ; but, Piaster Lvp.*e£, here you must 
vnderstond, that euen as in the body of ma« many dys- 
easys, as physycyonys dow say, spryng of the mynd, and 
of thd affectys therof, so, in thys polytyke body, a grete 
parte of the mysordurys therin rysyth of that thyng 500 
wych Ave resemblyd to the mynd in man, — that ys, po- 
lytyke rule and cyuyle ordur ; among the mysordurys That which was 
wherof thys pestylens ys one of the chefe. "Wherfor pestilence, 
thys ys certayn, here ys not the place of hys perfayt 
cure ; but rather, to say the troth, the cure therof ys 
sparkylyd in the cure of al other. How be hyt, some 506 
peculyar* thyngys perteyne therto, as we schal partely [*Pagei3.] 
scIioav now and partely hereafter. 

(19.) And, fyrst, for thys place, seyng the cause of it arises from a 
thys dysease rysyth chefely for lake of co??zmyn justyce amUquUy.'' 6 
and equyte, — that one parte bathe to much and another 
to lytyl of al such thyng as equally schold be dystry- 512 
butyd accordyng to the dygnyte of al the cytyzyns, — 
therfor, aboue al thyng, regard must be had of the pry?zce 
and of them wych be in offyce and authoryte, chefely 
to see that al such thyng may be dystrybute with a cer- 
tayn eq?«aly te ; but how thys schalbe downe hereaf tur 517 
we schal peraue?zture somewhat schow. But now, to 
kepe thys body knyte togydur in vnyte, prouysyon Avoid To remedy this, 
be made by common laAV and authoryte, that euery parte mind lXown 
1 In margin of MS. 


craft, and not may exercyse hys offyce and duty, — that ys to say, 

intermeddle with . 

another's. euery mare in hys craft and faculty to meddyl wyth such 

thyng as perteynyth therto, and intermeddyl not wyth 
524 other; for thys causyth much malyce, enuy, and debate, 
both in cyte and towne, that one maw meddylyth in the 
craft and mystere of other. One ys not content wyth 
hys owne professyon, craft, and mane?* of lyuyng, hut 
euer, when he seyth another more rych then he, and 
529 lyue at more plesure, then he despysyth hys owne 
faculty, and so applyth hymselfe vnto the other. "Wher- 
for, a certayn payne must be ordryd and appoyntyd apon 
euery man that contewtyth not hymselfe wyth hys owne 
mystere, craft, and faculty ; wherby much schold be re- 
534 streynyd thys curyosyte, a gret ruyne and destructyon 
offenders to be to al gud and iust pollycy. Moreouer, to al sedycyouse 
banishment or personys that openly despyse thys ordur, vnyte, and 
concord, wherby the partys of thys body are, as hyt 
were, wyth senewys and neruys knyt togyddur, pe?'- 
539 petual bannyschmer^t, or rather deth, must be by law 
prescrybyd, as to a corrupt me??ibyr of the body, and so 
to be cut of, for feare lest hyt schold infecte the rest, 
corruptyng the hole. And so thys co???pellyng of euery 
ma?j to dow hys offyce and duty, wyth dystrybutyng to 
544 euery maw, accordyng to hys vertue and dygnyte, such 
thyngys as be to be dyuydyd among the cytyzyns wyth 
equyte, schal conserue much thys body in vnyte and 
concord ; and, I thynke, by processe of tyrne, vtturly take 
away thys pestylent dysease and dyuysyon. How be 
The perfect cure hyt, as I sayd before, the perfayt cure therof rysyth and 
cure of other 110 spryngyth of the cure of al other partycular misordurys 
diS [*Pa}e 16.] i n poUy c y 5 for as *much as thys ys, as hyt were, a ge- 
neral ruyne of al cyuyle ordur and polytyke rule. Ther- 
to which p. will for, Master Isvpset, let vs go forward aftur thys mane?-, 
go forward. -b reTieI y to touche the cure of other, by the reson wher- 

555 of we more perfaytly schal also cure thys same pestylens 


so corruptyreg the body. Consequently to thys, yf you 556 
remembyr, Mastur Lupsef, we found in thys body a grete 
deformyte, the wych, as we notyd, rysyth of the yl ~pro- DefonnyteJ 
portyon of the partys, some bying to grete and some to 
lytyl. As, by exa??zpul, the thyng to declare, ther be The scarcity of 


among vs to few plowme?^ and tyllarys of the ground, and the plenty of 

7 " 7-Ti . . n courtiers and 

and to many courtyarys and ldul seruantys ; to lew ar- servants; 

n l . 7 , , 7 few artisans, 

tysanys of gud occupatyon and to many prestys and but many priegtg . 
relygyouse, ful of vayn superstycyon ; and thys of many 
other ordurys we myght say. But the cause of thys, to The cause of this 
touch now to the purpos, aftur my mynd. ys thys, that 
euery man naturally ys gyuen to folow plesure, qniet- 567 
nes, and ease, by the reson wherof the most parte fly 
to the most esy craft, and to such wherof ys most hope 
specyally of gayne, by the wych they may eue?- theyr ple- 
sure sustayn. "Wherfor, to correcte thys faute, breuely to its cure can only 

be effected bv 

say, thys must be, as hyt apperyth to me, a chefe meane choosing fit men 
in euery craft, arte, and scyence, some to appoynt, ex- offices, 
pert in the same, to admyt youth to the exercyse therof; 
not suffryng euery man wythout respecte to apply them- 575 
selfe to euery craft and faculty. Thys remedy ys in 
few wordys spoken ; but, truly, yf hyt were put in vse, 
hyt schold not only bryng in the beuty of thys polytyke 
body, but also almost perfayt felycyte. Thes offycerys 
wych schold be appoyntyd to thys (of whome I wyl 580 
speke more heraftur) schold admyt non, als nere as they 
care, to any faculty but such wyttys as be apte therto ; 
as, by exampul, to be prestys, clerkys, and lernyd in 
the law, such only schold be admyttyd as haue electe 
wyttys, and be of nature mete thervnto. And so lyke 585 
of other. And then you schold see how by dylygent 
oue?'syght, also, that eue?y man schold apply hym selfe then every man 
to hys mystere and craft, or els by the offycerys to be himself to his 
excludyd and appoyntyd to other; and so schortly 
1 In margin of MS. 


590 schold grow a maruelouse beuty in thys polytyk body, 
and thys deformyte and yl proportyon of pcwtys schold 
be by thys mane?* wel taken away. 
l. thinks this 20. livpset. — Syr, thys were a profytabul ordynarace, 

would be very 

profitable, as hyt semyth to me ; ior by thys mean, also, we schold 

haue in every arte, scyence, and craft, more excellent 

as the right man me?z then we haue now, when no man schold apply 

would always be 

in the right themselfe to the same, but such only as be jugyd by na- 

p' aee - 

[*Page i7.] ture apte thervnto : for in that thyng *only men profyt 

commynly, wherto of nature they be inclynyd frely. 

600 Thys thyng, I trow, yet was neuer put in executyon in 

no commyn wele vnyuersally • but, truly, me thynke 

hyt schold be cause of manyfold profyte, more then I 

can now expresse. 

21. Po/e. — Wel, Mastur ~Lvpset, let the effecte proue 

605 as hyt schal plese Hym who gouernyth al • and let vs 

p. goes on to procede ferther in our processe. We notyd also a grete 

discuss the ■ i i -i • ,. ittt 

wekenes.i weknes in thys body, in so much that we though [t J 

weakness of the j^ was no ■. we i ^^ ^ defend hytselfe from vtward 

ennymys ; the cause wherof, of the wych we must begyn, 

chefely ys thys, as hyt semyth to me : — that the nobylyte, 

611 wyth theyr seru&ntys and adherentys, are not exercysyd 

in feat of armys and chyualry, but gyue the?reselfys to 

winch is caused idul gamys, as dysyng and cardyng, wyth such other 

by the idleness 

of the nobility. vanyte ; to the wych ensuth, by necessyte, thys gret 

wekenes of the chefe parte of the body. Wherfor ther 

616 must be a prohybytyon set out by commyn authoryte, 

fyrst, ixom al such vnp?*ofytabul gamys and idul exer- 

To cure this, cyse to be occupyd commynly, and the nobylyte must 

else themselves in be corcstraynyd, by lawful puftnyscheme?^t, to exercyse 

themselfys in al such thyngys and featys of armys as 

schal be for the defence of our reame necessary; the 

622 wych they schold dow wyth the same dylygence that 

the plowme?i labur and tyl the ground for the commyn 

fode. And in thys mater hyt were veray necessary also, 

1 In margin of MS. 


in euery cyte and gud towne, to haue a co?nniyn place 025 

appoyntyd to the exercyse of vthe, wherin they myght 

at voyd tymys exercyse themselfys ; the wych among 

the Eomanys was a co???myn thyng, and yet ys obseruyd as the Komans 


among the Swycys ; wych, I thynke, hathe hyn the and the Swiss 

gretyst cause of theyr grete fame in dedys of armys. Ye 

and moreoue?-, in the vyllagys of the cu??trey, when the 631 

pepul are assemblyd togyddur, such exercyse also wold 

not be forgot ; but how, in what mean, and in what 

exercyse, mew schold thys occupye themselfys, that we 

schal leue to be prescrybyd of them wych be experte in 

featys of armys, and haue bynin vthe exercysyd therin. 636 

To vs hyt ys suffycyent in general somewhat to open and 

schow the way ; for of thys thyng many yerys ther hath 

byn no regard at al here in our cu??tre. Wherfor our pe- The people now 

are not valiant, 

pill be not now valyant in featys of armys as they haue but are too much 

byn in tyme past, but, gyue?? *to plesure, lettyth the [*p a gei8.i 

world passe in ididnes and vanyte. But thys ys sure 

and certayn, ther ys no lesse cure to be had of thys 643 

mater then of cyuyle law and ordur in tyme of peace, 

for as much as wythout warre we neuer co??tynue many 

yerys, and so schalbe in daunger of losyng of our cu??- 

trey wythout thys prouysyon. Therfor, aboue al, we 

must study to restore thys polytyke body to hys old The body must 

powar and strenghth, and by such exercyse remoue thys id power. 

imbecyllyte and wekenes fro???, the same; the wych yf we 

dow, Ave schal haue our body of our pepid helthy and 651 

strong, abul to defend hytselfe fro?/? al A-tward ireiury. 

(21.) And so now you haue hard, Master Lupse£, if these remedies 

be well applied, 

certayn remedy s for the most commyn dyseasys in thys the parts will 
polytyke body before notyd, wych, yf they be wel ap- 
plyd, schal meruelousely dyspose the partys also to 656 
receyue cure and remedy of the partycular dyseasys 
reynyng therin, wych eue?* spryng out of the general, 
as you schal perceyue in our communycatyon hereaftur, 
when oue?--more the ground of the cure schalbe drawen 660 



661 out of thes, of the wych now we haue spoken. For 

euen lyke as the sykenes of the partys for the most 

spryrcgyth 1 of some mysordur in the hole body, so they 

cure of the same must be taken out of the cure of the 


l. think? these 22. LvpseZ. — Syr, thys I see ryght wel, that, euen 

teen treated too as you say, thes general thyngys wel remedyd schold 

" ; schortly bryng in gud ordur in the partys. "Wherfore 

669 me thynke you passe them ouer-schortly. I wold that 

you schold haue schowyd somewhat more at large and 

party cularly the mean and fascyon of theyr cure and 


but p. says he 23. PoZe. — M.aster ~Lv~pset, as touchyng that thyng, 

only intended to 

touch certain you must euer reme?wbyr my purpos here mtendyd, 
and leave the ' wych ys, as I schowyd before, only to touch certayn 

rest to others. -, , n -, , , 7 

general tliyngys, as by a co?wme7*tary to co?zserue and 

677 kepe in memory ; and the rest to leue to the prudence 

of them wych haue authoryte and rule to put such 

thyngys in executyon as, by thes general thyngys of me 

notyd, they may be put in remembraunce of only. For 

yf I schold partycularly prosecute euery thyng at large 

682 perteynyng to thes materys, we schold not fynysch our 

communycatyon thys xv. days and more; for euery 

mater requyryth almost a hole boke and volume. 

True, says l. ; 24. "Lvpset. — Sir, you say therm truthe, wythout 

fayle. 1 perceyue hyt ys suffycyent for your purpos now 

ppage 19.] to geddur certayn * thyngys, wherby pryncys may be ad- 

monyschyd to put such other in executyon wych of thes 

689 may be schortly gedduryd. And therfor let vs go on 

aftur the maner befor vsyd. 

i\ ffoes on to 25. PoZe. — We notyd, yf you cal to remembrance, 

speak of that „ , . - , , ji-it 

" fienzy in the in the chefe parte oi the body, that ys, the hede, an 

head," on which , , <• ■,-, n ,-, « ,-, 

an other diseases appropryat dysease, wych Ave callyd then a irencey, the 
,q wych dysease yf we coude fynd the mean to cure, al 

695 the mysordurys in the rest of the party schold easely 
1 MS. sprywkyth. 


be helyd ; for al hange apon thys. Therfor the wyse 696 

phylosophar Plato in al hys commyn welth chefely 

laburyd to see gucl offycerys, hedys, and rularys, the Good rulers are 

very necessary. 

wych schold be, as hyt were, lyuely lawys ; for the wych 

cause also, aftur myn opynyon, he thought no thyng 

necessary to wryte any lawys to hys co?ranynalty ; for 

yf the hedys in a commyn wele were both just, gud, 702 

and wyse, ther schold nede now other lawys to the 

pepul. But how myght thys be brought to passe, But how to get 

. them ? 

blaster Lvpset, m our co??mryn wele and cu?*tre ? 
Thynke you hyt were possybul 1 

26. "Lvpset. — I thynke by no ma«nys wyt. And l. thinks by no 

in-™- li 7i i i man's wit, and 

therlor Plato imagynyd only and dremyd apon such a that Plato only 

, „ , T dreamed. 

commyn wele as neue?' yet was round, nor neuer, I 
thynke, schalbe, except God wold send downe hys 710 
angellys, and of them make a cyte ; for maw by nature 
ys so frayle and corrupt, that so many wyse men in a 
commynalty to fynd, I thynke hyt playn impossybul. 

27. Po?e. — Wei, M.aster Lvpsetf, here you must p. does not look 
vnde?'stond that Ave loke not for such hedys as Plato described, 
descry by th in hys pollycy, for that ys out of hope wyth 716 

vs to be found ; nor yet for such wyse men as the 

Stoykys descrybe, and auwcyewt phylosoph[arys.] But 

aftur a more cyuyle and co?nmyn sort, we wyl mesure 

they wysdome of them whome we wold to rule, that 

ys to say, such as wyl not in al thyngys nother folow 721 

theyr owne affectyonys, nother yet in whome al affectys 

are drownyd and taken quyte away ; but, obsemyng a but such as prefer 

.. . . the common 

certayn reasonabul mean, euer haue theyr yes fyxyd to good to all other 

the coTwmyn wele, and that aboue al thyng euer to pre- 

ferre, to that euer redresse al theyr actys, thoughtys, 726 

and dedys. Such mew, I say, yf we myght set in our 

* commyn wel and pollycy, schold be suffycyent for vs. [* Page 20.] 

28. Lvpse£. — Sir, I thynke we were happy yf we 
myght such fynd. 

29. "Pole. — Wel, let vs co?isydur then, and procede. 731 


732 F yrst, thys ys certayn in our co?nmyn wel, as hyt ys 

instytute : a grete parte of thys mater hangyth apon 

one pine; for thys ys sure, our cuntrey ys not so 

and such might barrayn of honest me)i, but such myght be found, 

specyally yf the vth were a lytyl brought vp aftur such 

737 mane?- as we schal touch hereaftur. The pine that I 

We must have a spake of ys thys — to haue a gud prynce to gouerne and 

mie; this is the rule. Thys ys the ground of al felycyte in the cyuyle 

foundation of all •■ « r^, i-,-. nr>i, j> i in 

go^j. lyie. ihys ys |_thej iundatyon oi al gud pollycy in 

such a kynd of state as ys in our 'cuntrey. The pry wee 

742 instytutyth and makyth almost al vnder offycerys. He 

Could we find hathe authoryte and rule of al. Therfor, yf we coud 

one, he would be 

a remedy for all fynd a mean to haue a gud prynce commywly, thys 
schold be a co??imyn remedy, almost, as I sayd, for al 
the rest of the mysordurys in the pollycy. 
l. This rests with 30. LvpseZ. — Mary, Sir, that ys trothe ; but thys 

lyth in God only, and not in mannys powar. 

p. True; 31. PoZe. — Master Lupsrf, though thys be trothe, 

diligence, by that al gudnesse comniyth of God, as out of the 

obtain 111 things fountayn, yet God requyryth the dylygence of man in 

necessary. &1 guc ^ foyng as perteynyth to hys felycyte. The 

753 prouydence of God hath thys ordeynyd, that man schal 

not haue any thyng perfayte, nor attayne to hys per- 

fectyon, wythout cure and trauayle, labur and dylygence; 

by the wych, as by money, we may by al thyng of 

God, who ys the only marchant of al thyng that ys 

758 gud. 

i.. asks what 32. Lvpset. — What mean you by this 1 Wold you 

Pole means? ■, ■■ , , i ■, n 1 

that man schold prouyde hym a prynce, and iorme hym 
aftur hys owne fascyon, as hyt were in mannys powar 
that to dow, and by dylygence to gyue hym wysdome 
763 and gudnes! 

33. Pote. — Nay, Master Lvpset, 1 I mene nothyng 
so ; for hyt ys God that makyth ma?2, and of hym only 
commyth al wysedome and gudnesse, as I sayd euen now. 
1 MS. le. 


But, Master Tjvpset, to see what I mean somewhat more 767 

clere, let vs cowsydur thys mate?- a lytyl hyar. The 

gudnes of God, out of the wych spryngyth al thyng p. answers: 

God made man, 

that ys gud, hathe made maw, of al creaturys in erth, and gave him 
most pe>fayt, gyuyng vnto hym a sparkyl of his owne himself; ° 
dyuynyte, — that ys to say, ryght reson, — wherhy he 
schold goueme hymselfe in cyuyle lyfe and gud pollycy, 773 
accordyng to hys excelle?it * nature and dygnyte. But [* Page si.] 
wy th thys same sparkyl of reson, thys to man gyuew, b ut with reason 

He joined affec- 

are joynyd hy nature so many affectys and vycyouse tions and vicious 
desyrys, by the reson of thys erthly hody, that (except without care, ' 
maw wyth cure, dylygewce, and lahur, resy[s]te to the JUSiS 
same) they ouer-ruw reson, thys lytyl sparkyl, and so abrute - 
bryng ma», consequently, from hys natural felycyte, and 780 
from that lyfe Avych ys cowuenyent to hys nature and 
dygnyte ; in so much that he ys then as a brute best, 
folowyng not the ordyna??ce of God, wych gaue hym 
reson to subdue hys affectys as much as the nature of 
the body Avoid sulfur. For yf he had gyuew hym so if He had given 

him more reason, 

much reso?i and wysedom that he schold neue?* haue he would have 

i , i jv> ■ 7 t t been as an angel, 

byn ouercome wyth affectys and vayn desyrys, he 

schold haue made mare aboue ma??, and made hym as 788 

an angel ; and so ther schold haue lakkyd here in thys and so lacked the 

-p,, . j, _. nature of man. 

world the nature of ma?i. But the gudnes of God But God would 

(wych only therby mouyd made thys sensybul world) 

wold suffur no thyng to lake to the perfectyon therof, 

who dyd co??^munycat Hys owne gudnes and perfectyon 793 

to euery thyng accordyng to the capacyte of hys grosse 

nature. And thys man coude not be made, being by 

nature in such imperfectyon of hys erthely body, to any 

more perfectyon ; hys body wold suffur no more of that 

celestyal lyght. Notwythstondyng, thys ys true, that 798 

to some maw thys lyght ys more communyd, to some some have more 

, n . „ . - , 7 light than others, 

maw lesse, accordyng to the nature ot hys body, and according to their 
accordyng to hys educatyon and gud instructyon in the 
commyn welth, where he ys brought forth of nature. 


and it is the same And thys ys the cause, as hy t apperyth to me, that one 

with nations. , , _ 

ma?i ys more wyse then another ; ye, and one natyon 
805 more prudent and polytyke then another. Howhehyt, 

I thynke non ther ys so rude and bestely, but, wyth 
aii may subdue cure and dylygence, by that same sparkyl of reson 
reason ; when gyuen of God, they may subdue theyr affectyonys, and 
are n governed by folow the lyfe to the wych they be instytute and 
Gods providence; or( }eynyd f Q. QC [ • the wych ordur when maw wyth 
811 reson folowyth, he ys then gouernyd by the prouydewce 

of God. Lyke as, contrary, when he, by neclygewce, 

suffryth thys reson to be ouercome wyth vycyouse 

affectys, then he, so blynded, lyuyth contrary to the 

[* Page 22.] ordynarcce * of God, and fallyth vtturly out of Hys pro- 

816 uydewce, and ys lad by hys owne ignorance. He ys 

when they do not, then subiecte to thys world and to the. kyngdome of the 

the devil. deuyl ; he then hath [for] hys rular, folysch fancy and 

vayne opynyon, wych euer lede hym to hys cwifusyon. 
He could confirm Al thys that I haue sayd, I coude cowfyrme, both by the 
not# ' sentence of old phylosophy and holy Scrypture; but, 

by cause I see here ys not the place now to dyspute, 
823 but to take and admytt the truthe tryd by ancyent 

wyttys and celestyal wysedome and doctryne, I wyl 

thys pretermytt and set apart. 
Livir« in civil (33.) And now to our purpos. Euen as euery par- 

arf g r ov n erne d by tycular iiiaij, when he folowyth reson, ys gouernyd by 
God's providence; q. 0( ^ an ^ contrary, blyndyd wythi ignorance by hys 

owne vayn opynyon ; so hole natyonys, when they 
830 lyue togyddur in cyuyle ordur, instytute and gouernyd 

by resonabul pollycy, are then gouernyd by the pro- 

uydence of God, and, be vnder Hys tuytyon. As, con- 
t>ut without good trary, when they [are] wythout gud ordur and polytyke 

rule, they are rulyd by the violence of tyranny; they 
835 are not gouernyd by Hys prouydence nor celestyal 

ordy nance, but, as a man gouernyd by affectys, so they 

be tormentyd infynyte ways, by the reson of such 

tyrannycal powar; so that of thys you may se that hyt 


ys not God that prouydyth tyranny s to ride in cytes God does not 
and townes, no more then hyt ys He that ordeynyth yl 
affectys to ouer-run ryght reson. But now to the 841 
purpos, blaster Lvpse£. Hyt ys not marc that can make Man cannot make 

a wise prince, 

a wyse pry??ce of hym that lakkyth wyt by nature, nor 

make hym just that ys a tyranne for plesure. But thys but he can elect 

a wise one, and 

ys in mannys powar, to electe and chose hym that ys can depose a 

both wyse and iust, and make hym a pry wee, and hym 

that ys a tyranne so to depose. Wherfor, Master 847 

Lvpsef, thys I may truly say, to the wych al thys reson- 

yng now tendyth, — that yf we wyl correcte thys frenecy 

in our commyn wele, we may not at a venture take hym 

to our prynce, what so euer he be, that ys borne of hys 

blode and cumyth by successyon, the wych, and you 852 

remembyr, we notyd befor also to be one of the gretyst 

fautys, as hyt ys in dede, in our pollycy; the wych 

faute, onys correcte, schal *also take away thys frenecy. re [*pa g e 23.] 

Yf we can fynd a way to amend thys, we schal not 

gretely labur to cure the rest ; for as to say, as many 

men dow, that the prouydence of God ordeynyth God does not 

tyrannys for the punnyschment of the pepul, thys agreth f 0r the purish- 

no thyng wyth phylosophy nor reson ; no, nor yet to "eopie" 

the doctryne of Chryst and gud relygyon. For by the 861 

same mean, as I sayd a lytyl before, you myght say, 

that hyt ys the prouydence [of] God that eue?y par- any more than 

He makes a man 

tycular man folowyth hys affectys, blyndyd wyth ignor- follow his evil 
ance and foly ; and so hyt schold folow, the foly and 
vyce commyth of the prouyde?«ce of God, wych ys no 
waye to be admyttyd, but only as thys, that the pro- 
uydence of God hath ordeynyd of Hys gudnes such a 868 
creature to be, wych may, by hys owne foly, folow hys 
owne affectys. But when he doth so, thys ys sure — 
he folowyth not the ordynance of God, but, outcome 
by plesure and blyndyd wyth ignorance, flythe fro?n 
hyt and slyppyth from hys owne dygnyte. Therfor 873 
1 In margin of MS. 



Tyranny is the 
greatest of all ills, 
and cannot come 
from God; 


but it is to be 
attributed to the 
malice of man 
and the negli- 
gence of the 

To cure this 
frenzy, the 
tyranny must be 
taken away. 


No need for this 
during the pre- 
sent reign ; 



but when the 
king dies, parlia- 
ment must 
choose the most 
apt to that high 

and he to be ever 
subject to the 

[* Page 24.] 


neue?* attrybute tyranny (of al yl the gretyst) to the 
prouydence of God, except you wyl, consequently, at- 
trybut al yl to the Fontayn of gudnes; wych ys no 
thyng conuenyent, but playn wykydnes and iwpyety. 
But, aftur my mynd and opynyon, you schal attrybut 
thys tyranny partely to the malyce of man (who by 
nature ys ambycyouse and of al plesure most desyrouse) 
and partely to neclyge»ce of the pepul, wych suffur 
themselfys to be oppressyd therwyth. Wherfor, Master 
Lupse£, yf we wyl cure thys pe?'nycyouse frenecy, we 
must begyn to take away thys ' pestyle?it tyranny, the 
wych to dow ys no thyng hard for to deuyse. 

(33.) But here you must remembyr, Master Lupset 
(as we sayd in our fyrst day's communycatyon) that al be 
hyt we haue now in our days, by the prouydence of God, 
such a prynce, and of such wysedome, that he may ryglit 
wel and justely be subyecte to no law, — whose prudence 
and wysedome ys lyuely law and true pollycy, — yet we 
now (wych al such thyngys as syldome happun haue 
not in consyderatyon, but such thyngys only loke vnto 
wych, for the most p«?'te, happurc and be lykly, and 
such as be mete to a iust and commyn pollycy) may not 
deny but that in our ordur here ys a certayn faute, 
and to the same noAV deuyse of some remedy. Wherin 
the fyrst and best mean ys thys, aftur my mynd and 
opynyon, here in our cuntrey to be taken; aftur the 
decesse of the prynce, by electyon of the commyn 
voyce of the parlyament assemblyd to chose one, most 
apte to that hye offyce and dygnyte, wych schold not 
rule and gouerne al at hys owne plesure and lyberty, 
but ener be subiecte to the ordur of hys lawys. But 
here to schow how he schold be electe, and aftur what 
maner and fascyon, that we schal leue to partycular 
consyderatyon, and *take thys for a sure ground and 
foundatyon to delyuer vs from al co»fusyon ; for truly 
thys ys the fyrst way wych wel and justely may delyuer 


vs out of al tyra?zny. Thys hath byn euer vsyd among 910 
them wych haue euer lyuyd vnder a prynce wyth 
lyberty, wherby they haue byn gouernyd by lyuely 
reson, and not subiecte to dedely affectyon. The 
secorade mean, as me semyth, may wel be thys, yf we ifwewmiet 

i „ . .-, -, .. ., tt -, the heir succeed, 

wyl that they heyrys ot the prynce schal euer succeede, a council must 
what so euer he be, then to hym must be joynyd a ^ me 
counsele by comnry^ authoryte ; not such as he wyl, 
but such as by the most parte of the parlyame?it 918 
schal be jugyd to be wyse and mete thervnto. 

34. "Lvpset — Why, but then, by thys mean, our l. objects on 

i i.-uiJi. -LJ.J p"t- account of the 

parlyaruent schold haue much to dow, yi, when so euer work; 
lakkyd any conseylar, hyt schold be callyd to subrogate 
other, and set in theyr place. 923 

35. "Sole. — Nay, Master Lvpse^, I wold not so ; but but p. would 

only have the 

for that a prouysyon must be had : and that myght be Great Parliament 

thys. For as much as they grete parlyament schold election of a 

neuer be callyd but only at the electyon of our pry?zce, 

or els for some other grete vrgent cause co?<cernyng 928 

the commyn state and pollycy, I Avoid thynke hyt wel 

yf that at London schold euer be remeynyng (bycause 

hyt ys the chefe cyty of our reame) the authoryte of the 

pa?dyame«t, wych euer ther schold be redy to remedy 

al such causys, and represse sedycyonys, and defende 933 

the lybe?-ty of the hole body of the pepul, at al such 

tyme as they kyng or hys conseyl tendyd to any thyng 

hurtful and prejudycyal to the same. Thys corcseyl and 

authoryte of parliament schold rest in thes pe?*sonys : — a council to 

consist of 

fyrst, in mj ol the gretyst and ancyent lordys ol the te??2- 4 Temporal Peers, 

poralty ; ij byschoppys, as of London and Canterbury ; 4 judges,' 
iiij of the chefe jugys ; and iiij of the most wyse cytyzyns London! 18 ° 
of London. Thes men, joyntly togyddur, schold haue it is to have the 
authoryte of the hole parlyamewt in such tyme as the parliament, 
parlyament were dyssol[u]yd. Thys authoryte schold 
be chefely instytutyd to thys end and purpos, — to see 
that the kyng and hys propur counsele schold do no- 945 


and watch over thyng agayne the ordyna?zce of hys lawys and gud pol- 

the laws, and to 

call the Great lycy ; and they schold haue also powar to cal the grete 

Parliament when , . , , . , . , . . - 

necessary. panyaniewt when so euer to them hyt schold seme neces- 

sary for the reformatyon of the hole state of the comrnyn- 
950 alty. By thys cowseyl, also, schold passe al actys of 
leegys, co7ifederatyon, peace, and warre. Al the rest 
schold be mynystryd by the kyng and hys conseyl. But 

The king to do thys, aboue al, as a ground, schold be layd, — that the 

nothing without 

the authority of kyng schold dow no thyng perteynyng to the state of hys 

18 [*Page 25.] *reame wythout the authoryte of hys p?-opur counseyl 

wMcTshaiicon- appoyntyd to hym by thys authoryte. Thys counseyl 

rior^ 2 a b nd h 4 PS ' scno ^ De °f ij byschoppys, iiij lordys, and iiij of the 

learned men. k es t lernyd and polytyke men, expert in the lawys, both 

959 spmftial and temporal. And so thys conseyl, though 

we toke our prynce by successyon, for the ayoydyng of 

sedycyon, schold delyuer vs from al tyranny, settyng vs 

in true lyberty. And so we schold haue, consequently, 

Jiy their advice the ground of thys frenecy taken away ; for, by the coun- 

all patronage to 

be bestowed, seyl of thos appoyntyd to the kyng, al byschoprykys 
and ail faults and grete offycys schold be dystrybutyd and gyuen ; and 


al grete fautys and enormytes openly commyttyd schold 
967 be, by theyr prudence, justely punnyschyd. Al other 
inferyor lordys, knyghtys, and gentylmen, wych dyd 
not theyr offyce and duty in admynystratyon of justyce 
wyth equyte toward theyr subiectys in such thyngys as 
they had jurysdycyon of, schold be callyd to count, and 
972 before them gyue rekenyng of al thyngys downe of them, 
wherof by any ma?i they were accusyd. 

(35.) Thys bande of rekenyng before the conseyl of 

even down to the hyar authoryte schold make the vnder offycerys to be 

body politic. ware and dylygent to dow theyr duty ; wych yf they dyd, 

977 by and by schold folow the correctyon of the other par- 

tycular fautys wych we notyd to be in the partys to the 

Goute.i fetys and handys of the commyn wele resemblyd ; the 

wych fautys were no thyng els but other neclygence of 

1 In margin of MS. 


the pepul, or els, at the lest, spryrcgyng 1 out of the same. 981 

For, as touch yng thys, that the ground lyth so vntyllyd, The ground lies 

untilled through 

and craftys he so yl occupyd, here in our natyon, hyt negligence of the 

ys of no thyng chefely hut of neclygence of the pepul 

or vayn occupatyon. Wherfor, yf such neclygercce, per- if this were 

, punished, people 

ceyuyd and prouyd at courtys ope?zly in euery vyllage would be better 

j , -i ,■• j, i , . -. occupied, and 

una towne, bothe ot plowrnew and artysanys, were by gr0U nd better 
the offycerys purenyschyd hy certayn payn forfytyd, tx e ; 
jD?*escrybyng the same, you schold haue bothe craftys 989 
hettur occupyd, and also the ground more dylygewtly 
tyllyd ; specyally yf the statute of inclosure were put in especially if the 

statute of en- 

executyon, and al such pasture put to the vse of the closure were put 

in force. 

plowgh as before tyme hath byn so vsyd ; for in many 

placys herin ys euydently perceyuyd much neclygewce 

and grete lake in the applying of the ground to the 

plowgh. Thys must be amewdyd, and then you schal 996 

*se both al thyngys in more abuwda?zce and the poly- [* Page 26.] 

tyke body more lyuely and quyke. 

(35.) Thys goute, bothe in the fete and handys, 
.schold be much therby easyd, specyally yf to thys also 
were joynyd a nother ordynawce, of no les profyt, as I 1001 
thynke, then thys ; wych ys, — that al craftys me?} in p. would also 

have all drunk- 

cytys and townys wych are druwkerys, gyuera to the bely aids and gam- 
and plesure therof, cardarys and dysarys, and al other ers UM 
gyuera to ydul gamys, schold be by the same offycerys 
obseruyd and pu?myschyd. Of the wych thyngys the such offences to 

be carefully 

offycerys schold haue as much regard as of robbyng and observed by the 
.adultery, the wych spryng vndowtydly out of thes foun- 
taynys as out of the chefe and prywcypal causys therof. 1009 
Wherfor we must study to cut away the causys, yf we 
wyl remedy, and not only purcnysch, the effecte, as we 
dow commyrdy. I thynke surely that yf the vnder 
•offycerys and rularys appoyntyd therto wold study as 
wel to punnysch them wych lay the ground of such 1014 
mysery and myschefe, as they dow the dowarys therof, 
MS. sprywkyng. 


101 6 ther wold not be so much mysordur among the coramyn 

pepul as now ther vs. The law can go no ferther but 

to the dede ; but the offycerys may take away, by gud 

prudence and pollycy, the partycular cause of the 

Gluttony and idle dede co??zmy?zly. The glotony of Englond and they 

games are the . , , . 

cause of adultery iclul g am ys be no smal occasyon of al adultery, rob- 

ery. bery, and other myschefe. Therfor, yf the offycerys- 

1023 ill courtys, and curatys also> lokyd and studyd to the 

remouyng of thos caiisys dylygewtly, thys goute that we 

Take away the spake of schold be vtturly taken away surely ; and then 

causes, and the 

cure will follow, schold folow, by and by, also the cure of the other grete 

faute wych we found in exteryor thyngys, wych we 

notyd, cowseque?ztly, aftur the other. For euen lyke as 

1029 one dysease commyth of a no ther in thys poly tyke body, 

so the cure of one also folowyth a nother. For wherof 

Penury.' cumyth the penury of al exteryor thyngys necessary to 

Poverty the result thys body, but of the neclygewce of the pepul] Vndowt- 

of negligence. 

ydly thys ys the cbefe cause therof commywly. Wher- 

for, fyndyng mean that they pepul may be compellyd to^ 

[* Page 27.] dylyge?it *exercyse of theyr offyce and duty, thertO' 

1036 foloAvyth forth wythal aburedarcce of thyngys necessary ;. 
specyally yf to that were joynyd a nother ordynawce 2 ' 
(wych, perave?iture, schal seme to you but a smal thyng,. 
but in dede hyt ys of gret weyght) wych ys, corccern- 
yng the frate of marchandyse; by whome the abuwdaunce- 

1041 of al exteryor thyngys may be much forderyd, yf hyt. 

be orderyd to the commyn wele, wythout regard of pry- 

uate gayne and p?'ofyt apon any parte, wythout equyte.. 

He again urges And, cowcernyng thys mater, thys ys the chefe poynte :■ 

the necessity of „a 

restricting ex- that the marchauntys cary out only such thyngys as- 
thrngsiLTthe may be wel lakkyd wythin our owne curetre, wythout 
spare*" 7 Can ** cowimyw detrymewt to our natyon ; and bryng in such 
and the imports thyngys agayn as we haue nede of here at home, and as,, 
cannot produce, by the dylyge?zce of our owne mew, caw not be made. 
1 In margin of MS. 2 MS. nordynarace. 


Thys thyng, put in vse and in executyon, schold be a 1050 
grete ground of al abundance and plenty. 

(35.) For, fyrst, to begyn wytb thys : — the caryage Wooinottobe 

„ exported; 

out of wolle to the stapul ys a grete hurt'e to the pepul of 

Englond ; though hyt be profytabul both to the prynce 

and to the marchant also. For by thys mean the elo thyng 1 055 

of Englond ys in vttur dekey — the gretyst destructyon 

that euer cam to our reame, and the gretyst ruyne of 

many craftys wych long to the same. Wherfor, yf thys cloths, too, made 

at home 

stapul "were broken or otherwyse redressyd, and cloth- ciothyng.i 

yng set vp in Englond agayne, thys ys sure : — the com- 

modyte of our wolle and cloth schold bryng in al other 10G1 

thyngys that we haue nede of out of al other straunge 

partys beyond the see. Ye, and though our cloth, at 

the fyrst begynnyng, wold not be so gud perauenture, would not at first 

be so good, 

as hyt ys made in other partys, yet, in processe of tyme, 
I can not see wy but that ourmen, by dylygence, myght 1066 
attayne therto ryght wel ; specyally yf the pryrcce wold 
study therto, in whose powar hyt lyth chefely such 
thyngys to helpe. Ther be marchant men that, by the but in a- few 

years would 

helpe of the *pry?zce, wyl vndertake in few yerys to [* Page 28.] 
bryng clothyng to as grete perfectyon as hyt ys in other as the foreign 
partys, wych, yf hyt were downe, hyt schold be the 
gretyst bunfyte to increse the ryches of Englond that 
myght be deuysyd. They wych now fach our wol 1074 
schold be glad to fach our cloth made in our reame ; 
wherby schold be occupyd infynyte pepul, wych now 
lyue in idulnes, wrechyd and pore. And the same 
thyng ys to be sayd both of lede and tyn. Our mar- Marchantys.* 
chantys cary them out at plesure, and then bryng the now carried out 
same in workyd agayn, and made vessel therof. And ^ a nufactm-ed baCk 
so of infynyte other thyngys we myght say, the wych 
the gudnes of nature hath to our yle gyuen, they wych 1082 
now ys not nede to reherse but thys generally. They 
1 In margin of MS. 


1084 marchaunt must be prohybytyd to bryng in any such 

thyngys wycb may be made by the dylygence of our 

wines, velvets, owne men. Wyne, ueluettys, and sylkys, they may 

and silks, may 

be brought in. bryng in, but not in such abundance as they coramynly 
dow, wych causyth much yl, as we sayd before. Wher- 
for the statute of apparayle must be put in executyon, 

common taverns anc i such commyn tauernys of wynys wold be forbyden. 

to be forbidden. J J J J J 

They cause much They cause much yl and mysery. But what thyngys 
they scbal cary out, and what thyngys bryng in, the 
1093 offycerys appoyntyd to the ouersyght therof must euer 
prescrybe ; for thys cannot be determyd but accord- 
yng to the abundance and penury of thyngys prudently 
consyderyd. Hyt ys to be reseruyd. But thes offycerys 
must be appoyntyd wyse and expert men in euery grete 
1098 cyte, hauen, and port. 

(35.) And here another poynt for to ayd the abund- 
ance cumyth to my remembrance — I thynke [it] gud 
customs' dues to and profytabul — wych ys thys : that the vnresonabul 

be abated. 

custume.i custume commynly appoyntyd must [be] abatyd ; and 

specyally to them wych bryng in thyngys necessary, 
1104 wherby they may be prouokyd more gladly to bryng in. 
For as the ordur ys now, the prynce hath more [than]halfe 
of theyr gayne, wych thyng gyuyth them ly tyl courage to 
travayle and to take payn. Hyt schold be also no smal 
furtherance many ways, as I thynke, yf hyt were or- 

Engiish vessels deynyd that our owne marchauntys schold cary out and 

should be em- 
ployed, bryng m wyth our owne vessellys, and not vse the 

1111 straungerys schyppys as they now dow ; by the reson 

[* Page 29.] wherof our owne marynerys oft-tymys lye idul. *A 

nother grete thyng ther ys, as I thynke, wych schold 

much helpe to make abundance of al thyng necessary 

Farmers to be for the lyfe — to constrayn the plowmen and fermerys to 

rear more cattle, be more dylygent in reryng of al maner of bestys and 

catayl ; for by theyr neclygence vndowtydly rysyth a 

1118 grete parte of the darth of al such thyngys as for fode 

1 In margin of MS. 


ys necessary : for the lake of such thyngys, causyd by 1119 

such neclyge?zce, ys one chefe cause 1 of the derth therof. 

And a nother ther ys wych few mew obserue ; wych ys 

the inhansyng of rentys of late days inducyd, as we Rents are raised ; 

this is another 

sayd before ; for yf they fermerys pay much vent, and evil. 

more then ys reson, they must nedys sel dere of neces- 

syte : for he that byth dere may sel dere also iustely. 1125 

Wherfor thys ordynance Avoid be profytabul — that al 

such rentys as be inhaunsyd by memory of maw schold 

be rebatyd, and set to the old stynt of that tyme when 

the pepul of Englond floryschyd; for now they are England is 

n-i-i -i i i b rou Sht; almost 

brough[t] almost to the mysery of Fraunce, by the yl to the misery of 

gouernance of late days, and auaryce of the hedys and 

rularys of them. Thys ground must be take away, 1132 

yf we intend euer to remedy thys grete darth, wych ys 

now of al thyngys among vs reynyng. "Wherof the 

ground surely ys thys, for thys makyth, wythout fayle, 

al kynd of vytayl more dere then hyt was wont to be, aii kinds of 

victuals are 

wych co?nmyth al out of the cuntrey. And, consequently, dearer than they 
when vytayl ys dere, then they craftysman must nede 
sel hys ware affair the same rate; for hyt costyth hym 1139 
fc more in nuryschyng hys famyly and artyfycerys therof 
then before hyt was wont to dow. And so, consequently, 
of thys rote spryngyth al darth of al thyngys wych we 
schold haue by the dylygence and labur of the pepul. 

(35.) Wherfor we may surely conclude, that yf thys if these ills were 

, n t t n, , n in remedied, there 

thyngys were remedyd aitur thys maner, both concern- wou](1 ^ plenty 

i .lit, j?j.t i 7_p instead of dearth; 

yng marchauntys, laburarys oi the ground, and fermerys 
therof, we schold in few yerys haue abu?zdance of al 1147 
thyng aftur the old maner ; we schold haue thys nryser- 
abul pouerty taken away. For, as for beggarys lusty and 
strong, ye, and thefys also, schold be but few or now at thieves would 
al of that sorte as they be now. For yf thys multytude 
of seruyng men were * plukkyd away aftur the maner as [* Page 30.] 
I schowyd you before, the rote of al that sorte schold 1153 
1 MS. chause. 


1 154 vtturly perysch. And as for thos the wych nature hath 
and impotent brough[t] forth impotent, or hy syknes are fallen therto, 

people easily 

nourished, they schold be hut few, and easely schold he nuryschyd, 

aftur a mane?* lately deuysyd hy the wysedonie of the 

as they are in cytyzyns of Ipar, a cyte in Flaundres, the wych I 

now in Flanders. ' . 

wold wysch to he put m vse wyth vs, or els some other 

1160 of the same sort. How he hyt, to haue some such as 

hy nature are impotent and pore, I thynke hyt ys the 

ordynance of God to a gud purpos • for such pouerty 

exercysyth wel the pytuose myndys of them wych haue 

enough, and puttyth them in remembrance of the im- 

1165 becyllyte of mannys nature. Wherfor hyt may be wel 

some sick persons suffryd to haue some to go aboute to prouoke men to 

provoke men to mercy and pyte, and to proue and tempt theyr louyng 

pi y ' charyte. But to retorne. Thys grete nombur of sturdy 

beggary s therby schold vtturly be taken away, and also 

1170 the grete pouerty of the laburarys of the grounde. And 

AbundaMce.i thys, "Master "Lvpset, abundance of al thyngys Ave schold 

haue in our cuntre. 

36. IiTipset. — But, Syr, hyt ys not enowh, as we 
sayd before, to haue thyngys necessary in abundance, 

l. asks about the but we must haue al comniyn ornamentys of our co?nmyn 
commonwealth, welth also, yf we wyl make the pe?-fayt state before 
1177 descry byd. 

37. PoZe. — Thes ornamentys, Master Lupse£, of com- 
Bewty.i myn welys, as gudly cytes, castellys, and townys, wyl sone 
so'on a foiiow y fll folow ryches and abundance as thyngys annexyd therto, 
abundance. ^ ^ er ^ eve a lytyl regard therof and a lytyl more care 

put thervnto • for wher as ys ryches and abundance, 

1183 ther wyth a lytyl dylygence wyl sone be brought in al 

commyn ornamentys • as gudly cytes and townys, wyth 

magnyfycal and gudly housys, fayr tempullys and 

churchys, wyth other co?nniyn places ; concernyng the 

Every man wych I wold haue men to conferre euery yere a certayn 

fertS summer 1 summe, accordyng to theyr abylyte, to the byldyng and 

building public . . 

edifices. In margin of MS. 


reformyng of al such co??miyn placys in every grete cyte 1189 
and towne. And ccwuenyent hyt were offycerys to be 
appoyntyd to haue regard of the b[c]wty of the towne cities and towns 
and cufttrey, and of the clennes of the same, wych. f or the sake of 
schold cause grete helth also, and (as I thynke) be a the pubho health ' 
grete occasyon that the pestylens schold not reyne so 1194 
much as hyt doth wyth vs in our cu/itre. But yf we wyl 
restore our cytes to such bewty as we see in other cuw- 
treys, we must *begyn of thys ground. Our gentjlmen [* Page si.] 

. , Gentlemen should 

must be causyd to retyre to cytes and townys, and to build houses in 

i i i ii -i ,i t ji i n cities and towns, 

by Id them nousys in the. same, and ther to see the and live in them. 

goue?-na??ce of them, helpyng euer to set al such thyng 

forward as perteynyth to the ornamentys of the cyte. 1201 

They may not co??,tynually dwel in the cuntrey as they 

dow. Thys ys a gret rudenes and a barbarouse custume it is rude and 

vsyd wyth vs in our cuwtrey. They dwel wyth vs to live in the 

sparkylyd in the feldys and woodys, as they dyd before cou " ry ' 

ther was any cyuyle lyfe knowen, or stablyscbyd 

among vs : the wych surely ys a grete ground of the 1207 

lake of al cyuyle ordur and humanyte. Wherfor thys 

must be ameredyd, yf we wyl euer replenysch our cvrn- This custom must 

be amended, 

trey wyth gud cytes and townys, of the dekey wherof 
I thynke thys ys one grete cause and manyfest occasyon. 
Wherfor thys must be remedyd aftur thys maner now 1212 
touchyd — to compel them at the lest to by Id ther and gentlemen 

compelled to 

theyr housys, and sometymys ther to be resydent. The live in cities. 

gret lordys and ge«tylme?i wych for theyr plesure folow 

the court, wythout offyce or dygnyte, must be causyd 1216 

to retorne and inhabyte the cytes of theyr curatreys ; by 

the wych mean schortly the cytes schold be made if these things 

■ijpi 7P ,, ■, .-, t , were done, our 

beutytul and iayre, and iormyd Avyth much cyuylyte. cities would be 
And so thys our ciu^trey schold not only be replenyschyd our country 
wyth pepul wel occupyd, euery man in hys offyce and rep enis e ' 
degre, but also we schold haue grete abunda??ce of al and the people 

have abundance, 

thyngys, as wel of such thyng as our cu?itrey, by the 
dylygence of ma?», wold here and bry/ig forth, as of 1224 



1225 sucli thyng as by marchauntys schold be brought in 

out of other pa?'tys. And yet, moreouer, you schold 

playnly see, that we schold haue wythal, co??sequent]y, 

as weu as all al orname?2tys co?zuenyent to the nature of our cuwtrey, 

on laments suit- 

able to our wych wyl not surrur to be so ornat and so beutyful, in 

country. - , 

euery degre, as other cuwtreys be, as Italy, Fraunce, 

1231 and Germany. The defecte of nature ys with vs such, 

by the reson wherof we haue not such thyngys as 

[* Page 32.] schold * ornate our cuntrey aftur such maner, notwyth- 

stondyng Ave haue and may haue by dylygence al such 

thyng as schalbe requyryd to thys commyn wel, the 

1236 wych we haue before descry byd. Wherfor, Master 

we may now Lupse£, we may now, consequently, procede to cor- 

eorrect the faults 

in the policy, recte the fautys wych be in the pollycy and in the 

and administra- 
tion of the com- maner of admynystratyon of our commyn wele ; the 

wych ys, as hyt were, the soule to the body ; for hyther 

1241 to we haue schowyd and touchyd the maner of the cor- 

rectyng only such mysordurys as be in the body and 

in the partys of the same. Wherfor, now, Mastur 

~Lvpset, yf you thynke hyt tyme, and except you re- 

merabyr any thyng not spoken of wych ys nede apon 

1246 thys parte, let vs go forward therto. 


1. "Lvpsef. — Syr, for as much as I remewbyr the 

h. thinks Pole knot betwyx the body and the soule, and the cora- 

munyon betwyx them also to be of that sorte that they 

4 dyseasys of the one redurede to the other, therfor I 

thynke such dyseasys of the body (yf ther be any yet 

left behynd) schalbe curyd by the correctyon and cure 

of such as perteyne to the lyfe and soule of the same. 

Wherfor I thynke you may procede, yf you wold a lytyl 

u> show how this schow more at largs how thys body schold be kept and 


corcseruyd contynually in helth, and in thys prosperouse body may be 

kept in health. 

state wych you haue descry byd. 

2. PoZe. — Why, Master Lvpsetf, dow you not per- p. answers, 
ceyue how that schal folow of necessyte to the cure of necessity follow 
the mysordurys wych remayn in the lyfe, and, as hyt 
were, the soule of thys polytyke body, euen lyke as hyt 15 
ys in ma^nys body, to the wych I oft resembyl the 
same, wherin you see the cowseruatyon therof 1 In helth in health, much 

depends on 

and prosperouse state muche haugyth apon the temper- temperance. 

awce and soburnes of the niynd, in so much that you 

schal see veray few of sobur and temperat dyat, but sober men are 

healthy and 

they haue helthy and welthy bodys, except the[y] wealthy. 

hurt themselfys by some exteryor cause manyfest and 22 

playn; as ouer much or lytyl exercyse, or abydyng 

in some pestylent and corrupt ayre, and *such other [*Pagess.] 

lyke. Euen so hyt ys in this polytyke body, be you And so it is in the 

assuryd, yf we may fynd the mean now, in thys our 

coramunycatyon folowyng, to correcte the fautys in our 

pollycy, thys prosperouse state schal surely long con- 28 

tynue, and thys polytyke body helthy and welthy long 

schal induie. A certayn argument therof we haue of 

the most nobul cyte of Venyce, wych, by the reson of of which Venice 

the gud ordur and pollycy that tberin ys vsyd, hath 

cowtynuyd aboue a thousand yerys in one ordur and 

state. Where as the pepul also, by the reson of theyr 34 

sobur and temperat dyat, be as helthy and welthy as 

any pepul now, I thynke, lyuyng apon the erth. Ther- and we by statute 

mado, must 

for, Master LupseZ, by statute made and commyrcly follow her 
receyuyd co??cernyng our dyat, we must be compellyd wTmustbe 
at the fyrst to folow thes mew in soburnes and temper- p^^f B d berness 
ance ; and then you schold neuer haue any occasyon to and teni P erance - 
dowte therof nor feare the stabylyte of our prosperouse 41 
state and gud pollycy. Specyally, as I sayd, yf we 
may so tempur our polytyk ordur and rule, that theyr 
schal rest no faute theryn ; for that ys the sure ground 
of the co?zseruatyon of the co??zmyn wele in the polytyke 45 


Causes of ruin of body. For, as you see manyfestely dayly, the ruyne of 

cu/itreys, cytes, and townys, rysyth euer of thys ground 

commynly, that ys to say, other of some tyranny, or 

49 sedycyon made by the reson of some mysordur in the 

polytyke goueraance and rule. 

l. None can deny 3. Lvpsef. — Syr, thys ys troth, no man may hyt 
deny. And, therfor (wythout other delay) procede 
aftur your nianer praposyd. 

p. Tyranny is 4. "Pole. — For by cause, Master Tjvpset, tyranny in 

the root of every 

iii, and must al comniynaltys ys the ground of al yl, the wel of al 

our common- myschefe and mysordur, the rote of al sedycyon, and 

ruyne of al cyuylyte, therfor we must aboue al pro- 

58 uyde that to hyt in our cuntrey be no place at al. For 

Man is miserable as mare ys then myserabul — though he haue newer so 

when his reason 

is overcome by gud helth of body and prosperus state other ways — 

unruly affections. 

when reson ys ouer-run and vnrulyd anectys gouerne 

and reyne in hys ordur of lyfe ; ye, and the bettur 

[•Page 34.] helth of body and more abundance *of ryches that he 

64 hath and of wordly prosperyte, the more myserabul 

An oppressed he ys, and ful of wrechydnes ; so ys a cuntrey, cyte, or 

country must be 

wretched. towne, when hyt ys oppressyd wyth tyranny — though 

hyt be neue?' so wel replenyschyd wyth pepul helthy 

and welthy, and ornate wyth the most gudly cytes of 

69 the world, yet most myserabul and wrechyd and ful of 

al aduersyte, as we haue before more at large declaryd. 

Therfor, Master LvpseZ, aboue al, as I sayd, of thys 

we must haue regard, and stoppe al occasyon therof as 

As no perfect much as we may. And for as much as no pry nee ys 

found, found of such sorte as ys requyryd to a veray true and 

pryncely state, — that ys to say, that passyth al other in 

Tyra«ny.i wysedome and vertue, w[h]ose stomake schold be a 

77 lyfely image of justyce and pollycy, and whose lyfe 

schold be law to al other and exampul of al huma[n]yty ; 

we must, to — therfor we must, to avoyd al tyranny, wych in al 

take care that he realmys rcmnyth in at thys hole (that ys to say, by 

1 In margin of MS. 


gyuyng authoryte to one wych ys not worthy of thys do not usurp au 

authority which 

name of a prywce, the ful powar therof) — we must certain statutes 

allow, under the 

prouycl, I say, that by no prerogatyfe he vsurpe apon pretence of 

the pepul any such authorysyd tyra?my, wyche the 

actys of parlyame?2tys in tyme past, vnder the pretense 85 

of princely maiesty, hath grauntyd therto here in our 

cu??trey. Seing, therfor, that a pryrccely state, as we 

haue prouyd before, ys most conuenyent for our cnntrej 

and to the nature therof most agreabul ; and seyng, 

also, that pryrccys commynlj are rulyd by affectys, 90 

rather then by reson and ordur of iustyce ; the lawys, 

wyche be syncere and pure reson, wythout any spot or 

blot of affectyon, must haue chefe authoryte ; they 

must rule and goue?vne the state, and not the pry«ce 

aftur hys owne lyberty and wyl. For thys cause the 95 

most wyse mew, corcsyderyng the nature of pry?icys, ye, The wisest men 

«> think a mixed 

and the nature oi ma?z as hyt ys mdede, afiyrme a myxte government best 

state to be of al other the best and most conuenyent to 

ctmserue the hole out of tyramiy. For when any one 

parte hath ful authoryte, yf that parte chaunce to be 100 

corrupt wyth affectys, as oft we se in euery other 

state hyt dothe, the rest schal suffur the tyranny 

therof, and be put in grete mysery. For the *avoydyng [* Page 35.] 

wherof here in our cu??trey, the authoryte of the prywce The authority of 

must be te??zperyd and brought to ordur, wych, many be moderated. 

yerys, by prerogatyfys grauntyd therto, ys growne to a 

m any f est iniury ; the wych thyngys the actys of our 107 

pryrccys in tyme so openly haue declaryd, that hyt 

nedyth, I trow, no proffe at al. I thynke ther ys no 

man that so lakkyth yes wych thys doth not see. 

(4.) But now by what mean thys may be downe 
partely I haue schowyd in the cure of the hede and of 112 
the frenecy therof; and the rest now we schal joyne in 
hys place. Our old aunceturys, the instytutarys of our ancestors 

! 7 t n i -, appointed a 

our lawys and ordur oi our reame, corasyderyng wel constable of 
thys same tyra?my, and for the avoydyng of the same, En s land 


as a counterpoise ordeynyd a Connestabul of Englond, to corcturpayse the 

to the prince; 

authoryte of the prynce and tempur the same ; gyuyng 
hym authoryte to cal a parlyameret in such case as the 
pryrace wold run into any tyranny of hys owne heddy 
jugement. But forbycause thys offyce semyd to the 
122 prynce ouer-hye, to haue any one maw wyth such 
authoryte, and so often tyme was cause of sedycyon 
and debate, in so much that the prywcys of our tyme 
but now the haue thys offyce vtturly suppressyd ; therfor, for the 

office is sup- , ' * 

pressed, a voydyng oi al such occasyon of any dangerouse sedy- 

127 cyon betwyx the pryncys of our reame and hys 

it would be better nobylyte, me semyth much more conuenyent, as I haue 

authority to schowyd before, to gyue thys authoryte vnto dyuerse, 

several than to 7 , , , ■, , n , •, , n , i 

one> and not to one ; euen lyke as the authoryte of the 

prywce may not rest in hym alone, but in hym, as the 
hede, joynyd to hys counsel, as to the body. Aftur the 

allowing the same forme, the Connestabul schold be hede of thys 

Constable to be 

the chief. other corcseyl, wych schold represent the hole body oi 

the pepul without parlyamemt and commjn counseyl 

[* Page 36.i] geddryd of the reame. * Concernyng thys one • pit 

137 chefely : — that ys to say, to see vnto the lybe?"ty oi the 

Their duties to hole body of the reame, and to resyst al tyranny wych 

preserve the 

liberties of an. by any maner may grow apon the hole co?nmynalty, 
and so to cal parlyament of the hole when so euer they 
see any peryl of the losse of the lyberty. Thys counseyl 

142 I wold haue, as I touchyd befor, of the Constabul as 
hede, of the Lord Marschal, Stuard, and Chamburleyn 
of Englond, wyth iiij of the chefe jugys, iiij cytyzyns 
of London, and ij byschoppys, London and Canter- 
bury. Thys conseyl schold euer be occasyon to redresse 

147 the affectys of the prynce to the ordur of the law, 

justyce, and equyte, in case be that he by any mean 

schold corrupt hys counseyl appoyntyd to hym by the 

same authoryte. For thys may in no case be com- 

1 About half way down the margin of this page, the author 
has written the words, " the thryd pojTit of," hut they seem to 
have no meaning. 


inyttyd to the arbytryment of the prywce to chose hys The king not to 

, choose his own 

owne coftseyl ; lor that were al one and to commy tte al council : 

to hys affectys, lyherty, and rule. Thys therfor schold 153 

be the second thyng perteynyji'g to thys conseyl and as a 

lytyl parlyameret : — to electe and chose euer such me?i 

as they schold juge mete to be about a pry/zee, and to 

be veray conseylarys of the commyn welthe, and not to 

be corrupte by feare or alfectyon. Thys conseyl I wold it should consist 

haue to be of x pe?'sonys : ij doctorys lernyd in 

dyuynyte, and ij in the law cyuyle, and ij of the 160 

co??miyn law — of the wych, ij I wold schold be ap- 

poyntyd to receyue co?nplayntys made to the kyng and 

to refere that same to the hole corcseyl, and one of 

them to be of the cyuyle and another of the commyn 

law — and iiij of the nobylyte, expert and wyse mezi in 165 

materys of pollycy. And by thys couwseyl al thyngys 

perteynyng to the prymcely state schold be gouernyd 

and rulyd ; of the wych the kyng schold be hede and with the king as 

President when 

p?'esydent euer when he myght or wold be among them, among them. 
By them al byschoprykys and al hye offyce of dygnyte 
schold be dystrybut. The rest the kyng schold dys- 171 
pose, of hys owne propur lyherty, wher hyt schold plese 
hym. And so by thys counseyl the chefe mater and Thus ail sedition 
cause of al sedycyon schold be take *away out of our [* page 36*.'] 
cu?itrey ; that ys to say, the iraequalyte of dystrybutyon 
of the co??zmyn offyceys of authoryte and dygnyte. 176 
For thys ys euydent and playn, that the chefe cause 
of sedycyon rysyth therof. For wher vertue ys not where virtue is 
rewardyd worthyly, then hyt rebellyth sturdyly.; then j t rebels, 
rysyth dysdayne and hate ; then spryrcgyth enuy and 
malyce. Wherfor, when men be regardyd accordyng 181 
to theyr dygnyte, the occasyon most chefe of al sedy- 
cyon schalbe take away vndowtydly. Thys coftseyl, This council 

would be a stay 

therfor, schold be a grete and a wondurful stay of the of the princely 
pryrecely state and stablyschyng of the true co??imyn 
1 Two pages bear this number. 


186 wele that Ave so much haue spoken of before. "VVher- 
for, not wythout a cause I wold thys to be chosen by 
the hole pcwlyamewt, and afturward euer supplyd by 
the electyon of thys counseyl, wych I sayd schold re- 
present the hole state commy?ily. And thys schold be 
191 the second poynt of theyr authoryte. The thryd 
Matters of peace schold be thys : — that the materys of peace and wane, 
in the king's debatyd by the other co?zseyl and propur of the prywce, 

council must be l i i l e i i j.i 7 j/i i i 

confirmed by schold euer be cowfyrmyd by them and authorysyd by 

palnaZnl! ' 1 ' 16 tne y r consent A1 other ftvm* perteynyng to the 

196 kyng and pry?icely powar, as I sayd befor, to heng 

only apon the authoryte of hym and hys co??seyl joinyd 

Thus we should to hym. By thys mean, blaster Lvp;?ei, we schold 

avoid tyranny 

and sedition. avoyd easely al daunger of tyranny ; by thys mean we 
schold avoyd the sedycyon that ys to be fearyd of the 
electyon of the prywce yf he were not admyttyd by suc- 

202 cessyon of blode. Or els, bycause that mane? 1 hath byn 
vsyd many yerys, and takyth away much occasyon of 
sedycyon, as you thynke, I wyl not stykke wyth you 
in that, so that you wyl graunte me agayn hys powar, 
aftur the mane?' before rehersyd, somewhat to be tem- 

207 pryd and brought in ordur. 

5. l,Ypset. — Yes, Sir. that I must nede graunt, ex- 
cept I wold admyt playn tyra?zny, wych wyl not agre 

L* Page 87.] wyth our co??imunycatyon before had. *Eut, on the 

tiie prince chosen other parte, I wold not yet haue hym chose by elec- 

famiifes. tyon, but let that powar rest in the auncyent famylys, 

or els hyt can not be chose but that we schold haue oft 

214 cyuyle wane and sedycyon. For euery maw wold 

study to attayne therto, and so al schold fal into a 


6. Po7e. — -Nay, Mastur Isrpset, I can not tel you 
p. says there is that ; yf hyt were restraynyd, as I haue sayd befor, ther 
?n venicet'nor ° n wold not be so grete ambycyon therof as ther ys now. 
with us if our 6 For as m ~v"enyce ys no grete ambycyouse desyre to be 
kmg's power ^ Duke, because he ys restreynyd to gud ordur and 

were restrained. ' » » •> ° 


polytyke, so wytk vs, also, schold be of our kyng, yf 222 

hys powar -were te??iperyd aftur the maner before de- 

scrybyd. "Wheras now euery man desyrytli hyt by- Now every man 

cause he may make hymselfe and al hys frendys for for selfish ends. 

euer rych ; he may subdue hys enemys at hys plesure ; 

al ys at hys co/«ma?idement and wyl. And thys hathe 

mouyd cyuyle war in tyme past, notwythstondyng thys 228 

ordynarcce of successyon. But we wyl not entur no 

ferther in dysputacyon now, for as much as I reme??ibyr 

we haue reso«nyd apon thys mater before, and playnly 

cor?cludyd the best way, yf mew wold lyfe in cyuyle 

lyfe togyddur, to haue a pryrcce by fre electyon and a prince elected 

by the people, 

chosyng hym among other of the best. But for by- the best form of 
cause Ave are barbarouse and rulyd by affectys, for the 
avoydyng of gretur yl wych wold come among barbar- 236 
ouse myndys, therfor, in the second place, and not as 
the best, we thought hyt conuenyent, as you say, now to 
take hym by successyon, but teraperyng hys powar, as 
hyt ys before sayd. 

7. JuTpset. — Thys ys vndowtydly troth. The powar in ail this l. 

concurs, and 

of the pryrcce wold, aftur such fascyon, be restreynyd says if this re- 
and brought to ordur ; and, aftur my mynd, hyt ys the established, ail 
chefe grounde and prywcypal of al thys true cowmyn be'curea! W ° U 
wele, wherof we now speke, ccmsyderyng the nature of Qnodvtpiun- 

mui» accidit, 

mare as hyt ys, wych ys more co??zmyrely rulyd by «>»sidera7!t 
affectys then by reson. "Wherfor, yf thys ground were 
stablyschyd, and surely set, the cure of al other mys- 248 
ordurys wych we notyd before wold by and by folow 
and easely insue. 

8. PoZe. — That ys troth, Master LvpseZ, wythout p. says, True; 
fayle, as we schal see in our processe more playn. For physicians say, 

when they have 

as physycyonys say, when they haue remouyd the chefe removed the 

cause of the 

cause of the malady and dysease in the body, by lytyl malady, 
and by lytyl then * Nature hyrselfe curyth the patyent ; [*Page 38.] 

Nature cures the 

euen so now in our purpos, thys faute that we haue be- patient. 
1 In margin of MS. 


257 fore spoken of, wych was and ys the cause of many other, 

onys perfaytly curyd, schal mynystur vnto vs the most 

comienyent mean for to procede to the cure of the rest. 

Among the wych, as I reme?wbyr, was ther notyd the 

Another fault is faute of bryngyng vp of the nobylyte, wych, for the 

in the bringing 

up of the nobility, most parte, are nuryschyd wyt[hJout cure, bothe of 
theyr parewtys being alyfe, and much wers of them in 
264 whose ward commynly they dow fal aftur theyr deth ; 
the Avych care for notliyng but only to spoyle theyr 
pupyllys and wardys, or els to mary them aftur theyr 
plesure, wherby the true loue of matrymony was and ys 
vtturly take away and destroyd ; to the wych, as every 
269 man knowyth, succede infynyte myserys and mysordurys 
of lyfe. Wherfore thys thyng must be remedyd, yf we 
wyl procede to our end and purpos. And, fyrst, as con- 

wardys.i cernyng the wardys ; of thys we must begyn al our old 

Our customs 

relating to wards barbarouse custumys vtterly to abrogate, wythout re- 
abrogated, specte of the begynnyng in therof, though they appere 
and those who neuer so gud. And ever they wych haue the nobylyte 

have care of 

wards must be m ward must be bounden to make a rekenyng and count 

ac™unts, render before a juge appoyntyd therto, not only of al hys 

intrate, xeniys, and reuenewys, but much more of the 

279 orderyng and instytutyon of hys ward both in vertue 

and lernyrcg. But here ys, Mastur Lvpse£, not only 

in our curctrey, but also in al other wych euer yet I 

knew, a gret lake and neclyge?zce of them wych rule w 

commyw pollycy ; and that ys thys : — that in no cuwtre 

284 ther ys any regard of the bryngyng vp of vthe in com- 

Edueatyon.i myn dyscyplyne and publyke excercyse. But every maw 

pryuatly in hys owne house hathe hys mastur to instructe 

and to bring up hys chyldur in letturys, wythout any respecte of other 

only exercised exercyse in other featys perteynyng to nobylyte no les 

in letters, but in , •■ , 7 ■, , , ■• n ■ n i i 

feats of arms. then lernyng and letturys, as m al leatys oi chyualry. 

Therfor ther wold be some ordynarcce deuysyd for the 

t* Page 39.] joynyng of thes bothe *togyddur, wych mygh[t] be 

1 In margin of MS. 


downe aftur thys mane?", lykewyse as we haue in our 292 
Vnyuersytes, collegys, and cowmyn placys to nurysch 
the chyldur of pore men in letturys ; wherby, as you 
see, coramyth no smal p?-ofyt to the co?nmyn wele. 

(8.) So much more Ave schold haue, as hyt were, Public schools 
•ce?-tayn placys appoyntyd for the bryngyng vp togyddur established, 
of the nobylyte, to the wych I wold the nobullys schold compeUed°to eS 
be compellyd to set forward theyr chyldur and heyrys, ^jj to"^' 1 " 
that in a nowzbur togyddur they myght the bettur pro- 
fyt. And to thys cmrepany I wold haue appoyntyd 301 
rularys certayn of the most vertuse and wyse vixen of the 
reame, the wych schold instruct thys vthe to whome schold 
come the gouernawce aftur of thys our comniyn wele. 1 
Here tbey schold be instructe, not onlyin vertue and lern- to be instructed 

. in learning and 

jng, but also in al featys of warre perteynyng to such feats of war. 
as schold be hereafter in tyme of warr captaynys and 
gouernourys of the commyn sorte. Thys schold be the 308 
most nobul instytutyon that euer was yet deuysyd in 
any comniyn wele. Of thys surely schold spryng the 
fountayn of al cyuylyte and polytyke rule; ye, and 
wythout such a thyng, I can not tel whether al the rest 
•of our deuyse wyl lytyl avayle. I thynk hyt wyl neuer 313 
be possybul to instytute our coramyn wele wythout thys 
Ordynarece brough[t] to passe and put in effect. 2 Our 
old fatherys haue byn lyberal in byldyng grete abbeys Abbeys have done 
and monasterys for the exercyse of a monastycal lyfe 
among relygyouse mere, wych hath downe much gud to 318 
the vertuese lyuyng of Chrystyan myndys ; whose ex- 
ampul I wold that we schold now folow in byldyng change some of 

these to institu- 

placys for the instytutyon of the nobylyte, or els in tions for the sons 

• chaungyng *some of thes to that vse, by cause ther be i*p a ge4o.] 

1 To thys vse turne both Westmester and Saynt Albonys, and 
many other. 

2 Prebendys schold be pyemia to yong ge»tylme», maryd 
and lernyd in scripture ; by thys mean scripture schold be more 

• cojwmunyd then hyt ys. 

The above sentences are written in the margin. No refer- 
■ ence mark is supplied to denote where they should be placed. 




The nobles think 
they were born 
to spend what 
their ancestors 


Here they should 
learn all which 
pertains to their 



and become 
nobles indeed, 
and the people 
would be glad 
to be governed 
by them. 


L. confesses it 
would be a noble 


oue? , -many of thys sort now in our days ; that, euen lyke 
as thes monkys and relygyouse men ther lyuyng to- 
gyddur, exercyse a ce?"tayn monastycal dyscyplyne and 
lyfe, so they nohyllys, heyng "brought vp togyddur, 
schold lerne ther the dyscyplyne of the commyn wele. 
You see now how they nobullys thynke themselfe borne 
only to tryuwphe and spend such landys, the wych 
theyr anceturys haue prouydyd for them, in theyr vayne 
plesurys and pastymys. They neuer loke to other end 
and purpos. But here I wold haue them in thys dyscy- 
plyne, fyrst, to take hede and dylygerctly to lerne what 
they be, and what place the[y] occupy in the co???myn 
Avele, and what ys the offyce and duty pe?'teynyng to 
the same. Here they schold lerne how and aftur 
what mane?- they myght be ahul and mete to dow 
and put in exercyse that thyng wych perteynyth 
to theyr offyce and authoryte ; and so playnly and fully 
to be instructe in the admynystratyon of justyce both 
publyke and pryuate. And, as I sayd, at voyd tymys 
also co?menyent to the same, they schold vse to exercyse 
themselfys in featys of the body and chyualry, no lesse 
expedyent for tyme of warr then the other exercyses be 
for tyme of peace. And thys they schold be worthy of 
the name wych we now vnworthylygyue vnto them cora- 
my?dy ; then they schold be nobullys in dede ; then they 
schold be true lordys and masturys; then they pepul 
wold be glad to be gouernyd by them, when they per- 
ceyuyd so playnly that they regardyd the wele of them 
no lesse then theyr owne pryuatly. But, Mastur Lvp- 
set, the party cular mean of bryngyng thys mate?' to passe 
requyryth, as I sayd before, a hole boke. Hyt ys enough 
for vs now to schow and touch the mane?' and mean in 

9. Lvpsel — Syr, thys schold be a nobul instytutyon,. 
and to such a pry?«ce as schold be in a true commyn 
wele esy to bryng to passe, or to any such Hilarys as 


intend a veray true cyuyle lyfe. *I pray God we may [*Page4i.] 

and hopes we 

lyfe to se some men of authoryte bend to put thys in may live to see it. 

effecte. Thys schold bryng forth in few yerys, I trow, 

Plato's comniyn wele, or els, rather, the true instytutyon 362 

of Chrystyan doctryne ; so that ther schold be wyse 

men among thys vthe to instytute them in the sumrue The y should be 

instructed in 
of ChrystyS Gospel. Christ's Gospel. 

10. "Pole. — Yes, Mastur ~Lvp$et, x that ys to be vnder- p. says that is 

understood, and 

stond ; that ys the hede dyscyplyne and publyke that is the head dis- 

I spake of befor ; in the wych, I thynke, in few yerys, 

as you say, they schold more prafyt to the co?nmynyng 369 

of Chrystyn charyte and the veray Gospel of Chryst, 

then our mo/ikys haue downe in grete p?'Ocesse of tyme " wouId do mor e 

than the monkish 

in theyr solytary lyfe, wych hath brough[t] forth, wyth life which has 

been the cause of 

lytyl profyt to the publyke state, much superstycyon. much supersti- 
Thys vthe, as sterrys, schold lyght in al pco-tys of the 
reame hereaftur, and they schold put in effect that thyng 375 
wych thes solytary men dreme of in theyr cornarys. 

11. Lvpset. — Yndowtydly such an instytutyon schold l. This care of 

wards would 

wel remedy thys mater of the warays, and bryng in a bring us great 

co?itrary fame into our cu/<trey. For as we be now in- 

famyd therwyth, so we schold be then of al other most 380 

praysyd ; and not only for the wardys and gud ordur of 

them, but for the hole educatyon of nobylvte, wych as for the nobles, 

they think much 

ys in al placys, as you sayd, more neclecte then of the of their hawks 
nobyllys theyr haukys and theyr houndys, of whose 

educatyon they haue grete cure. 385 

12. PoZe. — Syr, you say truth; and specyally wyth True, says p.; 

, . " , , , , - they study more 

vs, wher ge?ztylme?i study more to bryng vp gud houndys to bring up good 

,t -i Tij-ij. p n j hounds than 

then wyse heyrys. But now let vs go forward, and you wise heirs> 
schal see how, yf thes ij thyngys wych we haue spoken 389 
of — that ys, the takyng away of al occasyon of tyranny 
and ordeynyng of gud hedys, and now thys gud edu- 
catyon of the nobylyte — had place and effecte, that the 
remedys of al other mysordurys schold, as I haue oft 393 
1 MS. le. 


394 sayd, schortly be found and put in effect, as al other 
[* Page 42.] mysordurys of our lawys before notyd. As, fyrst, *re- 

Appeal to London 

must be mouyng of causys by wryte from scbyre townys to 

abolished. ' 

Appoiiatyon.i London, wycli we notyd a grete abuse, and not wytbout 

a cause ; for by that mean euery mare of powar vexyth 

hys aduersary wythout cause, and when he knowyth 

400 ryght wel hys mater ys vniuste. Thys thyng, I thynke, 

schold be remedyd by and by, wythout ferther payne or 

The duty of the purenyschmeret appoyntyd therto, yf the nobylyte and 

nobility is chiefly 

to see justice geretylmere of euery schyre wold coresydur theyr offyce and 

done, and to keep i , , i • n ■, n i . • , ,t 

men in unity. duty therm; wych ys chelely to see justyce among theyr 

405 serua?itys and subiectys, and to kepe them in vnyte and 

corecorde. "Wherfor thys must be ordeynyd : — that no 

No cause must cause be remouyd by wryte to London, but such only as 

be removed to 

London, except they geretylme?i of the scyre, by the reson of the dyffy- 
gentiemen of the culty of the mater, care not decyde ; or els for some other 

shire cannot 1 -, , -. 1 n P ,-, aij 

determine, resonabul cause to be prouyd beiore them. And at 

London the jugys schold admyt non in sute,but such only 

412 as, for some resonabul cause, were remyttyd to them by the 
geretylmere of the scyre,- wych haue authoryte therin 
in the sessyonys and sysys at scyre townys appoyretyd. 
And moreouer they partys both schold be sworne apon 
a boke that wyth gud opynyon of justyce they persue 

417 and defende euer theyr ryght, for the avoydyng of al 

calumnyouse coreteratyon and wylful vexatyon of theyr 

The party con- aduersarys. And besyde thys, the party corede??znyd by 

demned must 

pay costs. the authoryte of the hye jugys, schold euer be award yd 

to pay costys and al other dammage cu?reyng to hys ad- 
uersary by the reson of the vniust sute and vexatyon. 
423 And so by thys meau, that ys, partely by the wysdome 
and. gud prouysyon of the gentylmere and of the nobylyte 
[*Page4s.i *rulyng in the curetrey, and partely by feare of thys 
payne, both of periury and of the paying also of costys 

Tims contro- and dare^mage, the coretrouersys of the commyns in euery 

easily be set at schyre schold easelyar be pacyfyd and the commyn 

rest> ' In margin of MS. 


quyetnes much, incresyd ; the wych, Master Lvpse£, now and quietness 


ys much trowblyd by co?zte??tyous myndys and fro ward 

wyttys, not only of the partys themselfys, hut also, 

much more, by the auarycyouse myndys and couetouse 432 

of the proktorys and attorneys, wych commyrely regard 

more theyr owne lucur then the justyce of theyr clyentys 

cause. Wherfor the same othe that ys mynystryd to 

the clyent hymselfe schold be gyue?z also to hys proktor 

or aduocate, and also puwnyschemeret, not only of per- Advocates who 

prolong contro- 

iury, but also of promotyng vniuste causys, wold be versies to be 

joynyd therto. The purmyscheme^t schold be aftur thys 

sort : bycause he for hys lucur deludyth bothe partys 440 

and prolongyth the co?2trouersy by hys crafty wytt, when 

so euer hyt myght be manyfestely prouyd, and hys 

couetouse mynd opewly declaryd, he schold pay the by paying costs 

and damages to 

costys and daramage to both the partys, as wel to the both parties to a 

aduersary of hys clyent, wych by hys craft was long de- 

fraudyd of hys ryght, as to hys owne clyent, wych by 446 

hys dyssymulatyon and fare wordys was interteynyd in 

long sute. Thys ordynarcce, I thynke, wold helpe much 

to the settyng forth of the justyce of causys ; thys schold 

cause the attorneys and prokturys to refrayne frowz theyr 

crafty iwuewtyonys ; the wych ys the ground and the 451 

veray chefe key of the longe sute of causys in the Court 

at "Westmonastere, wych we n )tyd and obseruyd co?z- 

seque?2tly for a nother grete faute and mysordur. 

13. *Lvpse£. — The couetuse myndys of the niynys- [* rage 44.] 

1 il L 1 ^' n£lS n0 ^OuSt 

turys oi the law ys, wytnout dowte, a gret parte cause that the covetous- 
of thes long sutys, wych, I thynk, schold be well re- lawyers is the 
dressyd yf thys payne were set apon them before -pre- sulTs 6 , ° ng 
scrybyd : specyally yf you joynyd to thys some prouysyon Aduoeat; y s - 1 
co?vcernyng the multytude of them. For of them are 460 
ouer-many, though ther be among them ouer-few gud. 
Therfor, yf hyt were ordeynyd that only such whose ver- and he would only 

. admit the virtuous 

tue and honesty and gud lernyng m the law were Dy and honest to 

it e -»••<« practise: 

1 In maTmn of Ms. 


464 many yerys prouyd, schold be admyttyd to practyse in 

causys ; and such as loke not for al tlieyr lyuyng of theyr 

and they should clyentys, but gewtylrnew, wych haue other lande, offyce, 

or fee, suffycyently to maynteyn themselfys wythal, 

then I thynke ther wold not be so grete robbery vsyd of 

469 thern as ther ys now, and the sutys schold not be so 

But is there not long interteynyd. How be hyt, you, as I reme?7ibyr, 

another cause of 

these long suits ? notyd a nother ground of thys long sutys before, and that 
ther was also faute in the veray ordur of the law. Dyd 
you not so 1 

p. answers yes; 14. PoZe. — Yes, "Master Lvp«tf, that ys troth, and 

that ys the fountayn and cause of the hole mater ; the 

wych cause (as we haue downe in some other mys- 

477 ordurys before rehersyd) Ave must study to take away, 

yf we wyl vtturly remedy thys faute of vs touchyd, 

our law is Master Isvpset . Thys ys no dowte but that our law 

confused; . 

and ordur therot ys ouer-co??fuse. Hyt ys infynyte, 

and wythout ordur or end. Ther ys no stabyl grounde 

482 therm, nor sure stay ; but eue?y one that caw coloure reson 

makyth a stope to the best law that ys before tyme de- 

the suhtiety of uysyd. The suttylty of one sergeant schal enerte and de- 
one overthrows ' 

the judgment of stroy al the jugeme?itys of many wyse men before tyme 

receyuyd. Ther ys no stabyl ground in our commyn 

487 law to leyne vnto. The jugeme?itys of yerys be infynyte 

and ful of much controuersy ; and, besyde that, of smal 

judges are not authoryte. The jugys are not bounden, as I vnderstond, 

bound to follow a i i iipi iii 

the laws. to f olow them as a rule, but altur theyr owne lyberty, 

[* Page 45.] they haue authoryte to juge, accordyng as they are *in- 

structyd by the sergeantys, and as the cyrcumstawce of 

the cause doth them moue. And thys makyth juge- 

494 mentys and processe of our law to be wythout end and 

infynyte ; thys causyth sutys to be long in decysyon. 

To remedy this, Therfor, to remedy thys mater groundly, hyt were 

we should follow . , . , 

the example of necessary, m our law, to vse the same remedy that 

Justynyan dyd in the law of the Eomaynys, to bryng 

499 thys infynyte processe to certayn endys, to cut away 


thys long lawys, and, by the wysdome of some poly- who instituted 

. . but few laws and 

tyke and wyse mew, mstytute a lew and bettur lawys ordinances. 
and ordyna7Zcys. The statutys of kyngys, also, be oner- The statutes of 

, ... r. , i kings also are too 

many, euen as the ccwstytutyonys ol the emperorys ma n y . 
were. Wherfor I wold wysch that al thes lawys schold The laws want 

to be made few 

be brought into some smal nombur, and to be wry ten in number, and 

also in our mother tong, or els put into the Latyn, to iish or Latin, 

cause them that study the cyuyle law of our reame, 

fyrst to begyn of the Latyn tong, wherin they myght 508 

also afturward lerne many thyngys to helpe thys pro 

fessyon. Thys ys one thyng necessary to the educatyon 

of the nobylyte, the wych only I wold schold be ad- 

myttyd to the study of thys law. Then they myght 

study also the lawys of the Eomaynys, where they 513 

schold see al causys and coretroue?*sys decydyd by rulys 

more corcuenyent to the ordur of nature then they be in 

thys barbarouse tong and Old French, wych now semyth not in this bar- 

barous tongue, 

to no purpos els. Thys, Mastur jjvpset, ys a grete oid French, 
blote in our pollycy, to see al our law and cowmyn 
dyscyplyne wryten in thys barbarouse langage, wych, 519 
aftur when the youth hath lernyd, seruyth them to no 
purpos at al ; and, besyde that, to say the truth, many Besides which, 

n -ip-1111 -ii many of the laws 

of the lawys themsenys be also barbarouse and tyrarc- are barbarous and 
nycal, as you haue before hard. Wherfor, yf we wyl yiai 
euer bryng in true cyuylyte into our cuwtrey by gud 524 
pollycy, I thynke we must abrogate of thos lawys veray and must be 


many ; the wych ys the only remedy to cure such fautys 

as we found before in pryuate successyon *and intayl- [* Page 46.] 

yng of landys in euery mean house. For as hyt ys in 

pryrccys housys and lordys coraienyent that the eldyst Primogeniture 

Ponvenient for 
sone schold, as chefe hede of the famyly, euer succede the few. 

(alway prouysyon had for the yongur also) so hyt ys 

playnly agayne nature in mean famylys commynly ; 

and, as we sayd and scho[w]yd at large before, occasyon 

of much hurte, as many other barbarouse custumys and 

ordynance be, of the wych we spake of before ; the 535 



au the faults wych al by thys one remedy schold be amendyd and 

spoken of might . 

be remedied by correct, yf we myght induce the hedys of our cuntrey 

Roman civil Law to admyt the same : that ys, to receyue the cyuyle law 

of the Romaynys, the wych ys now the commyn law 

540 almost of al Chrystyan natyonys. The wych thyng 

vndowtydly schold be occasyon of infynyte gudnes in 

the ordur of our reame, the wych I coud schow you many- 

festely, but the thyng hyt selfe ys so open and playn, 

that hyt nedyth no declaratyon at al ; for who ys so 

545 blynd that seth not the grete schame to our natyon, the 

grete infamy and rote that remeynyth in vs, to be 

in the place of gouernyd by the lawys gyuen to vs of such a barbarouse 

the laws given 

by barbarous natyon as the Normannys be 1 ? Who ys so fer horn 
our tyrannical rayson that consyderyth not the tyrannycal and bar- 

and barbarous n . . „ , , „ , 

institutions must barouse mstytutyonys, infynyte ways lelt here among 

ewipe away. vg ^ whych al schold be wypt away by the receyuyng of 

thys wych we cal the veray cyuyle law ; wych ys vn- 

553 dowtydly the most auncyent and nobyl monument of 

the Romaynys prudence and pollycy, the wych be so 

wryte wyth such grauyte, that yf Nature schold hyr- 

selfe prescrybe pa?'tycular meanys wherby mankynd 

schold obserue hyr lawys, I thynke sche wold admyt 

558 the same ; specyally, yf they were, by a lytyl more 

wysedome, brought to a lytyl bettur ordur and frame, 

wych myght be sone downe and put in effect. And so 

if the nobmty ther aftur that, yf the nobylyte were brought vp in 

[•Page 47.] thys lawys, * vndowtydly our cuntrey wold schortly be 

in better laws, . , . , -, . , , . .-, 

our country restoryd to as gud cyuylyte as ther ys m any other 

would soon be, j . i_ i_ ij_ _ i tri 

improved. natyon ; ye, and, perauenture, much bettur also. 1 or 

though thes lawys wych I haue so praysyd be cowmyn 

5G6 among them, yet, bycause the nobylyte ther commynly 
dothe not exercyse them in the studys therof, they 
be al applyd to lucur and gayne, bycause the popidar 
men wych are borne in pouerty only doth exercyse 
them for the most parte, wych ys a grete ruyne of al 

571 gud ordur and cyuylyte. Wherfor, Master Jjvjtset, yf 


we myght bryng thys ij thyngys to effecte — that ys to The two things 

required are, (1) 

say, to haue the cyiiyle law of the Romaynys to be the to adopt the 
commyn law here of Englond with vs ; and, secondary, Romans for our 
that the nobylyte in theyr youth schold study commjn\y (2 ) to cause^e 
therin — I thynk we schold not nede to seke pa?*- theiaws.° SUy 
tycular remedys for such mysordurys as we haue notyd 
before ; for surely thys same publyke dyscyplyne 578 
schold redresse them lyghtly ; ye, and many other 
mow, the wych we spake not yet of at al. 

15. "Lvpset. — Sir, I hold wel wyth you in thys be- t- thinks it 

would be hard to 

halfe. Thys were a commyn remedy, yf hyt myght be bring this to 

__ effect. 

brough[tJ to passe. How be hyt, seyng that so many 
yerys we haue byn goue?-nyd by our owne law, I 584 
thynke hyt schold be veray hard to bryng thys to 

16. Po/e. — Nay, nay, Master Lvpsez', eysyar then p. answers, a 
you thynke of. The gudnes of a pryrcce wold bryng would soon bring 
thys to passe quykly ; for the law of hytselfe were 

easyar to lerne then ys ourys in the French tong. "Wher- 590 

for ther lakkyth no thyng but authoryte to put hyt in it only requires 


effecte ; the wych I pray God we may onys see, and 
some occasyon therof onys for to take. But the mean 
tyme, M.aster Lvpsez 1 , bycause you thynke hyt ys so He proceeds to 

discuss the sue- 
hard, let vs procede to the second remedy, that ys, to cession to, and en- 
correct partycularly the fautys wych we notyd in the 
ordur before and pollycy. * And as touchyng the sue- [* Page 48.] 
cessyon and intaylyng of landys, ther must nedys be 598 
prouysyon ; and aftur thys maner me thynke hyt wold 
dow wel : that yongur bretherne schold haue a certayn Younger sons 

should have a 

portyon deputyd out of the hole inherytarece, other by portion of the 

. inheritance. 

the wyl of the father, or els, yf he dyd intestate, by an 

offyce[r] appoyntyd therto ; for hyt ys agayn reson and 

the ordur of nature that the eldyst brother schold haue 604 

al, and the rest non at al, as we haue resonnyd before. 

And as touchyng the intaylyng of landys, surely thys The entailing of 

lands should be 

band wold be broke, wych now puttyth the heyrys out abolished, 


608 of al feare and drede of theyr pare?<tys ; and much 

hettur hyt were that they schold stond apon theyr 

behauyour, and that, wythout they ordryd themselfys 

and the father wel, hyt myght he at the lyherty of the father to dys- 

have liberty to 

disinherit the son heryte hys sone yf he wold, proveyng hys cause hefore 

for just cause. 

a juge ; for Avythout cause hyt were not mete that the 
614 father schold dysheryte hys chyld. 
l. answers that 17. Lvjiset. 1 — Sir, thys was the ordyna?ice of the 

ordinance. Bonianys, as I rememhyr. Wherfor, as you sayd he- 

fore, a co?ftpe?idyouse way for the amewdyng of al were to 
procure the ordur of the cyuyle [law] here in our cuwtrey, 
wych schold he a grete ccwseruatyon of the true cyuyle 
620 lyfe and just pollycy. 

18. "Pole. — Ther ys no fayle hut yf hyt myght he, 
that were the best way, as we haue hefore agred. But 
yf hyt wyl not he vnyue? , sally receyuyd so quykly, yet 
let vs study to co?mnyn hyt the mean tynie as much 

625 as we may in the pcwtycular materys and correctyon 

19. "Lvpset. — S«r,yousaywel; and, therfor,goforthe; 
for as ccwcernyng pn'uate successyon, intaylyng of landys 

629 and long sutys of the law, you haue sayd metely weL 

l. asks what of 1. [Lupset.] — But now for theft and treson, what 

theft and , „ 

treason? wyl you say ] 

p. Remove the 2. "Pole. — Fyrst (as in the other spoken of hefore) 

[* page 49.] remoue the cause, and schortly *you schal fynd remedy. 

remedy. The cause of theft, chefe and prywcypal, spryngyth of 

the idul route wych we notyd hefore, and of yl educa- 

tyon of youth. Wherfor, thos ij thyngys correctyd he- 

8 fore, the cause of thys grete faute schold wythal he re- 

1 MS. Lep. 2 In margin of MS. 



mouyd ; notwystondyng, yf the fraylity of man fal 9 
thervnto, and specyally to preuy theft, as pykyng and if a man fan to 

picking and 

stealyng secretly, I wold thynke hyt gud that the stealing, 
felon schold be take and put in some co7ranyn worke, take him and put 

him to work ; 

as to labur in byldyng the wallys of cytes and townys, 
or els in some other magnyfycal work of the prynce of 14 
the reame, wych payne schold be more greuuse to them this would be 
then deth ys reputyd ; and so by theyr lyfe yet the than death, 
commyn welth schold take some profyt. For, as we which is a 

punishment over 

resonyd before, dethe ys ouer-strayte punnyschruent severe for such 
for al such theft pryuely commyttyd ; but robbery by way robbers and 
the hye ways, wyth murdur and mansloughtur, wold ^/death 3 ™^ 
be, as hyt ys, justely wyth most cruel deth punnyschyd. j^ s s ° ™ st 
And in lyke maner treson, wych ys the gretyst faute P unished - 
that may be agayn the ordur of the co?nmyn wele. 
How be hyt, thys semyth ouer-hard to punuysch the 24 
chyld for the fatherys offence, being nothyng preuy nor 
consentyng therto. Wherfor, in such case reyson re- But even then a 

portion of the 

quyryth a porcyon ot hys godys to remayne to hys goods should go 
hayre. And lyke wyse he that bryngyth not probabul 
argument and grete lykelyhood, wyche takyth apon 29 
hym the accusatyon in treson, schold be punnyschyd 
wyth the same punnyschement ; for hyt ys no smal 
mater to accuse a man of. But yf tyranny were taken 
away, as we haue declaryd before, you schold neuer 
haue occasyon of treson ; for tyra?zny ys the mother of 34 
treson. Therfor surely thys ys a gospel word : — take Take away 
away tyranny, and you schal haue lytyl occasyon of shaii have little 



3. Iivpset. — Sir, as you sayd, dowtles the correct- l. thinks most 

faults may be 

yng of that faute amendyth, consequently, infynyte attributed to that, 

. or to the ill educa- 

* other. I thynke ther be but lew lautys m our co?n- [* Page 50.] 
myn wele but they may be resoluyd to that pryrccypal, nobility, 
or els to the yl educatyon and instructyon of the 
nobylyte. 43 

1 In margin of MS. 


piato in his Com- 4. "Pole. — Hyt ys not for nought be you assumyd 
laboured to in- that the most wyse phylosopher Plato, in hys cowmyn 
governors, we l ^ na ^ ne deuysyth, laburyth so much to instructe the 

47 offycerys and gouernarys therof. He puttyth to them 
because good in hys cyte non other lawys ; he jugyth that gud rularys 
i awS) " euer be lyfely lawys. Therfor be you assuryd that yf 

the pollycy be not spottyd Avyth some spyce of tyrarmy, 
and a good prince treson you schal see non. Therfor, a gud pry?;ce in a 
aii things; co??zmyn welth set, as I oft reherse, schal schortly bryng 

in the remedy of al other thyngys, the "wych thyng 
54 rnakyth me breuely here to passe such thyngys as els 

had nede of much delyberatyon and counseyl. How 
witnout one, aii be hyt, wythout that thyng, al corcseyl ys voyd and 

counsel is void. 

neuer ca?^ take place ; wythout that ther ys no gud 
ordynawce can be stablyschyd nor grcmdyd ; and wyth 
59 tbys al thyng pe?'teynyng to the cyuyle lyfe schold sone 
be redressyd and brought to gud ordur ; of the wych I 
thynke now, faster Lvpsef, we haue here suffycyently 
spoken, at the lest, of al such thyng as we notyd before 
Let us now go to in yesturday's communycatyon. Wherfor now let vs 

the correction of „ 

the faults of the go, fynally, to the correctyon oi such thyngys as we 
notyd in the spmYualty ; and as we dyd in the tem- 
poral parte, so in thys let vs begyn of the hede, wher- 
67 in we may apply some remedys. 
Pope.i (4.) For as the pry?zce by prerogatyue and pryuylege 

brekyth the ordur of the lawys and the knot of al cyuylyte, 
so doth the Pope and hede of the Church, vsurpyng au- 
[* Page 5i.] thoryte of dyspe?zsatyon apon al *the lawys by general 
72 counseyl decred, wythout communyng wyth hys counseyl 
cardinals ought of Cardynallys wych are appoyntyd, ye, and schold be 

to he elected, not . n . „ , n , _ n 

made by money, electyd, and not made by the ire wylol the Pope by money 

as they be now — for thys purpos only, that ys to say, that 

in such causys of appellatyon as perteyne to the welth 

of Crystundome, or of any cowtrouersy in any natyon 

78 therof, that they schold, hauyng the authoryte of the 

1 In margin of MS. 


general corcseyl, accordyng to the law redresse such con- 79 

trouersys, and by equyte and ryght defyne the same. 

Wheras, as now, contrary to the instytutyon and fyrst The Pope usurps 

ordur, the Pope, by hys propur authoryte, vsurpyng a 

certayn clokyd tyranny vnder the pretext of relygyon, under the pretext 

of religion. 

defynyth al, and dyspercsyth wyth al at his owne 

lyberty. Wherfor I wold wysch in no case that we 85 

schold hawg apon such a hede so much as we dow. I 

wold not yet but we schold take hym as hede of the 

Chrystu?? Church, seing that authoryte ys gyuerc to hym 

by general counseyl ; but I wold we schold in our 

reame gyue so much to hys authoryte, leynyng therto 90 

as to the jugement of God. Wherfor an ordyna?2ce An ordinance 

must be had, that ther be no cause sewyd out of the n o cause he sued 

• r> ,1 n n i out of the realm, 

reame, except causys ot scysme m the layth wych per- except scnism . 

teyn to the dyssolutyon of the vnyon of the Catholyke 

and Chrystyan fayth. Such causys we schold reserue 95 

to hym as hed appoyntyd by C07iimyn authoryte ; and 

as for al other co?itrouersys, I wold they schold be de- 

fynyd at home in our owne cuwtre. For thys hath byn 

a grete dystructyon to our reame, wyth the mayntenyng 

of thys holy powar vnder pretense of relygyon. Thys 100 

hath byn one of the gretyst ruynys that euer hath come This has been a 

to the reame of Englond, as I coud, by many storys, England, 

both old and of late days, playnly declare. But thys 

ys to no * man vnknowen. I wyl therof cesse. "Wher- P Pa s e 52 -3 

" as is well known. 

for I wold that we schold in no case medyl wyth that 
authoryte, but only in such case as I sayd before, wych 106 
tend to open heresy. And so for the recognysarcce of 
thys superyoryte, I wold that our reame schold pay our realm should 

pay its Peter 

thys Peter pens, releysyng thes annatys, wych ys pence, 
euer chargebul to our reame, except of the Archebys- Archbishops 

. instituted by the 

choppys, whome I wold schold be mstytute by the pope, but elected 

Pope, but electyd at home, and of them haue a certayne ; 

but al other byschoppys schold be instytute by the but bishops 

should be insti- 

Archbyschoppys here in our owne cuwtre, and schold tuted by the 


Archbishops, and not haue riede to inn to Rome for theyr instytutyon and 

have no need to 

go to Rome. authoryte, as they haue downe many a yere, payyn" 
therfor the fyrst frutys of theyr bu?zfycys, the wych we 
obseruyd as a grete mysordur. For by thys we mayn- 
119 tenyd the porape of the Pope, gyuyng to hym that 
wych sehold be dystrybutyd among the pore men of 
the dyocese here in our owne natyon. 

L. asks what's 5. Lvpset. — Sir, you say wel : but, I pray you, tel 

the difference be- J J > > r J J > 

tween sending me one thyng that I schal ax of you here. "What 

first-fruits to 

Home, and spend- dyfferens ys in thys mater to send the fyrst frutys to 

ing them on ^ 

whores at home ? -home and spend hyt in tryuraphe here at home among 
whorys and harlatys and idul lubburys seruyng to the 
127 same purpos in our owne natyon 1 

6. PoZe. — Dyfferens ther ys ; for yet thys hyt ys 

spent at home in our owne cuwtrey. How be hyt, 

p. goes on to Master Lvp-seZ, here you touch a nother grete faute wych 

note a fault in 

bishops and we notyd also before in our byschoppys and abbotys, 


wych tryumphe no lesse then the temporal lordys, the 

1 33 wych thyng, Master Isvpset, we must also now in hys 

place te?wpur and amend. And, breuely to say, I wold 

no thyng in thys mater but only prouysyon that the 

ordur of the commyn law of the Church myght haue 

Bishops ought to place; that ys to say, that byschoppys sehold dyuyde 

ossessions into theyr possessyonys in iiij partys to the vse appoyntyd 

.Jrl build by the authoryte of the law : the fyrst to byld churchys 

rtomalntain an ^ terapullys ruynate in theyr dyocesys ; the second to 

poor youths m maynteyne # the pore youth in study ; the thryd to the 

g tudy; . . pore maydys and other pouerty ; and the ferth to fynd 

poor maids; hymselfe and hys household wyth a mean nowbur co«- 

4. to support j j j 

themselves. uenyent to hys dygnyte. Other prouysyon then thys 

145 nedyth not at al, sauyng that I wold haue them to be 

They should be resydettt apon theyr sees, except such as were necessary 

Abbots and priors aboute the prynce. And as touchyng abbottys and pry- 

should be chosen . .lt-ii i 

every 3 years; or y s m our cu/itrey, 1 wold. Hon other but only the orclur 

of the monkys of Italy ; that ys to say, that eue?y iij yere 

150 to chose theyr abbotys and pryorys, and ther to gyue 


rekenyng of theyr oiFycys cowmywly, and to lyue among and should live 

among their 

hys bretherne, and not to tryumph in theyr cha?nburys brethren, 
as they do w ; wych cansyth al the enuy in the cloysturys, 153 
and ys the occasyon of the grete spens of the intrat of 
the monastery ; for to hys tabul resortyth the idul 
cu??ipany dwellyng about hym. Thys maner surely 
schold be a grete reformatyon in the monasterys of 
Englond. But, as I haue sayd many tymys before, the 158 
pcw'tycular mean of thys and of other must be deuysyd 
and put in effecte by such as schal haue authoryte to 
reforme the same. Hyt ys enough for vs now to schow 
in general, and lay commyn groundys to the fyradyng of 
the rest. 1G3 

(6.) Aftur thys mane?', Master Lvpse^, consyderyng Tiiere should be 
that they -wych haue grete possessyonys Avyl not of regulate the 

,-, r> iii_n ij.i i i_ expenses of those 

theyr ire wyl lyberally spend them accordyng to reson, wl i have greut 

hyt were veray coraienyent, by ordur of law, to cemstrayne i >OS9essions - 

them therto ; for when men pmiatly abuse theyr owne 

godys to the hurte [of J the co?wmyn wele and ordur 169 

of the same, hyt ys then mete that the mater schold be 

had in co?asyderatyon of them wych here rule in com- 

myn authoryte. Wherfor the old Romanys made a law The Romans eon- 
strained men to 
agayn prodygalyte, constraynyng men to frugalyte, wych frugality. 

ys to a commyn wele the ground of al other vertues. 

Therfor, lyke ordynance as ys determyd to byschoppys, 175 

wold be proporcyonably apon other inferyor dygnytes 

of the Church ; for as *much as they are only dyspe?zs- [*Page 51.] 

aterys of the godys of the Church. Therfor, me semyth 

thys were wel, that euen lyke as by ordur of law the pore As poor men are 

compelled to pay 

men are bounden to pay theyr tythys to theyr curate, so their tithes, 
lyke wyse, they wych are parsonys and curatys schold s0 parsons should 
be bounden to clystrybut that wych they haue superfluose to the poor, and 

to live in their 

among the pouerty of theyr parreysch; and so they schold parishes, 
also be constreynyd to be resydent apon theyr mmfycys,- 
ther to preche and tech the Gospel of Chryste, and see 
the dystrybutyon of theyr godys themselfys ; except 186 


except a few in hyt were certayn aboute the prynce and also certayn in-. 

churches. cathedral churchys, wych I wold not haue to he resydent 

wyth such an idul cuwpany as they dow now, hut to he, 
190 as hyt were, corcseyllarys to the hyschope, mere of grete 
lernyng and vertne, helpyng to set ordur in al the rest 
of hys dyocese ; and obseruyng wyth al dylygewce that 
the rest of inferyor prestys dyd theyre offyce and duty, 
and to se that nore schold he admyttyd hut such as in al 
195 poyntys were mete for theyr offyce, hoth of lernyng and 

None ought to be wysdom comienyent to the same. For the wych I wold 

admitted priests . -■ •, . ii-it -i , -i 

under 30 years thynke veray co reuenyent now schold bemadeprest?/svnder 

xxx yere of age, wych had spend theyr vthe vertuesly 

in letturys, and not in huntyng nor haukyng and such 

200 other idul pastymys. The same ordynarece also I wold 

schold he obseruyd in admyttyng of al other relygyouse 

personys of what ordur so euer they he, xion vnder xxx 

yere of age. For thys admyttyng of frayle "vthe wyth- 

and after proof out cowuenyent profe of theyr vertue and lernyng, ys 

[* Page 55.] the * ground and mother of al mysordur in the Church 

and relygyon, as you may se, M.aster Lvpse£, in euery 

207 place. Of thys fountayn spryngyth al the sklandur of 

the Church hy myshehauyour. Wherfor, yf thys hole 

were stoppyd, surely the gretyst cause of al fautys in 

the Church of Chryst schold he taken away wythal, the 

wych remedyd, schold he a grete occasion of the remedy 

212 of the hole hody ; for as much as they commyn pepul 

loke chefely to the lyfe of prelatys and prestys, takyng 

theyr exampul of the ordur of theyr lyfe. Wherfor, 

Tims the greatest Master ~Lvpset, as we dyd schow a general mean of the 

cause of faults i-i-i-i-i-i 

would be re- hryngyng vp of nobilyte wych schold he m the tem- 
porary, rularys, and hedys, so now a lytyl we must touch 
218 the hryngyng vp of the vthe determyd to the spmVualty 
and exercyse therin. And, hreuely to say, for as much 
as the Latyn tong and the Greke he the ground of lern- 
yng, in the study wherof they must spend theyr vthe, 

scho^instituted, ther must he certayn and gud scolys instytute wyth 


prudent masters and wel lemyd to instructe thys cum- 223 
pany. Hyt were no thyng amys to put ij or iij of thes and thinks it 

. ' would be better 

smal scolys of x u " a yere togydur and make one gud, to put several 

, small schools to- 

wyth an excellent mastur, and in euery towne let the ge ther to make 
prestys instructe tliem and make them somewhat mete one s °° 
to hys handys ; and then, aftur they had byn brough[t] 228 
vp in lernyng a wyle, such as he schold juge mete From such 

schools those who 

wyttys, wyth other lernynd men appoyntyd to the juge- were found meet 

should go to the 

ment therol, schold then be send to vnyuersytes, ther universities, 
to be instructe in the lyberal scyence, and so to be made 
precharys of the doctryne of Chryst. 233 

(6.) But here, aboue al thyng, the scolemastur must 
study no les to bryng vp thys vthe no les in vertue then 
in lernyng ; for loke, how they he custumyd in vthe, so 
aftur the[y] folow the trade other of vyce or of vertue. 
Therfor ther must be as much regard of the one as of 238 
the other. *For the lernyng wythout vertue ys perny- [* Page 56.] 
cyouse and pestylent. The same ordur must be take in yirtuTisper- '° U 
vnyuersytes, that thos sedys wych are pla?ityd by the nicl0US- 
scolemastur may bryng forthe some gud and perfayt 
frute. But thys thyng in studys and vnyuersytes ys virtue in the 

,,■■-,! -I1.L- i universities and 

neclectyd and despysyd, as hyt ys in gra?«mer-scolys. grammar schools 

"Wherfor ther must be reformatyon for that, as in theyr isnegec 

maner of studys wych are co?zfusyd, and by the reson 246 

of that, we haue few grete lemyd men in our curctrey. 

The ordur of studys in vnyuersytes must, breuely, be The order of 

ame?idyd, or els al letturys and lernyng wyl fayle. How, universities 

-ir-i-in i n wants amending, 

and by what mean, I had though[tJ before here for to 

schow; but now, euen as hyt was in the educatyon of the but the subject 

nobylyte, so hyt ys in thys, ouer-long partycularly to discuss. 

declare. Eche one of thes ij materys requyre a hole boke, 

and, besyde thys, ther be wyse and lemyd men wych 254 

haue wryte in the same mater, whose counseyl I wold 

to God we myght fulfyl. Among thes, of late days the The Bishop of 

Carpenteras has 

Byschope of Carperateras, one of the wysyst me?? of our written an ex- 
tyme, hath put forth a boke. Hyt schalbe now our our prince should 


put his counsel duty only to persuade our pry/zee to put thys same hys 

corcseyl in vse and effecte, the wych downe, I dowte not 

261 but that we schold haue such prestys in our cuwtrey as 

are requyryd to thys our coramyn wele before deuysyd. 

[* Page 6i.i] *And thys, Master Lvpse£, I thynke we haue schowyd 

in general the mean to correct the errorys before of vs 

obseruyd and notyd, except you remembyr any other. 

266 7. Lvjpset. 2 — Sir, one thyng among other I remera- 

l. asks about byr you haue not yet spoken of, and that ys thys : you 

certain officers i , it , i i i p . n> i_ 

which we lack in naue no ' i supplyd the lake ot certayn offycerys wych 

this country. gemyd t() kke ^ our cimfcrey> 

8. "Pole. — Master \xpset? you say veray truth. 

271 How be hyt, in thys mater ther ys no grete lake; for yf 

euery offycer dyd hys duty appoyntyd by the ordur of 

our cuntrey, I thynke you schold schortly agre therto. 

And, Syr, an offycer for that same purpos me seme 

lakkyth aboue al other ; for, albehyt that hyt semyth 

276 to perteyn to the offyce of the pry wee in general, yet 

p. would have to the partycular cure therof, I wold some mare schold 

dty^n'officer to be appoyntyd in euery grete cyte and towne, the wych 

officers did theiT schold haue no7i other cure nor charge but to se that 

duty " al other offycerys dylyge?itly dyd execute theyr offyce 

and duty. 
h. says this 9. lixipset. — You say veray wel. Thys offyce was 

censor conserved itpi -i i pt-. 

Rome, and was of the thyng that chefely co?ise? , uyd the state of Rome; 
and was among the Eomaynys of hye authoryte. They 
285 callyd them Censorys, as you wold say, jugys of the 
manerys of al other ; in lyke wyse, wyth vs, as you say,, 
such an offyce surely schold coreserue the hole state me?-- 
uelousely. Wherfor I wold haue them to be callyd con- 
seruatorys of the cowmyn wele ; and lyke as thes con- 
290 seruatorys schold haue cure of al other offycerys to 
the intent that they myght wyth more dylygerece dow 

He would have theyr duty, so I wold, in euery cyte, haue other also ap- 

another to see _ i p i ,i 

L* Page 62.] poyntyd, who schold haue * regard of such thyng as 

after the orna- 

1 See note on p. 215. 8 MS. Le. 


perteynyth. to the orname?*tys of the cyte, and to the ments of the city, 

and its health. 

helth of the same, wych as in Rome were callyd Ldiles, 

as you wold say, goue/'nowrys of templys and housys, 

so wyth vs they schold be callyd ouersearys of the cyte. 297 

Of thes ij offycys we haue grete lake : one to se to 

the pollycy pryncypally, and another to ouer-se such 

thyngys as perteyne to the helth, welth, and ornamentys 

of the cytes and townys ; vnder whose authoryte and 

jurysdycyon al other vnder ofFycerys schold be, wych other officers to 

be under him. 

haue partycular cure oi certayn thyngys perteynyng to 

the same. I wold haue no offycer of cyte nor towne to No officer of a city 

rn or town should 

be exempt from theyr authoryte, but as they mygh[t], be exempt from 

-i __p i j» j? i d , ,1 their jurisdiction. 

apon lawful proiys oi neclygence of euery one, put them 
out of theyr offyce and dygnyte ; the wych thyng schold 307 
cause al vnder ofFycerys, partely for feare and pa?*tely 
for schame, to regard such thyng wyth cure and dyly- 
gence as perteynyth to them ; and so, by thys mean, our 
polytyke body schold be kept in ordur and rule, aftur 
the maner wych we haue before deuysyed. 312 

10. [Pole.] — So that, Master ~Lvj)set, now apon thys 
poynt let vs conclude and make an end of our cowmuny- 
catyon, that yf we myght now fynd the meane to * correct [» p age 57.] 
thes gene?-al errorys, wych we haue notyd, and specyally 
by thys gud educatyon of the nobylyte and of clerkys, of By good educa- 

,,!,.. i jiii -,1 i tlon of our nobl et 

whome we schold altur haue they hedys and rularys, ther and clergy, we 
ys no dowte but that Ave schold other haue a veray true true common- 

1 i_ n i -it -i iiiii wealth, or a near 

co?nmyn wele belore descry byd, or els, at the lest, one approach to it :- 

that schold most nere of al other approeh thervnto. For 321 

by thys mean we schold haue a multytud of pepul con- a multitude of 
uenyent to the place, floryschyng wyth al abundance of abundance of 
exteryor thyngys requyryd to the bodyly welth of man ; 
the wych, lyuyng togyddur in cyuyle lyfe, goue?"nyd by 

polytyke ordur and rule, schold conspyre togyddur in 326 

amyte and loue, eue?y one glad to helpe a nother to hys love one to 

• i t another j 

powar, to the intent that the hole myght attayn to that 
nerfectyon wych ys determyd to the dygnyte of mannys and perfection. 


330 nature, by the gudnes of God ; trie wych ys the end of 
al lawys and ordur, for wych 1 purpos they be wryt 
and ordeynyd. How say you, Master Lvpse£, thynk 
you not thys 1 

l. agrees in this 11. liVpset. — Sir, thys ys a certayn truthe that you 

say and corcclud now, at the last, aftur our long conimuny- 

336 catyon, that, yf we coud put in effect such ordynarace as 

you haue deuysyd, we schold haue other a true commyn 

wele, or, at the lest, some lykelyhod therof, to the wych 

but doubts the al lawys be ordeynyd and deuysyd ; but whether yet al 

ability of the law 

to bring man to thes ordynarcce, ye, or al the powar of law, be abul to 

dition^ e ' b r y n g mare to thys perfectyon, I somewhat dowte. For 

342 as much as the perfectyon of maw stondyth in reson and 

vertue, by the wych he both knowyth that wych ys 

truth and gud, and also hath wyl, stabyl and co>^sta?^t 

purpos, to folow the same, not compellyd by feare of any 

payne or pu?znyscheme?2t, nor yet by any plesure or pro- 

347 fyt alluryd therto ; but only of hys fre wyl and lyberty, 

wyth prude?zt knolege and perfayt loue mouyd, he euer 

[* Page 58.] apply th *hys mynd to such thyng as schal bryng hym to 

hys perfectyon ; and to thys me thynke no law ys suf- 

Exceptwe fycyent. Wherfor, except we.fynd some other mean 

means, aii this wherby maw may come to thys hys perfectyon, al our 

communication , , , i i i tit ±i 

is void. coramunycatyon, me thynke, ys voyd, and al law wyth- 

out effecte. 
355 12. PoZe. — Mastur Lvpse£, you entur now into a 
grete mater, the wych, yf you remembyr, we touchyd 
before. But now here in hys place, bycause you bryng 
hyt agayn in remembrance, therof hyt schalbe no hurt 
to make a lytyl more mentyon. Mastur Lvpse^, though 

p. confesses the hyt be so that the law of hyt selfe be not abul to bryng 

laws cannot make 

man perfect, mare to hys perfectyon, nor gyue hym perfayt reson and 
but it is a means vertue wythal, yet, for as much as hyt ys a mean to 

to this end, and 

not to be de- bryng maw therto, hyt ys not vtturly to be despysyd. 
For, as Sayn Poule sayth dymely, hyt ys the pedagoge 
1 MS. thys wych. 


of Chryst; that ys to say, hyt preparyth maranys mynd 365 

to the receyuyng of vertue hy profyt and plesure, payne 

and purenyschemeret ; hyt dysposyth mare some thyng to 

the way of vertue ; ye, and as ma» ys of nature formyd Man is naturally 

rude and wythout perfayt knolege, hyt ys necessary to perfect know- 

haue the instytutyon therof, wythout the wych al cyuyle e ge ' 

ordur wold dekay, wherof hyt ys the bande and sure 371 

grounde, as we haue at large declaryd befor. Arid yet 

thys ys trothe, as you say, hyt ys not suffycyent to bryng 

maw to his perfectyon, but to that ys requyryd a nother 

more celestyal remedy, the wych our M.aster Chryste 

cam to set and stablysch in the hartys of Hys electe 376 

pepul. He cam to make pe?-fayt man, and supply the de- Christ only can 

fecte of the law, by Hys * celestyal and dyuyne doctryne; sul [ P *p a ge m.\ 3 

and thys ys the thyng, Mastur LvpseZ, that I perceyue ^ it ia this 

you requyre. Thys ys the thyng wythout the wych al wh . ich L " re ' 

our cwmnunycatyon ys voyd and- of lytyl or no effect. 

Wherfor now remaynyth, aftur that we haue schowyd 382 

somewhat how by marenys prude?zce certayn fautys and 

mysordurys in the cyuyle ordur, wych ys the mean to 

bryng mare to hys perfectyon, as you see, may be reme- 

dyd and redressyd ; now I say we must study for the 

mean to stablysch thys celestyal doctryne, wych our 387 

Master Cryste hath left here to corcducte al Chrystyan 

myndys to theyr perfectyon. 

13. "Lvpset. — Syr, thys ys the thyng that I dyd re- l. says yes; 

but this is the 

quyre in veray dede; but to bryng thys to passe, to work of God. 
stablysch thys doctryne, hyt ys not the worke of maw — 
hyt ys only the worke of God. Therfor in thys poynt 
how we schal behaue ourselfys I care not tell. 394 

14. PoZe. — Sir, as touchyng that, you schal schortly 
here my mynd therin. Fyrst, thys ys troth, that thys 
thyng ys the worke of God ; hyt ys He that must bryng 
thys mater to effect, or els al marenys labur ys spent in 

vayne, notwythstondyng the prouysyon of God hath or- God has ordained 

that man shall 

deynyd thys, that mare schal haue nothyng that ys gud, have nothing per- 


feet without ncthyng pe?-fayt, wythout hys owne la"bur, dylygence, 


and cure — 
403 Virtutewi posuere dii labore parawdawi. 

Tliys you may see in al thyngys wych perteyne to the per- 
No man can fectyon of mare ; for who ys he that caw attayne that we 

attain honours 

without diligence, may begyn of wordly thyngys, other ryches or honowre, 

except he wyth gret dylygence apply hys mynd therto ? 

"Who care kepe hys body in helth, except he put dylygerete 

409 cure therto 1 Who care attayne to any excellency in any 

maner of art or craft, ye, or come to any hye phylosophy, 

except he wyth much cure, labur, and dylygence exercyse 

hym selfe in the studys therof 1 Vndowtydly, no maWw 

[♦Page 60.] *Wherfor much more, wythoute lyke dylygence and 

Tins heavenly labur, ther ys no way to attayne thys celestyal doctryne, 

doctrine is only 

given to such as wych ys not inspyryd into neclygent hartys, but only 

purge their 

minds from to such as, by grete study, haue purgyd ther myndys 

tions; from al wordly affectys; and so, wyth perfayt fayth 

and sure trust, loke for such thyng as God hath pro- 

419 mysyd to al them wych,- al wordly thyngys set apart, 

desyre coretynually celestyal. Therfor, be you assuryd, 

that euen as thys celestyal doctryne far excellyth and 

passyth al other, so hyt requyryth more dylygence, more 

cure, more ardour, affecte, and desyre of mynd, then any 

it comes from other. And though hyt be heuerely and, commyth only 

God, and is never 

given to idle of God, and may not be by the powar of man, yet hyt 
ys neuer gyuew to idul and slepyng myndys, nor to such 
427 as haue no cure nor regard therof, no more then hyt ys 
to them wych by theyr owne natural powar, thynke 
themselfys abul to optayne and deserue such precyouse 
gyfte. "Wherfor, al be hyt that hyt ys as you say, to 
stablysch thys doctryne in any coramyn wele, the only 

it is proper to worke of God and. not of man, yet thys ys not amys to 

show how man , 1 , ., -. ■, i 

may make him- schow somewhat the mean how mare may dyspose hym- 

thls doctrine. f se ^ e an & make hymselfe mete to receyue thys heuerely 

doctryne ; wherin we must vse other mean then cyuyle 

436 ordynance, wherof we haue spoken of before, the wych, 


by feare of pyne and desyre of plesure, mouyth the 437 
oytyzyns to folow vertue. 

(14.) * We must bow take another way, and, as nere [* Page 63.] 
as we may, folow the exampul of our Master Chryst, the Christ used two 

means to estab- 

wych by no corapulsyon onstytute Hys law, nor by any u S h ms law,— 

drede or fear of anythyng. Two 1 meanys I note He vsyd l ms. y. 

in the stablyschyng of Hys law at the fyrst begynnyng; 

the wych yf we folow we may, perauewtur, stablysch and 444 

corcfyrme that wych He begaw, or at the lest schow the 

way how hyt schold be downe. They ways were thes : 

exarapul of lyfe and exhortatyon. By thes ij meanys Example of life 

and exhortation ; 

Hys dyscypullys dyd stablysch Hys doctryne, as hyt ys 

manyfest in the Gospel of Chryst and story of the Church. 

"Wherfor, as the restoryng of the cyuyle lyfe stondyth 450 

chefely in hedys and rularys, as we haue sayd before, in 

so much that yf they be gud, al the commynalty wyl 

folow the same, so the cowfyrmywg and stablyng of and now it must 

be established 

thys celestyal doctryne stondyth chefely in the offy- 

cerys therof ; that ys to say, in the precharys, in the in the godly 

living and doc- 

godly lyuyng and doctryne of them. We must, therfor, trine of preachers. 

haue ordynawce made, that such only may be admyttyd 

to preche w[h]os lyfe and doctryne ys many ways prouyd 

to be perfayt and gud. For now a days the precharys 459 

sklaunder the word of God, rather then teche hyt, by 

theyr contrary lyfe. 

15. "Lvpset. — Syr, you say truthe. No dowte gud n doubt, says 
precharys schold help to set thys forward wondurfully. we ' make them? 
But how schold we make *them'? Thys ys the handy- [* Page 64.] 
worke of God; hyt ys not in mawnys powar. So al 
commyth to one poynt ; that ys, hyt ys not in our powar 466 

to bryn£ thys mater to passe that we now soeke of. 

16. PoZe. — Mastur Lvpse£, we haue sayd befor, that ?• confesses that 

man cannot do it. 

maw alone caw not in dede bryng thys thyng to passe ; 
but maw may make ordynawce that such only as God hath 
made met to prech Hys doctryne schold haue authoryte to 
exercyse the same. Thys maw may dow, and not only 472 



473 thys, but ordeyn mean how man schal be broughft] vp 
in comienyent mean mete for the same, as in commyn 
studys and vnyuersytes, and admyt now to that offyce 
but such as theyr are prouyd, both in lyuyng and in 
doctryne. But now, to schow the mean how mew schold 

478 in that study be brought vp, here ys not [the] place ; 
Erasmus's advice and besyd that, hyt ys wryten in our days of the most 

to be followed in 

the instruction of famuse dyuyne Erasmus, whose cowseyl I wold in our 

studys we myght folow, that al such as schold prech the 

doctryne of Chryst schold be instruct wyth such doctryne 

and maners as he largely schowyth in hys Tretyse of the 

484 Study of Dyuynyte, and now a late in hys Boke of the 

Prechar. Thys myght, by polytyke rularys in our com- 

[* Page 65.] myn wele, schortly * be brought to passe and put in effect ; 

The universities wherof we must begyn. The gud ordur of studys in the 

are out of order; 

vnyversytes ys the fountayn and the ground of makyng 
thes precharys. Wherfor thes must be redressyd, wych 

490 [be] now so ferr out of ordur, that ther be few men lesse 
met to prech thys celestyal doctryne then thos be wych 
professe the same, in whome ys all arrogawcy wyth- 
out meknes, wych ys the ground of thys doctryne ; in 
whome al affectys rule and reyne wythout any sparkyl 

495 of reson, as experyence schowyth. But I wyl not now 

stond to schow theyr fautys, nor partycularly schow 

of them Erasmus theyr instructyon and insty tutyon, wych Erasmus, wythe 

has written 

largely. grete eloquence and wysdome, doth at large. As I sayd, 

we must ordeyne the mean to put hyt in executyon, 

500 wych ys, breuely to say, only thys way, — to cummand 

Heads of colleges the hedys in collegys to se the vthe brough[t] vp aftur 

brought up after such fascyon as he descrybyth, and other wyse men ef 

^iwmus and our tyme, as the Byschope of Carpe/iteras, and other of 

that sorte. And thys vndowtydly, wythin few yerys, we 

schold see precharys of thys doctryne such as schold 

commyn hyt abrode, and induce the pepul wyth louyng 

maner to folow the same. How be hyt, as I haue 

508 schowyd breuely how, by exampul of lyfe and by gud 


exhortatyon of the precharys, thys doctryne must *be [* Page 66.] 

tought so apon the parte of the pepul ther may be cer- 

tayn ordynarece made wych may make them mete to 511 

here thys prechyng and techyng of theyr masturys and 

doctorys. How he hyt, the prywcypal cause lyth in only it ail lies with 

God. He must forme and lyght theyr hartys wyth Hys give His grace, or 

grace, or els the prechyng caw take lytyl effect. But ha^no effect. 

the gudnes of God ys such that, al men, what sort so 

euer they he, wych by prayer and by humylyte, make 517 

themselfe apte to receyue thys lyght and grace, schal be 

by and by parte-takers therof. He ys not acceptor God is no accepter 

of persons. 

personarwra, but, euen as the lyght of the sone schynyth 

in al bryght bodys, wych of theyr nature be clere and 

bryght, so dothe thys grace and celestyal lyght com- 

munycat hyt selfe, by the gudnes of God, to al hartys 523 

and myndys wych wyl, wyth dylygewce and arderet affect, 

louyngly desyre hyt. But as touchyng the partycular 

maner also how euery mare scholde institute hys mynd 

to receyue thys doctryne, Erasmus also, wyth grete wys- Erasmus's book 

• ii i nii ontne Instruction 

dome, hathe declaryd in hys boke, wych ys callyd the f a christian 
Instructyon of a Chrystuw Mare. Wherfor, as concern- translated into * 
yng thes partycularytes, I schal referre you to the same Eng isb ' 
boke, the wych I thynke veray mete to be put into our 531 
mother tong, to the intent that al such as haue letturys 
may be the rather instructe in Chrystuw lyfe and euare- 
gelical doctryne. 

(16.) *And as for publyke ordynarece touchyng thys [* Page 67.] 
thyng, I haue thys only to say, that for as much as thys 
doctryne of Chryst ys the end and perfaytnes of al law, 537 
and the veray lyfe of marenys soule, to the intent that 
hyt myght be the bettur and wyth more profyt prechyd, 
I wold hyt were also put into our mother tong, that, The Gospel ought 

also to be given 

by the redyng therof ofte-tymys at home, the pepul to the people in 

myght at the lest be more abid to co?/?prehende the tongue, 
mysterys therof prechyd and openyd by the precharys 

of hyt. For thys thyng apperyth meruelouse straunge — 544 


545 pepul to haue the lyne of theyr lyfe to "be wryte in a 

straunge tong, as though the law were wryten to 

straungerys, and not to them. The law was wryten to 

the intent that al mere schold know hyt, and study to 

apply to forme theyr lyfys theraftur. I neuer red in no 

550 storys of grettur blyndnes commynly approuyd then ys 

it is thought this thys ; for hyt ys thought that the puttyng of our law into 

destruction of au our mother tong schold be the destructyon of relygyon ; 

as though the law, yf hyt were knowen, schal make mew 

to forsake the law, and as though the ignorance of the 

555 law schold make mere to folow the law. Wherfor, seing 

that al prechyng ys ordeynyd to thys poynt, to instructe 

[* Page 68.] the pepul in the *law and doctryne of Chryst, hyt 

must nedys folow that al mean must be approuyd wych 

helpe to thys knolege ; and so, to put the law of the 

560 Gospel into our mother tong were a necessary ordynarece. 

Moreouer, hyt were coreuenyent, aftur my mynd, to 

make mew commynly more apte to receyue thys lyght 

au puoiie and and grace, to ordeyne al prayerys both pryuatly and com- 

shouid he in the mynly in churchys for the pepul rehersyd, to be made 

vu gar tongue. .^ ^ e vu ig are tong, and al dyuyne seruyce ; the wych 

566 thyng schold cause dowteles the pepul bothe wyth 

more effecte themselfe to pray, and wyth more dyly- 

gence herken [to] the storys of the Bybul commyrely 

rehersyd, wych are rehersyd only for thys cause, that 

they pepul heryng them, may be the rather sterryd to 

571 folow the exampul of the old ; 'fatherys and holy mere, 

whose vertuese are celebrate in our tempullys and 

To have service churchys. For what avaylyth els thys rehersyng of thes 

to\fgra isfike legendys and loude syngyng therof now in a straunge 

S maf t0 tong as they be rehersyd ? Hyt ys as you wold tel a tale 

to a deffe mare ; for dyfference ys nore, as touchyng the 

profyt of the word, betwyx a deffe mare and hym that 

578 vnderstondyth nothyng at al. 

(1 6.) Wherfor, Master Lvpse^, breuely to corecludethys 
[•Page 69.] mater, thys I thynke, that [if] *they precharys were in 


vny uersytes wel broughft] vp in ryght studys, wych, as we if preachers were 

well brought up, 

sayd, are fer now out [of] frame, and therfor wyth al cure 

and dylygewce to be reformyd, and the Gospell and law the Bible faith- 
fully translated, 

of Chryst cowuertyd wel and faythfully into our mother and Divine serv- 

, , . i i , • j i i 06 conducted in 

tong, and al dyuyne seruyce celebrate in the same; English, we 

then, I thynke, schortly you schold see more frute of the ^. u ° ita ^£° n 

Gospel then we haue. You schold see wythin few yerys ^° w p ^ thai1 we 

mew wyth loue dow such thyng as now they cawnot be 

brought to by no niawnys law ; you schold se then both 589 

reson and vertue in mawnys lyfe to haue place ; they 

schold then be the rularys of mawnys lyfe, al vayn af- 

fectys troden vnder fotte. And so, by thys mean, man, Thus man would 

fyrst inducyd by fere of punnyschemewt and payne, and towards perfec- 

by desyre of honest plesure and profyt by law prescrybyd, 10n ' 

schold be inducyd by lytyl and lytyl to thys perfectyon, 595 

that he for loue only of vertue schold folow vertue, and 

for loue of Chryste, al plesure and payne set aparte, 

schold folow Chryst, and then at the last, thys lyuyng in 

perfayt cowcord and cyuylyte, schold attayne to the euer- 

lastyng lyfe due to the nature of maw, ordeynyd to hym 600 

by the prouydewce of God in immortalyte. And thys, 

Master Lvpse£, now breuely you haue hard in thes iij Thus you have 


days cowmunycatyon, what ys a cojwmyn welth, and i. what is a 
wherin hyt stondyth. What lakkys therof and fautys 2 . what our 

-■• . 7T_ j-Li_i lt- country lacks 

be m our cuwtrey, and how and by what mean, wyth tnereo f. 
gud prudewce *and pollycy, they myght be correctyd [*Page7oj 

,-,-,! . - 3. How our faults 

and amewdyd, as much as may be by mawnys powar re- may be corrected. 

dressyd, and cyuyle ordynawce. For, as we haue offce- 

tymys before sayd, the chefe poynt therin lyth in God 609 

and in a gud prywce. Wherfor, M.aster ~Lvpset, let vs 

thys make an end, bycause hyt ys late, except you haue 

any [thyng] in thys mater further to say. 

17. Lvpset. — S^'r, I haue no thyng to say but only l. wishes to say 

.-, o .-, , , j - . .■*. t. all men are bound 

thys. Seyng that al mew, as you sayd m the begynnyng t0 furtner thi3 
of the fyrst day's communycatyon, are bounden as much commonwealth ' 
as they caw to ferdur and set forward thys same true 616 


617 commyn wele, wyck you haue spoken of before, in tkeyr 
cuwtrey, — I wold tkat you, wyck tkys prudewtly per- 
ceyue tke fautys tkerof and tke mean kow tkey sckold 
be reformyd, sckold, wytk al dylygewce and cure, apply 
your mynd to tke redressyng of tke same, seyng tkat we 

622 kaue now suck a prywce as y s to be desyry d ; wyck notkyng 

els desyrytk, day nor nygkt, but to stablyscke tkys com- 

myn wele among kys subiectys in tkys our natyon. 

and exhorts p. Wkerfor, Master Pole, I wold in no case you sckold let 

not to let this 

occasion slip, tkys occasyon slype ; lest, as I sayd at tke begynnyng 

lest men call him 

an insrate. of our communycatyon, men justely sckold accuse you 

628 as ingrate to your owne cuwtrey. 

18. "Pole. — Wei, Master Lvpse£, as touckyng tkys, 
be you assuryd, for my parte, I wyl neue?* be slake in 
[* Page 7i.] tkys bekalfe; but wken so euer kyt sckal *plese tke 
p. says he shall prywce to cal me to tkys purpos, I sckal wytk tke same 
Pnnce calls him— mynd be redy to tkys as to lyue, for tke wyck I lyue, 
"tarries his an ^ wytkout tke wyck I wot not wky I sckold lyue. 
time ' But in tkys, Master Lvpse£, I must tary my tyme. 

636 19. I/vjiset. — Tkys tarying of tyme, Master Pole, ys 
l. says he must tke destructyon of al. You may not tary tyl you be 

put himself 

forward. callyd, but put your selfe fortk, at tke lest to sckow tke 

desyre tkat you kaue to seme your prywce and to kelpe 
your cuwtrey. 
641 20. PoZe. — Wky, Master ~Lupset, wold you kaue me 

Nay, says p., now to spot my lyfe wytk suck ambycyon ? Nay, I wyl 
not dow so, but, as I sayd, I wyl tary my tyme. 

l. urges that it is 21. "Lvpset. — Nay, but in tkys me thynke you are 

ambition, to deceyuyd, to cal tkys affect ambycyon, wyck ys tken 

desire office that t , i • ■ -i i t i in 

one may do good, only to be imputyd wken mew desyre konowere to tkeyr 
owne plesure or profyt ; but wken mew desyre to bere 
648 offyce and to rule, to tke intent tkey may stablysck and 
set in tkeyr cuwtre tkys coramyn wele, wyck you before 
kaue descrybyd, kyt ys tke ky[e]st vertue tkat ys in any 
nobul stomake, and ys a certayn argument of true no- 

liv^fntoraere, 3 kylyte ; for sluggysck myndys lyue in cornarys and 


content thernselfys wyth pryuate lyfe. Wheras veray 653 
nobul hartys euer desyre to gouerne and rule, to the noWe hearts 

desire to govern. 

commyn wele of the hole multytude. 

22. PoZe. — Wei, Master Tjvpset, I perceyue wether p. says at another 
you go. You wold haue me to schow my mynd in thes his mind 

, . . . , . t , , whether a man 

other grete questyonys, wether a wyse mare ought to ought to tarry tin 

desyre to haredul materys of the commyn wele, or tary whauTtrae*" 

tyl he be callyd ; and also what ys veray true nobylyte, noblht y- 

the wych you say so mouyth mare to set forward al gud 661 

and iust pollycy ; the wych thyng at another tyme I wyl 

not refuse. But now, bycause hyt ys late, and perteynyth it is late now, 

not gretely to our purpos, I wyl dyffer hyt tyl more ur purpose, 

coreuenyent lesur ; and the mean tyme, of thys be you 

assuryd, in me you schal fynd no faut nor neclygercce ; 666 

but that I schal euer, as occasyon mouyth me, be redy but i shall ever 

be ready to do 

to dow seruyce to my pryrece and curetrey, to Goddys service for my 
honowre and glory, to whose gouernarece and prouy- 
dewce, the mean tyme, we schal coremiyt al ; and thus 
make an end of our corezmunycatyon. 671 


[Note to p. 204. Starkey had written as far as the end of 
page 60 of the MS. when he remembered that he had omitted 
to discuss the necessity of appointing superior officers and their 
duties. Not having room on page 56 he was compelled to 
commence on page 61, and go on to the end of page 62. He 
has made the necessary reference marks.] 



Note. — Many of the words here mentioned occur frequently, but I have 
thought it unnecessary to give more than one reference except in a few- 
instances. The following abbreviations have been used : B = Bailey's 
Diet. ; B. B., Babees Boke ; C. L., Castel off Loue ; Gawayne, Sir Gawayne, 
ed. Morris ; H., Halliwell's Diet. ; L., Levins's Manipulus ; L. S., Latimer's 
Sermons ; M. A., Perry's Morte Arthur ; P., Philips's Diet. ; P. C, Pricke 
of Conscience ; P. P., Promptorium Parvulorum ; R. P., Romans of Par- 
tenay. For the extracts from the Utopia and Latimer I have used Arber's 
excellent reprints. 

1/16 means page 1, line 16. 

A, 123/821, an. 

A, 55/1013, on. 

God uoryaf hys dyaf> to ham f>et 
him dede a \>e rode. 

Ayenbite, p. 114. 

A, 70/55, of, or on. 

Jjeos sculde a twa haluen ' 
halden to £an uehte. 

Layimon, iii. 87. 

A, a late, 210/484, of late, lately. 

Abbey-lubbarys, 131/1079. 

Lubber, a mean servant, that 
does all base services in a house ; a 
drudge, a lazy Drone. P. 

Abhorre, 21/727, "abhor from," to 
reject or renounce. See K. H. VIII. 
ii. 4. 
I utterly abhor, yea, from my soul 
Refuse you for my judge. 

Adherentys, 77/296, adherents. 

iEnnates, 126/895, Annates. 

Affccte, 29/77, 31/142, affection; 
property of the mind. 

An affect, affection. L. 47. 
Affecte, or welwyllynge. P. P. 

Agayne, 18/612, against. 

Alowyd, 131/1091, permitted, 

Als, 11/357, as. 
Altogyddur, 49/790, altogether. 

Alye, 1 1 4/488, ally. Alye, aflinis. 

Alyenat, 151/305, alienated. 
Annatys, 126/921, . An nates. 

Annexyd, 95/9 16, annexed, joined 

Antyquyte, 78/327, antiquity! 

Antiquitie, vetustas. L. 109. 
Apon, 15/502, upon. 
Arge, 87/642, argue. 

Arryue, 57/1075, arrival. 

Whose forests, hills, and floods then 

long for her arrive 
From Lancashire. 
Drayton's Poly. ji. 1192, quoted by H. 



Artyfycerys, 86/623, artificers. 

Artys, 123/808, "lyberal artys," 

liberal arts. 
Asper, 134/1174, rough, uneven. 


Aunceturys, 84/556, ancestors. 

God gaue him . . . more then euer 

anye of hys mmcitours had. L. S. 

p. '71. 
Avaunce, 3/61, advance. He . . . 

auaunced hymself ryghte inherit- 

oure to the crowne thereof. Utopia, 

p. 57. 
A-worke, 96/955, at work, to 


Ax, 130/1057, ask. 

Basse, 113/470, "base, low. 
Be, 153/350, bee. 
Bend, 105/160, bent, or bound. 
Beryng, 113/464, bearing, con- 
Bestys, 52/894, beasts. 

Besyly, 3/67, busily, earnestly. 
Besye with beveryne lokkes. 

M. A. 3631. 

Besynes, 5/147, business. 

BoUen, 152/317, swoUen. 

The barley was in the ear, and 
the flax was boiled. Exod. ix. 31. 

Bolsteryd, 117/599, bolstered, up- 
held, maintained (by unfair means). 
Men haue sinnes inough of their 
owne, althoughe they beare not 
and bolster vp other men in their 
naughtines. L. S. p. 155. 

Botte, 4/95, boat. 

Breue, 126/911, brief. 

Broderly, 109/311, brotherly. 

Brokarys, 83/519, brokers. 

Brokys, 16/533, brooks. 

Bunfycyal, 13/427, beneficial. 

Bunfycys, 133/1155, benefices. 

Bunfyte, 14/481, benefit. 

Butful, 98/1023, fruitful. Halli- 
well says batful, meaning fruitful, 
is used by Drayton. Cp. batten, to 

Bylldyd, 9/280, builded. 

Byth, 175/1125, buyeth. 

Canteryng, 137/1295, to sing in 
such a manner that the people can- 
not understand what is sung. 

To cant, to talk darkly .... so 
as not to be understood by others ; 
to use an affected kind of speech. P. 

Capitayne, 3/89, captain. 

Cardarys, 171/1004, card-players. 

Cardyng, 77/287, playing at cards. 
As dysynge, and cardynge, 
And such other playes. 

B. B. p. 346. 
Ouer night they carded for our 
english mens coates. 
Percy, B. ed. Fumivall, i. 125. 

Cauyllatyonys, 10/334, cavilla- 

Chamlet, 95/911. 

Camlet, a sort of stuff made 

partly of camel's hair, and partly of 

silk or stuff. P. 

Cbanonys, 77/295, canons. Cha- 
none, chanonicus. P. P. 

Chepe, gud cbepe, 89/725, cheap; 
bettur chepe, 141/1447, cheaper. 

Theyr diligent vse in prouision 
for graine is notable. For be it 
deare or good cheape, theyr common 
graner ... % is in maner alwayes 
furnisshed. History e of Italye, etc., 
by W. Thomas, ed. 1561, If. 82. 
See P. P. p. 72, note 2. 'A.Sax. 
Cedp. 1. A bargain, sale, business. 

2. Any thing for sale, a chattel. 

3. The price, also cattle, as they 
were used in barter. Cedpian, To 
bargain, chaffer, trade, to contract 
for the purchase or sale of a thing, 
to buy, to cheapen.' Bosworth. 

Chesyth, 29/71, chooseth. 
To-wardez Chartris they chese. 

M. A. 1619. 



Christundome, 88/685, Christen- 
Chyldur, 36/318, children. 

Clene, 8/2 6 9» quite, altogether, 

Cortaysye is closed so clene in 

Gawayne, 1298. 

Clokyd, 36/331, concealed. 

We should not dissemble nor 
cloke them. Bk. of Com. Prayer. 

Cogytatyonys, 66/1414, cogita- 

Coleryke, 58/1100, choleric. 

Passionate, hasty, apttobe angry, 
peevish. P. 

Commyn, 6/175, communicate. 

Comoune communico. P. P. 

Commyn, 10/339, common. 

Commynyng, 8/241, communicat- 
Commynys, 90/748, commons. 

Complexyon, 69/13. 

Complexion .... the natural 
constitution, or temperature of the 
body. P. 

Conceytys, 80/415, conceits. 

Conferre, 176/1187. 

To confer, to communicate; to 
collate, give, or bestow. P. 

Conseyllys, 26/881, counsels. 

Gonsumptyon, 76/248, consump- 
Conteyne, 110/341, contain, keep, 

Conturpayse, 182/117, counter- 
Quha will study his wittis, and 

The hie planetis. 
Qu. Mizabethes Achad. 100/191. 
Conuehauns, 93/865, conveyance. 
Conuehyth, 43/580, conveyeth. 
Conuersant, 23/780, conversant. 

Cormorants, 118/644, cormorants 
(used figuratively). 

On couetous and vnsatiable cor- 
maraunte and very plage of his 
natyue contrey may compasse 
aboute and inclose many thousand 
akers. Utopia, p. 41. 

Cornarys, 189/376, corners. 

Coud, 73/144, could. 

Count, 186/276, account. 

Couplyd, 45/656, joined. 

Cumpynable, 13/428, companion- 
able ; sociable, friendly. 

Companyable, or felawble, or 
felawly. Socialis. P. P. 

Cure, 92/825, care. 

Curyouse, 80/412, curious ; nice, 

fastidious, dandified. 
Custummably, 30/1 32, by custom, 


Custamably, Consuete, soliie. 

P. P. 
Custumyd, 138/1319,accustomed. 

Darth, 87/631, dearth. 

Debylyte, 72/103, debility. 

Defynyd, 118/641, denned, 

Defyne, definite. L. 139. 

Descanterys, 80/412, composers 
of music. 

Descant, in music signifies the 
art of composing in several parts. P. 

Determe, 105/184, determine. 

Detrymentys, 93/858, detriments. 

Deuysarys, 80/412, devisers, 
makers, or inventors. 

Deuysys, 80/406, devices, con- 
trivances, conceits, or fashions. 

Dome, "rayson dome," 103/97? 

Dote, 151/299, dowry, marriage 
portion, or endowment. Lat. dos. 

Downe, 77/286, done. 

Dress, 57/1071, direct. 

Men myghte don it wel, that 
myght ben of power to dresse him 
thereto. Maundecille, p. 306 (ed. 



Drowne, 77/303, drone. 

Drunkerys, 171/1003, drunkards. 

Dyat, 33/232, diet. 

Dyffer, 26/907, defer. 

Dyffynytyon, 11/364, definition. 

Dymely, 206/364, dimly. 

Dymme, or hard to be vndyr- 
stonde. Misticus. P. P. 

Dysarys, 171/1004, dice players. 

Dysceyue, 70/64, deceive. 

Dysconuenyent, 140/1391, incon- 

Dysheryte, 196/614, disinherit. 
Exhereder, to disherit, or disin- 
herit. Cotgr. 

Dyssymylyng, 91/787, dissimu- 

Dissimulings, dissemblings. H., 
who refers to Chaucer. 

Dysyng, 77/287, playing with, 

Enerte, 192/484, to render in- 
capable of action ; to inert. 
Enyoy, 67/1429, enjoy. 
Escheuyng, 71/70, eschewing. 

Ether, 32/183, easier; A.S. eerS, 

SiJ>en god so feire clojms ha)?. 
Jjat haf> no feir Colour to day, 
And schal to Morwe beo lad a way, 
How muchel more may he ow clef?e ? 
As hos seib, bat may he don e\>e. 

Vernon MS. fol. 206 b. col. 3. 
Note. In Starkey's MS. this 
word is written " other." 

Extyme, 14/471, esteem. 

Exystymatyon, 151/287, reputa- 
tion, estimation. Lat. exislimatio. 
As one rather willing the harm 
or hindraunce of the weale publike 
then any losse or diminution of his 
owne existimation. Utopia, p. 82. 

Eysyar, 195/587, easier. 
Fach, 173/1074, fetch. 

Facyle, 133/1172, facile. 

Facyon, 106/210, faction. "Fa- 
cyon and partys" = Factions and 

Fangulyd, newfangulyd, 80/410, 

Gape not nor gaze not at euery 

newe /angle. B. B. p. 341. 
Straunge, or folishelye new- 
fangled. Utopia, p. 65. 

Fantasy, 51/860, fancy. 

Fautys, 28/44, faults. 

Fayte, 129/1005. 

Fait, Fr. a fact, deed, or action. B. 
Fer, 15/512, far, very. 
Fers, 12/386, fierce. 
Fie, 78/328, fly. 

Fon, 24/815, fond; foolish, tri- 

Ande this knyght weddide a fair 
woman, of the kynrede of Levi, but 
she was fon, and biter ; and in hir 
house dwelte a serpente of long 
tyme, in his cave. Gesta Romanorum, 
ed. Madden, p. 196. 

Forbycause, 42/542, because. 

Forsyth, 19/644, matters, signifies. 

Fortylite, 12/405, fertility. 

Foulys, 78/315, fowls. 

Frank, 53/936, free. 

Frate, 172/1040, freight. 

Freythe of caryage (frey t, freight, 
or cariage). P. P. 

Frayle, 57/1064, frail. 
Frenesye, 86/615, frenzy. 
Fruth, 134/1184, fruit. 
Fullarys, 95/914, fullers. 

Fuller, one that fulls, mills, or 
scours cloth. P. 

Fundatyon, 37/382, foundation. 

Fustyanys, 95/912, fustians. 

Fustian, a kind of stuff made of 
the down of a certain fruit grow- 
ing in Egypt. P. 

Fyne, 98/1047, fine, a payment. 



Fyschys, 7 7/3 J 4, fishes. 

Gape, 156/472, gap. 

A gappe, vacuum, interuallum. 
L. 26. 

Gardyng, 80/406. Gard. A fa- 
cing or trimming. H. 

Garded, cote. Laciniatus. L. 49. 

Geddur, 3/60, gather ; obtain. 
More commonly gader. 

Swilk men purchases and gaders 
fast. P. C. 1342. 
But see C. L. 643 — 
For hose se3e a such gederyng, 

Godys, 38/408, goods. 

Goo, of goo, 88/696, ago. 

Gost, 126/926, ghost, spirit, con- 
Grauyte, 194/555, gravity. 
Grettur, 90/767, greater. 
Groundly, 29/76, firmly. 
Gruge, 14/462, grudge. 
Gud, 77/305, good. 
Gyrdyllys, 94/875, girdles. 

Habundaunce, 62/1250, abund- 

Harduos, 27/3, arduous. 

Harp, 126/923, to harp upon one 
string, phrase, meaning to repeat. 

Haukyng, 77/287, hawking. 

Hauntarys, 154/401, haunters, 
frequenters'. Hawntare, frequen- 
tator. P. P. 

Hauyn, 43/591, haven. 

Hayre, 197/28, heir. 

Heddy, 182/120, heady, head- 
strong. Hedye, effrwnis. L. 97. 
Heady, highminded. 2 Tim. iii. 4. 

Henge, 126/923, hang. 

Her, 20/682, hear. 

Herabul, 96/977, arable . Earable, 
ara bills. L. 2. 

A rough valley which is neither 
eared nor sown. Deut. xxi. 4. 

Hethys, 73/148, heaths. 

Heyrys, 169/915, heirs. 

Hole, 2/22, whole, entire. 


Twyes or Jryes in \>e ^ere 
To )>y paresh hole and fere. 

Myrc's Instructions, p. 13. 

Holly, 137/1292, holy. 

Holly, 150/238, wholly. 

He, 88/695, isle. 

Imbecyllyte, 43/571, imbecility. 

Impedymentys, 69/21, impedi- 

Indeuur, 25/850, endeavour, urge 

"Endeavour myself," to con- 
sider myself in duty bound. Alford. 
"I do declare that I do hold 
there lies no obligation upon me 
... to endeavour any change, or 
alteration of government. Act of 
Uniformity, xiv. Car. II. 

Infamyd, 189/379, defamed, made 

infamous, slandered ; Lat. infamo. 

Whosoeuer for anye offense be 

infamed, by their eares hange rynges 

of golde. Utopia, p. 100. 

Ingrate, 214/628, ungrateful. 

Inhabytans, 72/116, inhabitants. 

Iniust, 71/67, unjust. 

Inserch, 71/91, ensearch, ex- 

Inserchyng, 70/50, ensearching, 

Insewyth, 19/649, follows, ensues. 

Intendyng, 74/180, " intending 

to," tending to. 
Intrate, 186/278, ) income ; Lat. 
Intrat, 201/154, ) intro. 

Inuenty on, 116/574, invention, 
discovery, bringing out. 

Inyoy, 79/368, enjoy. 

Jaggyng, 80/406, cut, or slashed 
(applied to garments). lag, lacin- 



are. L. 10. "Vandyked" is, I 
think, the word now-a-days. 
Jarryth, 63/1281, jars. 

Jopardy, 43/569, jeopardy, 

Jugyd, 36/346, judged, esteemed. 

Jurysdycyon, 170/971, jurisdic- 

Knyfys, 94/865, knives. 
Knyte, 58/1095, knit. 

Laburyd, 73/155, laboured, tilled. 

Labour, to cultivate the earth. H. 
Laburyd, 92/831, " byn laburyd," 

have had experience. 
Lake, 72/125, lack. 
Lakkys, 91/774, lacks, hindrances, 

Leegys, 170/951, leagues. 
Legys, 103/106, leagues. 

Lene, 84/529, yield, give, produce. 
Cp. I shal lene \>e a bowr 

J?at is up in £>e heye tour. 

Havelok, 2072, ed. Skeat. 

Let, 36/332, hindered. 

Leyser, 1/16, leisure. Leysere, 

oportunitas. P. P. 
Long, 173/1058, belong.' 
Lubbur, 139/1370. See Abbey- 


A lubber, mediastimis, tardus. 

L. 75. See Utopia, p. 102. 

Lude, 139/1369, lewd. 

Lykytb, 71/99, likes, suits, 

Lykkun, 83/490, ] liken, to 
Lykkynnyd, 83/492, j compare. 
Likenyd, assimilatus. P. P. 
To whom will ye liken me, and 

make me equal, and compare me, 

that we may be like ? Isa. xlvi. 5. 
Lyne, 212/545, lyne of theyr lyfe, 

the course of their conduct; the 

guide of their life. 
Lyst. 124/836, like, choose. 

Lyth, 33/209, lieth. 

Lyue, 78/338, life. 

Lvuely, 63/1291, living. 

Lvvelv, or qwyk, or fulle of lyyf. 
Fivax. P. P. 

Stif contemnars of gods lyuelie 
Lauder's Minor Poems, 4/39. 

Magnyfycal, 176/1185, magnifi- 
cent, splendid. 

Melancolyk, 58/1099, melan- 

Melancholy ... a disease which 
proceeds from the overflowing of 
black choler. P. 

Met, 6/186, meet, worthy. 

Mete, or fyt, or euene. Equus. P. P. 
Metely, 122/783,meetly, worthily. 
Mo, 59/1132, 
Mow, 191/580, 

Mouabul godys, 151/295, move- 
able goods. 

"The term 'moveable' included 
not only corn, cattle, and merchan- 
dise, but money, fuel, furniture, 
wearing apparel, &c." P. M. 
Gazette, April 12, 1870. 

Mumbling, 132/1114, repeating 
inaudibly. To mumble, murmurare. 
L. 188. 

Musys, 144/33, muses. 

Myny schyng, 52/1133, minish- 
ing, diminishing. 

Mysordurys, 69/20, misorders, 

Mystere, 158/526, mystery. Mys- 
tery, or prevyte, Misterium. P. P. 
Any particular art, trade, or 
occupation is termed a mystery. P. 

Naroly, 23/804, narrowly. 

Neclecte, 27/17, neglect. 

Neclygence, 18/615, negligence. 

Nonage, 115/516, the time of 
being under age. Nonage, ami 
pupillares. L. 11. 



Nothe-r — nor, 38/411, neither — 

Mother — nother, 42/556-8, 

neither — nor. 
Noyful, 38/415, hurtful, Noyful, 

nociuus. L. 185. 

Oldys, 73/148, wolds, holds, 
open flat country. Old, the name 
of a place in Bedfordshire. 

Wold, a down, or charapain 
ground, hilly and void of wood ; as 
Stow in the Wolds, and Cotswold. 
P. See also La^amon, ii. 421, 478. 

On, 33/235, one. 

On couetous and vnsatiable cor- 
maraunte .... may compasse 
aboute and inclose many thousand 
akers. Utopia, p. 41. 

Onys, 186/258, once. 

Oode, 12/386, wood; mad, foolish. 

Optayn, 23/782, obtain. 

Ornat, 178/1229, ornate. 

Ornate, 178/1233, to adorn. The 
word is used by Latimer, according 
to Webster. 

Other— or, 9/270-1, either— or. 

Ouercomyn, 43/574, overcome. 

Ouer-hye, 182/122, over high. 

Ouerlayd, 74/191, overlaid, over- 
stocked. Ovyr leydn, or oppressyn. 
Opprimo. P. P. 

Ouerse, 156/450, oversee. 

Parreysch, 201/183, parish. 
Partyes, 2/29, parts, regions. 

Passage, 134/1174. A passage, 

exitus. L. 11. 
Pastur, 74/191, pasture. 
Pastymys, 77/288, pastimes. 

Pattur, 132/1113. 

To patter and pray, to repeat 
many Pater-Nosters. B. 
Paysybly, 56/1024, peaceably. 
Cp. f>are es peysebelle ioy ay lastand. 
Pricke of Conscience, 7833. 

Pedagoge, 206/364, pedagogue. 

Perauentur, 19/660, peradventure. 

Percase, 146/111, perchance. 
Percase, forte. L. 7. 
Part to you here, where that ye 

shall haue 
Such thing that ye percas fele now 
shall. R. of P. 5637. 

Perfayt, 20/672, perfect. 

Perfyttyst, 62/1262, perfectest. 

Perys, 106/207, peers. 

Peter pens, 199/109. "Peter 
pence, called also Rome Scot, was a 
levy of a penny on every house 
wherein there were 30 pence viva 
pecuniee, to be collected and sent to 
Rome, one half of it went for alms 
to the English school at Rome, and 
the other half to the pope's use.'* 

Phlegmatyk, 58/1099. 

Pine, 164/734, pin, or peg (fig.). 
"To hang upon one pin," to depend 
upon one point. 

Placardys, 102/76, proclamations. 

Placard, (among the Prench) a 
table wherein laws, orders, &c, are 
posted, or hung up. P. 

All former Placards granted by 
the King for shooting . . . shall be 
void. Statutes, 14, 15 H. VIII. c. 
7. See also Ibid., 25 H. VIII. c. 
Pollyng, 127/942, spoiling. 

To poll, pil, spoliare. L. 160. 

He could not kepe them in awe, 
but onlye by open wronges, by 
pollinge and shauinge, and by bring- 
inge them to beggerie. Utopia, p. 

Populos, 74/178, populous. 

Pretense, 67/1445, pretence. 

Pretermyt, 8/244, neglect; to leave 

Proportyonabul, 79/351, pro- 

Pykyng, 197/10, picking; pilfer- 



The verb to pick, as used by the 
old writers, has, amongst various 
significations, that of obtaining 
anything by mean, underhand pro- 
ceedings, or pilfering. P. P. p. 
397, note 1. 

To keep my hands from picking 
and stealing. Cat. of Ch. o/Eng. 

Pyl, 26/918, to plunder. 

To pil and pol, depeculari. L. 123. 
I pyll, I robbe. Palsgrave. 
Quoted in the Index of English 
words, ib. 

Py/^andimpouerished. Utopia, 
p. 58. 

Pyne, 209/437, pain, punishment. 

Quyke, 171/998, quick, active. 
Quick, citus, agilis. L. 120. 

Rayne, 73/166, reign. 
Rayson, 194/549, reason. 
Rauynys, 127/941, ravenous. 
Reame, 88/684, realm. 

Rebatyd, 175/1128, abated, 

lowered in amount. 
Rech, 48/758, reach. 

Rechles, 113/457, reckless, care- 

The Devil doth thrust them . . . 
into wretchlessness of most unclean 
living. Thirty-Nine Art., xvii. 

Redunde, 178/4, redound. 

Ref rayne, 120/713, refrain, re- 
strain. To refrayne, refrenare. L. 

Relese, 149/202, relax. Relece, 
or for-^euenesse, relaxacio. P. P. 

Reproue, 139/1374, reproof. 

Repugnyng, 14/464, "repugnyng 
to," repugnant to. 

Resemblyd, 85/571, compared. 
Unto what is the kingdom of 
God like? and whereunto shall I 
resemble it ? S. Luke, xiii. 18. 

Reuenewys, 186/278, revenues. 

Reyn, 31/148, reign. 

Rote, 194/546. Rot, applied to 
the condition of the nation. See 
note — " tabes in corpore" — on 
margin of p. 100. 

Rotte, 98/1024. Rot, a disease 
common among sheep. Rot, or 
rotynge, corrupcio,putrefaccio. P.P. 
The Rotte, tabes. L. 176. 

Rotyd, 13/445, rooted. 

Route, 129/1025, a multitude, or 

throng of people. 
Royalty, 79/355, dignity, strength, 
magnificence. See B. B. 175/858. 
Now haue y shewyd yow, my son, 

somewhat of dyuerse Iestis 
f>at ar remembrid in lordes courte/ 
}>ere as all rialte restis. 

Rustycyte, 70/62, rusticity. 

Ruynate, 70/39, ruined, in ruins, 

or reduced to ruins. 
Ryse, 130/1042, risen. 

Sanguyn, 58/1099, sanguine. 

Full, or abounding with blood, 
being of a complexion, wherein that 
humour is predominant. P. 

Saue, 67/1416, safe. 

Saueguard, 141/1417, safeguard. 

Sayntuary, 140/1410, sanctuary. 

Says, 94/874. Saye clothe, serge. 

Say, a thin sort of stuff. P. 

Scaseness, 47/714, scarceness. 
Cp. More's Utopia : Al the resy- 
dewe of the woomans bodye beinge 
couered with cloothes, they esteme 
her scasely be one handebredeth 
(for they can se no more but her 
face), p. 124. 

Schrode, 79/357, shrewd. 

Shrewd, pramts, malignus. L. 49. 

Schypcotys, 72/133, sheep cots. 

Schypmen, 43/576, sailors. 

Scolastycal, 69/17, scholastical. 

ScyTe, 190/408, shire. Hu he 
sette sciren. Laytmon, iii. 287. 



Scysme, 199/93, schism. 
Secondary, 195/574, secondly. 
Sellarys, 94/886, cellars. 
Semblably, 46/691, similarly. 

Senyor, 130/1055. Seignior, or 
Signior (Ital.), Lord, Master. P. 

Serch, 50/822, examine, search 

Seruytute, 114/496, servitude. 

Skabe, 98/1024, scab, a disease 
to which sheep are liable. Y e scab 
of sheepe, mentigo. L. 1. 

Skant, 74/189, scant, scarce. 

Skase, 87/650, scarce. 

Sklender, 27/6, slender. 

You shal haue but sclender fare, 
one dish and that is al. Z. S. 
p. 89. 
Sklendurnes, 76/248, slenderness, 

Sklendurly, 90/738, slenderly. 
Slo, 79/377, slow. 
Slomeryng, 5/135, slumbering. 
And fore slewthe of slomowre one 
a slepe fallis. M. A. 3222. 

Slype, 40/484, slip, pass by. 
Slyppyng, 72/113, slipping. 
Smateryng, 17/583, smattering'. 
Smellyth, 116/566, savours. 
Solne, 79/379, 384, swollen. 
Sonar, 26/902, sooner. 

Soudiar, 3/89, soldier. A Sodioure, 

miles. L. 223. 
Sounderly, 46/689, separately. 
Sounyth, 63/1281, soundeth. 

Sowne, 101/33, "to sowne to" = 

to sound like. 
Sparkle, 165/771. A little spark, 

a scintillation. A sparkle, scintilla. 

L. 32. 

Sparkul, 12/409, sparkle. 

Sparkylyd, 177/1205, sprinkled, 

The chyldys clothys, ryche and 

He had sparhjlde with that 

blode. H. 

Spens, 201/154, expense. 

Spot, 2 14/ 6 42, to spotte, macular e. 
L. 176. 

He yat medleth wyth pitch is 
like to be spotted with it. L. S. p. 

Spottyd, 198/50, spotted; cor- 
rupted, disgraced, or tainted. 
Spryte, 144/34, inspiration. 
Sprytual, 122/779, spiritual. 

Spyce, 198/50, spice, a small 
quantity. The beginning, part, or 
remains of a distemper. B. 

Squeakyth, 109/310, squeaks. 
The meaning seems to be en- 
dangers, or risks. 

Stablyd, 42/534, stablished. 
Stabul, 67/1449, stable, stablish. 
And stables the hert thare it 
restes. H. 

Stabullys, 72/133, stables. 

Stabyl, 99/1077, establish. 

Stapul, 173/1053, staple. 

Staple, a city or town, where 
merchants joyntly lay up their 
commodities for the better utter- 
ing of them by the great. P. 

Stond, 39/433, stand, consist. 

Story, 209/449, history. 

Stranghth, 10/318, strength. Cp. 
The toune . . extendith in lenghth 
aboute a quarter of a mile. Leland, 
It., iii. 39. 

Strayte, 120/685 ; strayttur, 120/ 

688, strict, severe. 
Streght, 38/395, correct. 
Studys, 203/243, places of study. 
Styffe, 100/1092, stiff, stubborn. 
Stynt, 175/1128, stint, limit in 

Subrogate, 169/922, to put in the 

place of another. 



Succur, 144/34, succour, help, aid. 

Sundurly, 6/195, separately. 
And to vchone sunderlyng 
He ^af a dole of his fulnesse. 

G. L. 290. 

Sustenans, 75/195, sustenance. 

Sustentatyon, 56/1050, susten- 
ance ; maintenance. 
Susteyne, 49/786, sustain. 

Syldon, 85/580, seldom. 

Eor in him, 

Es selden sen any mekenes. 

P. C. 260. 
Syngular, 57/1065, singular, in- 
Sysys, 190/414, assizes. 

Talage, 151/278. A tribute, im- 
post, toll, or tax. P. 

Taske, 151/278, labour due to a 

A taske, taxatio. L. 35. 

Tasck, an old British word sig- 
nifying as much as tribute. P. 

Tempur, 120/713, to temper, 

Tenantys, 72/123, tenants. 

Theft, 79/361. "By them ys 
nuryschyd the commyn theft," i. e. 
By them the system of universal 
robbery is maintained. 

They, 11/351, the. 

Thought, 7/199, though. 

Thynkys, 56/1038, things. This 
form occurs in Leland's Itin. ac- 
cording to H., but a wrong refer- 
ence is given. 

Thys, 8/254, thus. 

Togydur, 11/353, together. 

Trade, 65/1345; 203/237, path, 
practice, or course. But see trade 
in Glossary to the Minor Poems of 
William Lauder, E. E. T. S. 

Translated, 92/833, translated : 
removed, carried away. 
By turninge, translaiinge, and 


remouinge thies markes into other 
places they may destroye theire 
enemies nauies. Utopia, p. 73. 

TryfuUys, 80/415, trifles. 

Tryumphe, 78/319, triumph ; 

pomp, pride, or show. 
Tukkarys, 95/914. tuckers. 
Eullers. H. 

Tucker, a fuller of cloth. P. 
Oterey water is devidid ... to 
serve Grist and Tukking Milles. 
Island, It., iii. 55. 

Tyllarys, 49/785, tillers. 
Tyranne, 115/541, tyrant. 

Vncomly, 52/903, uncomely, un- 

Vnlusty, 79/377, unlusty, weak, 

Vnsure, 39/440, uncertain. Vn- 
sure, incertus. L. 83. 

Vnweldy, 79/377, unwieldy 

Vnyte, 54/983, unity. 

Vnyte, 57/1094, united. 

Vp so downe, 67/1427, upside 
down. \>&i be turned wp-swa-doune. 
P. C. 7230. 

Vth, 164/736, ) 
Vthe, 161/636, j youtn - 
Ytward, 49/783, outward. 
Vtylyte, 10/339, utility. 

Vade, 35/315, fade. 
All as a slope, and like the grasse 
Whose bewty sone doth vade. H. 
Venge, 141/1421, avenge ; Fr. 

Tell you the dauphin, I am 

coming on, 
To venge me as I may, and to 

put forth 
My rightful hand in a well- 
hallow'd cause. 

King H. V., i. 2. 

Yeray, 33/218, very. 
VytZ\I/ 4 188 } 5 'j victuals ' f00d - 



Weddur, 90/752, weather. 

Welthys, 88/685, wealthiest. 

Wordly, 7/213, worldly. Cp. 
Wor[l~\dly matters, Utopia, p. 15, 
and Wordleliche binges in Ayenbite 
of Inwyt, p. 164. 

Wornyth, 76/256, wasteth, 
weareth. For-weornian, to grow 
old, wear away. Weran, to wear. 

Worstyd-makyrs, 95/914, worsted 

Wy, 38/391, why. 
Wyle, a wyle, 203/229, awhile. 

Wyt, 92/816, whit, "neuer a 

whit," none at all. 
Wyttyng, 66/1393, knowing. 

Witandly thargh J?air knawyng. 
P. C. 5727. 
Wyttys, 26/911, inteUects, 
minds ; wits. He 2af him wittes 
fyue. C. L. 138. 

Wurs, 186/263, worse. 

Y, 70/79, I. 
Ych, 56/1052, each. 
Ye, 48/757, eye. 
Yes, 48/777, eyes. 
Yere, 48/757, ear. 
Yerys, 48/777, ears. 
Yl, 38/415, ill. 
Yle, 88/694, isle. 
Yssue, 16/533, issue. 



Abbey-lubbers, 131. 

Abbeys, exemption of, from 
bishops, 140 ; for such as are in- 
clined to chastity, 149, 150 ; not 
to be suppressed, but reformed, 
156 ; who should be admitted to, 
156; have done good, 187; to be 
changed into seats of learning, 

Abbots, election of, 131 ; faults 
in, 200 ; how to be chosen, 200. 

Abundance of friends requisite to 
the good of a country, 50. 

Active life, the, 4, 5. 

Adversity", felicity to be obtained 
in, 44. 

Advocates, dishonest, to be 
punished, 191. See Lawyers. 

Agreement, no, between classes, 

Albans, St, to be converted to 
educational purposes, 187, note. 

Almayn. See Germany. 

Ambition, the desire to govern, 

not, 214. 
Ambrose, what he would think of 

our church music, 137. 
Annates, the law of, 126 ; to be 

abolished, 199. See Note. 
Apparel. See Dress. 
Appeals to Westminster, 117; 

to "Rome, 125 ; to the Abp. of 
Canterbury, 127 ; to the Court of 
Arches, 127 ; to London must be 
abolished, 190. 

Arable lands enclosed, 96. 

Archbishops to be elected at 
home, 199. 

Archery. See Arms. 

Arches, appeals to the Court of, 

Aristotle, on poverty and philo- 
sophy, 7 ; controversy between, and 
Plato, 28 ; his opinion of the vicious, 
30 ; in what wealth and prosperity 
consist, 32 ; one of the chief of 
philosophers, 44 ; his opinion of 
fortune, 61. 

Arms, youth to be exercised in, 

79, 161. See Note. 
Artificers, too few, 84 ; negligent, 

Artisans, too few, 159. 
Asia an evidence of decay, 76. 
Athens had its laws in the vulgar 

tongue, 138 ; idle persons banished 

from, 153. 

Augustine, St, what he would 
think of our church music, 137. 

Authority usurped, or by pre- 
rogative, is pernicious, 104 ; the 
Pope's, whence derived, 124 ; not 
to be usurped, 181. 



Bachelors to be taxed, 151. 
Beggars, the multitude of, 89 ; 

might be diminished, 175. 
Beggary proves idleness, not 

poverty, 89. 
Bible, advantage of having it 

translated, 136, 211, 213. 
Bishops spend too much, 77 ; 

the selfishness of, 85 ; election of, 

131; how to be instituted, 199; 

faults in, 200. 
Blindness and ignorance of men, 

Body and mind, perfection of 

man's, 34, 35 ; must flourish to- 
gether, 41. 
Bounteousness of the earth, 77. 
Breeding of cattle little regarded, 

Bribery in courts of law, 86. 
Building, excess in, 96. 

Bysham, the place where Pole and 
Lupset are, 1. See Note. 

Ceesar, his war with Pompey, 22. 

Canterbury, appeals to, 127; pre- 
rogative court at, 127 ; the Bishop 
to be a member of the Great 
Council, 169, 182. 

Captains, fewer good, than 
formerly, 84. 

Cardinals, the college of, 124; 
to be elected, 198. 

Carpentras, the Bishop of, 203, 
210. &eNote. 

Cattle, scarcity of, 89 ; exported, 
93; breeding little regarded, 98; 
more, to be reared, 174. 

Causes not to be taken out of the 

realm, 199. 
Celibacy should be abolished, 

128 ; in the Church, 148 ; the law 

to be relaxed, 149. 
Censor, a, needed, 204. 

Censors to be appointed, 155 ; 
their duties, 159. 

Changes, difficulty of making, 

Chastity, the law of, in the 

Church, 148. 
Children and friends, advantages 

of, 36 ; to be put to a craft or 

letters at seven years of age, 152 ; 

curate, the, his duties in this, 152 ; 

their training, 152, 153, 154. 

Christendom, the state of, the 

best yet devised, 60. 
Church, evil customs in the, 131 ; 

music in, 134. 
Churches have given place to 

sheepcots and stables, 72. 
Cities and towns, in ruin, 70 ; 

have been better inhabited, 72 ; 

untidiness and decay of, 92 ; to be 

kept clean, 177. 

City life less virtuous than 

country life, 9. 
Civilization, how men were 

brought to, 53. 
Civil law, varies in various 

countries, 15 ; differs from natural 

law, 15 ; and natural laws, obedience 

to, will save man, 19. 

Civil life, what it is, 9, 20. 
Civil order, what is meant by, 51. 

Civil wars, danger of, when 

princes are elected, 106. 
Cleanliness to be enforced, 177. 

Clergy, education of the, 132; 
vices of the, 132 ; their influence 
over the people, 133 ; non-resident, 
133 ; privileges of the, not to be 
allowed, 138 ; to be resident, 201. 
See Priests. 

Clerks, good, too few, 83. 

Cloths to be made at home, — the 
advantages therefrom, 173. 

Colleges, duties of heads of, 210. 

Commonwealth, what is a true, 
26; Plato's, 26, 163, 198; the 
neglect of the, arises from ignor- 
ance, 27 ; when a, is most prosper- 
ous, 56 ; a, comimred to a ship, 57 



the prosperity of, stands in the 
prosperity of all, 57; the, how it 
may be reformed, 68 ; faults in the, 
69 ; evidences of its decay, 70. 
See Country. 

Complaints general, 89, 90. 
Constable, a, of England, 181. 
Contemplative life, the, 4, 5. 
Corn, scarcity of, 89, 91 ; ex- 
ported, 93. 
Costs in suits, payment of, 190. 

Council, a, of fourteen, 169 ; its 
duties, 169, 170; a, of ten, 170; 
its duties, 170 ; king not to choose 
his own, 182 ; how constituted, 
183 ; of the parliament to confirm 
decisions of king's council, 184. 

Country, better to help one's, 
than to know the secrets of nature, 
7 ; the, compared with times past, 
74 ; our, compared with other 
countries, 75 ; a dearth in the, 87 ; 
poverty of the, 88 ; the, poorer than 
it was, 91 ; rude to live in the, 
177. See Commonwealth. 

Courtiers too numerous, 159. 

Courts, spiritual, have failed, 139. 

Crafts have decayed, 73. 

Craftsmen too few, 84.' 

Customs' dues excessive, 141, 174. 

Dearth in the country, 87. 

Decay of the commonwealth 
evident, 70. See Cities and Towns. 
Delays in justice, 118. 
Diet, excess of, 95. 
Difficulties stated, 143. 

Dignity, all nations agree in 

what concerns man's, 19. 
Diligence, the necessity of, 208. 
Discord and division in the realm, 

157; whence they arise, 157. 
Diseases among sheep, 98. 

Dispensations of the Pope, 102, 

Dress, vanity in, 80 ; extrava- 
gance in, 95. See Note. 

Drunkards to be punished, 171. 

Drunkenness among the people, 
94. tfwNote. 

Ediles, 205. See Note. 

Education, the evils of bad, 18 ; 
of the nobles bad, 129 ; of the 
priests, 132; influence of, 165; 
advantages of, to all classes, 205. 

Egypt, an evidence of decay, 76. 

Election, the free, of a prince, 
58, 101 ; of princes a source of 
civil war, 106 ; by ancient nations, 
107 ; of Church dignitaries, 131. 

Emperor, his duty to the Church, 

Enclosing of arable lands, 96. 

Enclosure, the Statute of, 171. 

See Note. 
England, succession by blood 

most suited to, 107. 
English, the Bible to be in, 136, 

211, 213. 
English, Laws to be in, 193. See 

Englishmen, the rudeness of, 

Entailing of lands, the, 112, 113 ; 

to be abolished, 195. 
Equity and justice, a lack of, 

Erasmus, his books referred to, 

210, 211. See Note. 
Errors in religion, the source of, 

Evil, man's power to avoid, 30. 

Exports, and imports, 93, 97 ; to 
be regulated, 155 ; to be restricted, 

Extravagance of the nobility, 1 30. 

Farmers to rear more cattle, 174. 
Fashions, vain, 80. 




Faults, common, must be searched 
out, 69 ; are easily found, 09 ; 
particular, are endless, 7L 

Felicity springs from virtue and 

prosperity, 41 ; may be attained in 

adversity, 44; are there degrees 

of, 45. 
Firstfruits, to Eome, 126 ; their 

use, 126 ; how spent at home, 200. 
Flanders, the population of, 75 ; 

its beautiful and clean cities, 92 ; 

its provision for younger sons, 113 ; 

Ypres, a city of, 176. 

Food, insufficient for population, 
74 ; what it proves, 75 ; scarcity 
of, 87; general dearness of, 175. 

Forests and parks untilled, 73. 

Fortune, does she play any part 
in affairs ? 60, 61, 63. 

France, population of, 75 ; con- 
quered by England, 85 ; diligence 
of plowmen in, 87 ; poverty of the 
people in, 90 ; its beautiful cities, 
92, 178 ; provision made for 
younger sons, 113 ; its serving 
men, 130 ; England brought al- 
most to the misery of, 175. 

French language, laws written in 

the, 122, 136. 
French, Old, a "barbarous tongue, 

Friars, young, 127. 

Frugality to be insisted upon, 

Gain, every one seeks his own, 85. 
Gamblers to be punished, 171. 
Gambling, 77, 172. See Note. 

Gentlemen, leave the cities, 93 ; 

to build in cities, 177. 
Germany, the population of, 75 ; 

the Lutherans in, 135 ; beauty of 

its cities, 178. 

Gluttony, of the people, 87, 95 ; 

and its results, 172. See Note. 
Gold, use of, in ornamenting 

houses, 96. 

Good, what a knowledge of, would 
do, 30 ; what things are necessary 
to individual, 34. 

Gospels, the, to be in English, 

136, 211, 213. 
Government, various kinds of, 

53; when it becomes tyranny, 53; 

the form of, of uo moment, 53, 54 ; 

a mixed, thought best, 181. 

Greece, its present condition, 76. 

Greek and Latin the ground of 

learning, 202. 
Greeks did not regard chastity, 


Hanging, punishment of theft by, 

Hawks and hounds, 189, 

Health, bodily, 34, and strength, 

Heaven, all men may get to, 64. 

Homer, his saying about idle men, 

Hope, perfect and sure, a man 

with, may attain heaven, 42. 
Husbandmen, scarcity of, 159. 

Idleness, a certain cause of decay, 
74, 75 ; a third of the people live in, 
77 ; man not born to live in, 78 : 
the mother of many vices, 80 ; of 
the people, 87 ; the cause of, must 
be removed, 152 ; punishment for, 
153 ; the only cure for, 154. 

Idle people, a great number of, 

75, 76, 77. 
Ignorance, evils of, 27, 28 ; the 

cause of vice, 31 ; cannot excuse a 

man, 32. 
Hl-occupied people, 76, 77,80, 81. 
Imported, various articles, 93. 

Imports and exports, 93, 97 ; ex- 
cessive charges on, 141, 174; of 
luxuries must be regulated by law, 
155 ; restrictions upon, 172. 

Instruction, virtue depends upon, 



29 ; the power of, over the mind, 
31 ; of a Christian man by Erasmus, 

Ipar, 176. See Ypres. 

Italy, the number of people in, 
75 ; diligence of husbandmen in, 
87 ; the misery and poverty in, 90 ; 
provision for younger sons in, 113 ; 
gentlemen have more followers 
here than in, 130 ; the conse- 
quences of discord in, 157 ; beauty 
of its cities, 178 ; how the monks 
of, are chosen, 200. 

Jerome, what lie would think of 

our church music, 137. 
Jews, the, think their law "best, 

11 ; and their policy also, 18 ; they 

may be saved, 19. 

Judges, good, too few, 83 ; are 

bribed, 86. 
Justice delayed, 118; and equity, 

a lack of, 157. 
Justinian and Roman law, 192. 

King, a, the heart of a common- 
wealth, 48 ; the, to do nothing 
without his council, 170 ; to pre- 
side in his council, 183. See Prince. 

Knight's service, lands held by, 

Knowledge of less importance 
than justice, 6 ; without the appli- 
cation of it, of little avail, 8. 

Labour, a severe punishment for 

the petty thief, 197. 
Lahourers have to fight, 79. 

Lacedemon had its laws in the 

vulgar tongue, 138. 
Land lying waste and untilled, 

70, 73, 87. 
Land, the, is not barren "by nature, 

Lands, entailing of, 112, 113 ; 

held by knight's service, 114. 
Latin, Church laws in, 123 ; 

divine service in, an evil, 134, 
136 ; its usefulness, 193 ; the 
ground .of learning, 202. 

Law, kings above, 101 ; the 
Roman Civil, should be adopted, 
194 ; the, cannot bring man to per- 
fection, 206. 

Laws, nature's and man's, 4 ; 
civil, 15 ; binding only on such as 
receive them, 17 ; diversity of 
sects and, not to trouble us, 20 ; 
and order must be good, 50 ; and 
ordinances, the origin of, 52 ; 
originally made for the people, 110 ; 
common, are written in French, 
122 ; Church, are in Latin, 123 ; 
confusion in the, 192 ; how to be 
improved, 192 ; to be written in 
English or Latin, 193 ; are written 
in Old French, 193. 

Lawsuits, delays in, 118. 

Lawyers, too many, 83 ; covetous- 
ness of, 191 ; who should be, 192. 
Lead, exported, 173. 

Learning pernicious without 

virtue, 203. 
Liberty of the will, the, 30. 

Licences granted by the king do 

harm, 102, 103. 
Life, active and contemplative, 4 ; 

future and present, to be regarded, 

Life, civil, what it is, 9, 20. 
Livy, on discord and debate, 83. 

London, removal to, by writ, 
125, 190 ; the Bishop of, to be a 
member of the Great Council, 169, 
182 ; four citizens of, to be members 
of the Great Council, 169, 182. 

Lords, the selfishness of, 85. See 

Lubbers kept "by prelates, 131. 

Luther, his judgment esteemed 
but little, but he does not err in all 
things, 135. 

Lutherans, their manner of con- 
ducting Divine Service, 134, 135. 



Luxuries, what, may be imported, 

Lycurgus, his example, 2. 

Malice, faults attributed to, 28. 

Man, his laws less esteemed than 
those of God and nature, 4; his 
perfection, wherein it stands, ac- 
cording to Aristotle, 5 ; was once 
more virtuous than now, 9 ; his 
abuse of good things, 10 ; his duty 
is to remedy evils, 10 ; his dignity, 
his works, his laws, his divine 
nature, 12 ; his virtues, temperance, 
courage, reverence for God, are uni- 
versal, 13 ; his mind, its first con- 
dition, 28 ; his ability to perceive 
good and evil, 30 ; in his most 
prosperous state, 39 ; what is, 40 ; 
the state compared to a, 45 ; in 
his uncivilized state, 52 ; his weak- 
ness of mind, 148 ; superiority in 
creation, 165. 

Manners and customs of different 
countries, 15. 

Marriage, how to entice man to, 
146, 148 ; hindrances to, 148, 
allowed to secular priests, 149, 
150 ; rewards for, 150; tax those 
who abstain from, 151. 

Merchandise, the carriage of, 172. 

Merchants, how they are ill- 
occupied> 80; 

Mind, the, of man when most 
perfect, 7 ; the first condition of, 
28 ; the virtues of the, excel all 
other virtues, 37; and body must 
flourish together, 41. 

Misery of England, the, almost 
equals that of France, 175. 

Money, scarcity of, 89. 

Moors, the, allow polygamy, 17 ; 
they may be saved, 19. 

Murderers, how to be punished, 

Music in churches too elaborate, 

Natural and civil law, they who 
keep, will not be damned, 19. 

Nature, the law of, common to 
all nations, 14 ; requires man's aid, 

Nature's laws, better to be known 
than man's, 4 ; unvariable, 16. 

Negligence of the people, 171, 

Nero, a cruel tyrant, 22. 

Nobility, the idle rout they keep, 
77 ; the princely courts they keep, 
129 ; their bad education, 129 ; 
their extravagance, 130 ; their idle- 
ness, and its consequences, 160 ; 
their duties, 160 ; a fault in their 
bringing up, 186 ; ought to send 
their children to school, 187; their 
prodigality, 1 88 ; how they would 
be improved, 188 ; their care for 
hawks and hounds, 189 ; their 
want of attention to their children, 
189 ; their duties, 190; should be 
better brought up, 194, 197; 
should study the laws, 195. 

Normans, our subjection to, 123 ; 
why they wrote all laws in French, 
136 ; the, are barbarous, 194. 

Obedience to law a virtue, 17; 
to civil and natural laws will save 
a man, 19 ; the necessity of, 51. 

Officers to see how people are 

employed, 155. 
Opinion, false, a source of ill, 66. 

Oppression makes a people 

wretched, 180. 
Order, civil, what is meant by, 

Ornaments of the country, how 

to be provided, 176. 

Palsy, the ill-occupied compared 

to a, 82. 
Papal authority, 198. 
Pardons granted by princes, 121. 
Parliament, government by, 102 ; 



authority of, deputed to a council, 
169 ; should elect princes, 168. 

Pasture farms get into the hands 
of a few, 9S. 

Pastures, necessity for, 97. 

Paul, St, his conduct in reference 
to secret things, 20 ; his perfection, 
39 ; quoted on the law, 206. 

Peace and war debated in the 
council of the king, 184, 

People, ill manners of the, 70 ; 
weakness caused by lack of, 7'2 ; 
who are ill-occupied, 76, 80 ; glut- 
tony of the, 87 ; idleness of the, 
87 ; fewness of the, and its remedy, 
146 ; less valiant and given to 
pleasure, 161 ; election By, of a 
prince, 185. 

Perfection to he the aim of every 
man, 5 ; bodily, in what it con- 
sists, 34, 35. 

Personal goodness necessary, 33. 

Pestilence, want of agreement 
compared to a, 83. 

Peter pence to he paid, 199. See 

Peter, St, the authority given to, 

Philosophers,ancient, their opinion 
of laws, and their preference for 
learning, 4 ; ancient, their neglect 
of public duties, 6 ; they caunot be 
excused, 8 ; ancient, not to be 
followed, 8. 

Philosophy is better than riches, 7. 

Pius, Pope, on celibacy, 128. 

Plato, his example, 2 ; Sicily in 
his time, 22 ; his Commonwealth, 
23, 26, 163, 189; a controversy 
between him and Aristotle, 28 ; on 
ignorance, 29 ; on the soul, 44 ; 
his instruction of officers, 198. 

Pleasures and profits, selfish, too 
often considered, 66. 

Plowmen, have to fight, 79 ; are 

negligent, 86, 87 ; too few, 159. 
Plutarch, a comparison of, 22. 

Pole, reference to his studies and 
learning, 2 ; the duties he owes to 
his country, 2, 214; his apparent 
indifference to his country's wants, 
3 ; will tarry his time, 214. 

Policy, what is meant by, 51 ; 
good, what it might accomplish, 

Pompey and Caesar, obstacles to 
Tully's influence, 22. 

Poor, the, suffer from excess of 
pasture land, 98. 

Pope, the, and his dispensations, 
102, 123 ; his usurped authority, 
198, 199 ; how his pomp is main- 
tained, 200. 

Population, a sign of prosperity, 
46 ; a lack of, a source of decay, 
72, 76 ; examples of a lack of, in 
other countries, 76 ; mischiefs 
where the, is idle, 79 ; hindrances 
to an increase of, 148, 150. 

Poverty, the cause of many 
miseries, 36 ; is .the mother of envy 
and malice, 50 ; of the realm, 88, 
91, 92 ; and its cause, 172. 

Prayers, public and private, to be 
in English, 9 

Preachers, how they are to estab- 
lish Christ's law, 209 ; counsel of 
Erasmus respecting, 210 ; advan- 
tage of having good, 213. 

Prelate, the, selfishness of, 85. 

Prelates, idle persons kept by, 

Premiums to craftsmen, 153. 

Priests, too numerous, 83; are too 
young, 127 ; the celibacy of, 128 ; 
bad education of the, 132 ; non- 
resident, 133 ; secular, too many, 
149 ; too many superstitious, 159 ; 
at what age to be admitted, 202. 

Primogeniture, the law of, 108; 
its injustice, 109 ; the law of, its 
advantages, 110 ; how it should be 
limited, 112 ; the law_of, conveni- 
ent for a few, 193. 

Prince, the, should be chosen by 



free election, 58, 101 ; a good, a 
remedy for all diseases, 164 ; a, 
elected by parliament, 168 ; the, 
should be subject to the laws, 168 ; 
a, how his authority is to be curbed, 
Princes, the selfishness of, 85 ; 
with absolute power, 100 ; un- 
worthy, are common, 102 ; may 
pardon, 121 ; perfect, cannot be 
found, 180. 

Priors, election of, 131. 

Privilege of sanctuary, the, en- 
courages to crime, 140. 

Privileges, of the clergy, 138 ; 
their ill consequences, 139 ; to 
those who marry, 150, 151. 

Proctors, too many, 83. 

Property of unmarried persons, 

Proportion, a want of, 83. 

Prosperity, the, of an individual, 
and of the commonwealth identical, 
32, 33 ; hard to use it well, 42 ; 
signs of, 58, 59 ; a country not 
perfect which lacks, 61 ; well used, 
increases happiness, 62 ; to be 
carefully used, 65. 

Providence, evidences of God's, 

Public good, but rarely considered, 

66 ; the, should be in every man's 

heart, 66. 
Public life not always to be 

entered upon, 21. 
Punishment, the fear of, its in- 
fluence for good, 147 ; for idleness, 

Punishments, severity of, 119, 


Reason and its powers, 165, 166. 

Religious, extravagance of the, 77. 

Religious men are numerous, 156. 

Remedies proposed, 143. 

Rents, raised, 98 ; the mischiefs 
arising thence, 175. 

Retinues of nobles, 129. 
Retirement from the world, 43. 

Riches, the advantages of, 35 ; 
what they are for, 37 ; without re- 
ligion they do not profit, 38 ; they 
do not exclude man from heaven, 

Robbers, highway, how to be 
punished, 197. 

Romans, their ancient laws drawn 
from nature, 112 ; their purpose in 
performing Divine Service in Latin, 
136 ; their practice in feats of 
arms, 161 ; Justinian and their 
law, 192 ; their laws to be studied, 
193 ; and followed, 195 ; their civil 
law, 194 ; their prudence, 195 ; 
their law against prodigality, 201. 

Rome, the profit it might have 
had from Tully, 22 ; the See of, 
124, 127 ; appeals to, 125 ; first- 
fruits to, 126 ; its laws in the 
vulgar tongue, 138 ; Censors of, 
155 ; bishops need not go to, for 
institution, 200 ; the office of Cen- 
sor in, 204 ; Ediles of, 205. 

Ruin, causes of, 180. 

Rulers, why they are maintained 
in pomp, 55 ; to see people are in- 
structed and justice administered, 
55 ; good, save the State, 67 ; 
necessity for good, 163. 

Sanctuary, the privilege of, is 

wrong, 140. 
Saracens, the, defend their own 

policy, 11 ; judge it best, 18 ; 

allow polygamy, 17 ; may be saved, 


Schism may be referred to Rome, 

Schools, public, to be established, 

187 ; good,' to be founded, 202 ; 

small, to be united, 203. 

Scotland subdued by England, 

Sects, diversity of laws and, ought 

not to trouble us, 20. 



Self-government needed in those 

who would rule, 3, 6. 
Selfishness destroys all public 

good, 65. 

Seneca under Nero, 22. 

Servants, too many, 84. 

Service, Divine, in Latin, 134 ; 
advantage of having it in English, 

Serving-men, are too many, 78 ; 

do not marry, 150. 
Sheep die of scab and rot, 98. 

Sicily, its condition in Plato's 

time, 22. 
Sick persons to be cared for, 176. 
Silks and says for the nobility, 94. 
Singing men, 80. 
Soberness to be followed, 179. 

Socrates, on false opinion, 27 ; on 
the influence of instruction, 29 ; 
says ignorance is the fountain of 

* vice, 31. 

Solon, his example, 2. 

Songs, devisers of new, 80. 

Sons, younger, in England, 111 ; 
in France, 113 ; younger, to be 
provided for, 195 ; power to disin- 
herit, 196. 

Soul, and body make man, 41 ; 
civil order compared to the, 46. 

Spain, the diligence of plowmen 
in, 87 ; the poverty of the com- 
mons in, 90 ; gentlemen have more 
followers in, than here, 130. 

Spiritual, courts have failed, 139 ; 

faults, 122. 
Spirituality, faults of the, and 

how they are to be corrected, 198. 
State, the, compared to a man, 

Statute, the, of enclosure, 171. 

Statutes made by kings, too 

many, 193. 
Stoics, 61 ; the wise men described 

by the. 163. 

Succession, of princes, the, 101 ; 

generally abuse their power, 105 ; 

by blood, most suited to England, 

107; the laws of, 195. 
Suits, in law, delays in, 118; 

long, caused by lawyers, 191. 
Swiss, practice in arms among 

the, 161. 

Taverns to be forbidden, 174. 

Temperance, advantage of, 33 ; 
health dependent on, 179. 

Theft, punishment of, 119 ; a 
new punishment for, 196. 

Theophrastus, his opinion of for- 
tune or chance, 61. 

Thieves, might be diminished, 

Tillers of the soil too few, 84. 

Time and place ought to be con- 
sidered before entering upon public 
life, 22, 23, 214. 

Tin, exported, 173. See Note. 

Towns not well kept, 92. 

Trades to be kept separate — no 
man to interfere with another, 158. 
Trajan, a noble prince, 22. 

Treason, punishment of, 1 20 ; 
accusing of, allowed too easily, 
121 ; punishment of, 196 ; a result 
of tyranny, 197. 

Trifles, makers of, too many, 84. 

Tully, why Eome did not profit 
more by, 22. 

Turks, the, their opinion of their 
own life, 11; do not abstain on 
Eridays, 17 ; they allow polygamy, 
17 ; they judge their own policy 
best, IS ; they may be saved, 19. 

Tyranny, when government be- 
comes, 53 ; the greatest of all ills, 
168 ; the root of all ills, 180 ; how 
to avoid, 184 ; is the cause of trea- 
son, 197. 

Tyrants not sent from God for 
man's punishment, 167. 



Universities, studies at, to be im- 
proved, 203 ; the, out of order, 210. 

Venice, the policy used in, 179, 

Vessels, English, to be employed, 

Vice, most men follow, 18; caused 

by ignorance, 31 ; and error, what 

is the foundation of, 66. 

Villages have decayed, 72. 

Virtue, more, in the country than 
in cities and towns, 9 ; the fault is 
in men, 10 ; all nations think they 
live in, 11 ; stands not in opinion, 
but in nature, 11, 16 ; dangers to, 
15 ; stands by nature and opinion, 
17 ; and vice, the difference be- 
tween, 17 ; on what it depends, 
29 ; and ignorance, 29 ; what it 
alone can do, 38 ; does it keep a 
man from misery? 39 ; and worldly 
prosperity the most perfect state, 
44 ; the end of politic rule, 54 ; 
should be rewarded, 183. 

Virtues of the mind, the, 36. 

War, civil, danger of, 106. 

"Wards, power over, 114; treat- 
ment of, 186. 
"Waste lands, 70, 73, 87. 

Weakness of the country, 84. 

Westminster, removal of causes 
to, 117, 191 ; its Abbey to be con- 
verted into a school, 187, note. 

Will, the liberty of the, 30. 

William the Conqueror, his in- 
stitution of knight's service, 115 ; 
a tyrant, 115. 

Wine imported, 94 ; evils of, 94 ; 
to be imported for noblemen, 94; 
brought in from other countries, 

Wool, advantages of having 
plenty of, 97 ; not to be exported, 

World, those who leave it blamed, 

Writ, removal of causes by, 117 ; 

where the fault lies, 117. 
Writers, foolish, to be stopped, 

137, note. 

Yeomanry, the, are not exercised 

in war, 79. 
Young, the, badly trained, 152. 
Youth to be exercised in arms, 

Ypres, a method of nourishing 

the sick at, 176. See Note. 

lUcluxrd Hay $ Sons, Limited, London $ Bv.ngay. 

HISS, and Books that Editors are wanted for. 


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Cathedral (5th Report, Hist. MSS. Com.). 
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Soule-hele, from the Vernon MS. 
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T. Breus's Passion of Christ, 1422. Harl. 2338. 
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Lollard Theological Treatises, Harl. 2343, 2330, &c. 

H. Selby's Northern Ethical Tract, Harl. 23S8, art. 20. 

Hilton's Ladder of Perfection, Cott. Faust. B 6, &c. 

Supplementary Early English Lives of Saints. 

The Early and Later Festialls, ab. 1400 and 1440 A.I). 

Cotton, Claud. A 2; Univ. Coll. Oxf. 102, &c. 
Select Prose Treatises from the Vernon MS. 
Jn. Hyde's MS. of Romances and Ballads, Balliol 354. 
Metrical Homilies, Edinburgh MS. 
Lyrical Poems from the Fairfax MS. 16, &c. 
Prose Life of St. Audry, a.d. 1595, Corp. Oxf. 120. 
English Miscellanies from MSS. , Corp. Oxford. 
Miscellanies from Oxford College MSS. 
Disce Mori, Jesus Coll. Oxf. 39; Bodl. Laud 99. 
Alain Chartier's Quadrilogue, &c, Univ. Coll. Oxf. 85. 
Mirrour of the blessed lijf of Ihesu Crist, Univ. Coll. 

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Poem on Virtues and Vices, &c, Harl. 2260. 
Maundevyle's Legend of Gwydo, Queen's, Oxf. 383. 
Book of Warrants of Edw. VI., &c, New Coll. Oxf. 32S. 
Adam Loutfut's Heraldic Tracts, Harl. 6149-50. 
Rules for Gunpowder and Ordnance, Harl. 6355. 
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Erie of Tolous. Ypotis. 

Sir Eglamoure. Emare. 

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Le Morte Arthur,- from the unique Harl. 2252. 

Sir Tristrem, from the unique Auchinleck MS. 

Miscellaneous Miracle Plays. 

Sir Gowther. 

Dame Siriz, &c. 

Orfeo (Digby, 86). 

Dialogues between the Soul and Body. 

Barlaam and Josaphat. 

Amis and Amiloun. 


Sir Generides, from Lord Tollemaehe's MS. 

The Troy-Book fragments once cald Barbour's in the 

Cambr. Univ. Library and Douce MSS. 
Gower's Confessio Amantis. 
Poems of Charles, Duke of Orleans. 
Carols and Songs. 

Songs and Ballads, Ashmole MS. 48. 

The Siege of Rouen, from Harl. MSS. 2256, 753, Eger- 

ton 1995, Bodl. 3562, E. Museo 124, &c. 

Ywain and Gawain. 
Libeaus Desconus. 
Avnturs of Arther. 
Avowyng of King Arther. 
Sir Perceval of Gallas. 
Sir Isumbras. 

Partonope of Blois, Univ. Coll. Oxf. 188, &c. 
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Queen's, Oxf. 357. 
Other Pilgrimages to Jerusalem, Harl. 2333, &c. 
Horae, Penitential Psalms, &c, Queen's, Oxf. 207. 
St. Brandon's Confession, Queen's, Oxf. 210. 
Scotch Heraldry Tracts, copy of Caxton's Book of 

Chivalry, &c, Queen's Coll. Oxford 161. 
Stevyn Scrope's Doctryne and Wysedome of the 

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LXXIII. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, II., from the Ashburnham MS., ed. I. Gollanez, M.A. [At Press. 

The Publications for 1898 (one guinea) are : — 
LXXIV. Secreta Secretorum: three prose Englishings, ab. 1440, ed. R. Steele, B.A. Part I. 20s."' 
LXXV. Speculum Guidonis de Warwick, edited by Miss G. L. Morrill, M.A. 10s. 

The Publications for 1899 and 1900 will be chosen from : — 
Melusine, the prose Romance, from the unique MS., ab. 1500, ed. A. K. Donald, B.A. Part II. 10s. 
Promptorium Parvulorum, c. 1440, from the Winchester MS., ed. Rev. A. L. Mayhew, M.A. Part I. 20s. 
Lydgate's Dance of Death, edited from the MSS. by Miss Florence Warner. 
George Ashby's Active Policy of a Prince, a.d. 1463, ed. Miss Mary Bateson. [At Press. 
The Craft of Nombrynge, the earliest English Treatise on Arithmetic, ed. R. S. Steele, B.A. [At Press. 
The Book of the Foundation of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, MS. ab. 1425, ed. Dr. Norman. Moore. [Set. 
The Chester Plays, Part II., re-edited by Dr. Matthews. [At Press. 

•Lichfield Gilds, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall; Introduction by Prof. E. C. K. Gonner. '[Text clow. 
Alexander Scott's Poems, 1568, from the unique Edinburgh MS., ed. A K. Donald, B.A. [Set. 
■ John Hart's Orthographie, from his unique MS. 1551, and his black-letter text, 1569, ed. Prof. Otto Jespersen, Ph.D. 
John Hart's Methodeto teach Reading, 1570, ed. Prof. Otto Jespersen, Ph.D. 
Extracts from the Rochester Diocesan Registers, ed. Hy. Littlehales, Esq. 
The Owl and Nightingale, 2 Texts parallel, ed. G. F. H. Sykes, Esq. [At Press. 
The Three Kings' Sons, Part II, French collation, Introduction &c, by Dr. L. Kellner. 
Lydgate's DeguiUeville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 
Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne (1303), and its French original, ed. Dr. F. J. FurnivalL 
The Coventry Plays, re-edited from the unique MS. by Dr. Matthews. 

*3T The Large-Paper Issue of the Extra Series is stopt, save for unfinisht W.orTcs of it. 



Extra Series, XIII. 

Simon jfistjL 




% Sttpplfitacion k mx moste Soncraignc fork 
liqe Jcnrg % %$ 

(1544 A.D.), 

% Supplrafton of % $)Mnr* Commons 

(1546 A.D.), 

CJje JBwagt of <0nfllanir 

bg % pat lmtltifato af sfotp* 

(1550-3 A.D.), 



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* - LONDON : 




Price Six Shillings. 

Hep'inted 1891. 


Committee of Management : 


Treasurer: HENRY" B. WHEATLEY, Esq. 


Hon. Sec. for America: Prof. F. J. CHILD, Harvard Coll., Cambr., Mass., U.S. 


Prof. E. KOLBING, Ph.D. Prof. NAPIER, M.A., Ph.D. 


Rev. Prof. J. RAWSON LUMBY, D.D. Rev. Prof. WALTER W. SKEAT, Litt.1 

Rev. Prof. .1. E. B. MAYOR, M.A. Dr. HENRY SWEET. M.A. 


Prof. J. ZUPITZA, Ph.D. 

(With poioer to add Workers to their number.) 



Half the Publications for 1866 (13, 14, 15, 18, 22, as well as 24 for 1867) are out of prii 
but will be gradually reprinted. Subscribers who desire the issue for 1866 should send th 
guineas at once to the Hon. Secretary, in order that other Texts for 1866 may be sent to pres 

The Publications for 1864-1871 (one guinea each year, save those for 1866 now ha 

out of print, two guineas) arc : — 

1 Early English Alliterative Poems, ab. 1360 a.d., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 16a. IS 

2. Arthur, ab. 1440, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 4s. 

3. Lauder on the Dewtie of Kyngis, &c, 1556, ed. F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. 

4. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, ab. 1360, ed. Rev. Tr. R. Morris. 10s. 

5. Hume's Orthographie and Congruiti? of the Britan Tongue, ab. 1617, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. 

6. Lancelot of the Laik, ab. 1500, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. Ss. 

7. Genesis & Exodus, ab. 1250, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. Ss. 
S. Morte Arthure, ab. 1440, ed. E. Brock. 7s. 
0. Thynne on Speght's ed. of Chaucer, a.d. 1599, ed. Dr. G. Kingsley and Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 10s. 

10. Merlin, ab. 1440, Part I., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 2s. 6d. 

11. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c, 1552, Part I., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. 

12. Wright's Chaste Wife, ab. 1462, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. Is. 

13. Seinte Marherete, 1200-1330, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne. 18 

14. Kyng Horn, Floris and Blancheflour, &c, ed. Rev. J. R. Lumby, B.D, 

15. Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. F. J. Furnivall. 

16. The Book of Quhite Essence, ab. 1460-70, ed. F. J. Furnivall. Is. [In print] 

17. Parallel Extracts from 45 MSS. of Piers the Plowman, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. Is. [In print.] 
IS. Hali Meidenhad, ab. 1200, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne. 

19. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c, Part II., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. 6d. [In print] 

20. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. Is. [In print] 

21. Merlin, Part II., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. [Inprinf] 

22. Partenay or Lusignen, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

23. Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, 1340, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. 6d. [In print.] 

24. Hymns to the Virgin and Christ; the Parliament of Devils, &c, ab. 1430, ed. F. J. Furnivall. 18i 

25. The Stacions of Rome, the Pilgrims' Sea-voyage, with Clene Maydenhod, ed. F. J. Furnivall. Is. 

26. Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse, from R. Thornton's MS. (ab. 1440), ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. 2s. 

27. Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum, a ryming Dictionary, 1570, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 12x. 
23. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, 1362 a.d. ; Text A, Part I., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 6s. 
29. Old English Homilies (ab. 1220-30 a.d.). Part I. Edited by Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 7s. 
3ff. Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 2s. 

31. Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest, in Verse, ab. 1420 a.d., ed. B. Peacock. 4s. 

32. Early English Meals and Manners : the Boke of Norture of John Russell, the Bokes of Keruynge, 

Curtasye, and Demeanor, the Babees Book, TJrbanitatis, &c. , ed. F. J. Furnivall. 12s. 

33. The Knight de la Tour Landry, ab. 1440 a.d. A BDok for Daughters, ed. T. Wright, M.A. 8s. 

34. Old English Homilies (before 1300 A.D.). Part II., ed. R. Morris, LL.D. 8s. 

35. Lyndesay's Works, Part III." : The Historie and Testament of Squver Meldrum, ed. F. Hall. 2s. 

36. Merlin, Part III. Ed. H. B. Wheatley. On Arthurian Localities, bv J. S. Stuart Glennie. 12s. 

37. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part IV., Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits. Ed. F: Hall, D.C.L. 4s. 

38. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, Part II. Text B. Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. (id. 

39. Alliterative Romance of the Destruction of Troy. Ed. D. Donaldson & G. A. Pan ton. Pt. I. 10s. 6d. 

40. English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, 13S9 a.d. Edit. Toulmin Smith and Lucy T. Smith, 

with an Essay on Gilds and Trades-Unions, by Tr. L. Brentano. 21s. 

41. William Lauder's Minor Poems. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 3s. 

42. Bernardus De Cura Rei Famuliaris, Early Scottish Prophecies, &e. Ed. J. R. Lumby, M.A. 2s. 

43. Ratis Raving, and other Moral and Religious Pieces. Ed. J. R. Lumby, M.A. 3s. 

44. The i Alliterative Romance of Joseph of Arimathie, or The Holy Grail : from the Vernon MS. ; 

with W. de Worde's and Pynson's Lives of Joseph : ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 5s. 1 

45. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, edited from 2 MSS M with an 

English translation, by Henry Sweet, Esq., B.A., Balliol College, Oxford. Part I. 10s. 

46. Legends of the Holy Rood, Symbols of the Passion and Cross Poems, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. 

47. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part V., ed. Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 3s. 
43 The Times' Whistle, and other Poems, by R. C, 1616 ; ed. by' J. M. Cowper, Esq. 6». 


Besides the Texts named as at press on p. 4 of the Cover of the Early English Text 
Society's last books, the following Texts are also at press or preparing for the Society : — 


Thomas Robinson's Life and Death of Mary Magdalene, from the 2 MSS., ab. 1620 a.d. [Text in type.) 

Queen Elizabeth's Translations, from Boethius, Plutarch, &c. , edited by Miss Pemberton. {At Press.) 

George Ashby's Poems, 1463-75, ed. from unique Cam bridge- MSS. by Miss Mary Bateson. (At Press.) 

Vices and Virtues, from the unique MS. ab. 1200 a.d., ed. Dr. F. Holthausen, Part II. (At Press.) 

Anglo-Saxon Poems, from the Vercelli MS., re-edited by I. Gollancz, B.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Glosses to Latin Prayers and Hymns, edited by Dr. P. Holthausen. 

An Anglo-Saxon Martyrology, edited from the 4 MSS. by Dr. G. Herzfeld. 

Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E 7, Part IV, ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 

All the Anglo-Saxon Homilies and Lives of Saints not accessible in English editions, including those of the 

Vercelli MS. &e., edited by Prof. Napier, M. A., Ph. D. 
The Anglo-Saxon Psalms j all the MSS. in Parallel Texts, ed. Dr. H. Logeman and F. Harsley, B.A. 
Beowulf, a critical Text, &c, ed. Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 
Byrhtferth's Handboc, edited by Prof. G. Hempl. 
Early English Homilies, 13th century, ed. Rev. Dr. It. Morris. 

The Rule of St. Benet: 5 Texts, Anglo-Saxon, Early English, Caxton, &c, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 
The Seven Sages, in the Northern Dialect, from a Cotton MS., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 
The Master of the Game, a Book of Huntynge for Hen. V. when Prince of "Wales, ed. Mr. T. Austin. 
Ailred's Rule of Nuns, &c, edited from the Vernon MS., by the Rev. Canon H. R. Bramley, M.A. 
Lonelich's Merlin (verse), from the unique MS., ed. by Miss Mary Bateson and Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. 
Merlin (prose), Part IV., containing Preface, Index, and Glossary. Edited by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 
Early English Verse Lives of Saints, Standard Collection, from the Harl. MS., ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 
Supplementary Early English Lives of Saints, ed. Prof. C. Horstmann, Ph.D. 
The Early and Later Festialls, ab. 1400 and 1440 a.d., ed. Prof. C. Horstmann, Ph.D. 
Select Prose Treatises from the Vernon MS., ed. Prof. C. Horstmann, Ph.D. 
Early English Confessionals, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 
A Lapidary, from Lord Tollemache's MS., &c, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 
Early English Deeds and Documents, from unique MSS., ed. Dr. Lorenz Morsbach . 
Gilbert Banastre's Poems, and other Boccaccio englishings, edited by Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 
Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund, edited from the MSS. by Dr. Axel Erdmaun. 
William of Nassington' s Mirror of Life, from Jn. of Waldby, ed. Sidney .T. Herrtage, B.A. 
A Chronicle of England to 1327 A.D., Northern verse (42,000 lines), ab. 1400 A.D., ed. M. L. Perrin, B.A. 
More Early English "Wills from the Probate Registry at Somerset House. [Editor Wanted.) 
Early Lincoln Wills and Documents from the Bishops' Registers, See., edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 
Early Canterbury Wills, edited by William Cowper, B.A. 
Early Norwich Wills, edited by Walter Rye, Esq. 

The Cartularies of Oseney Abbey and Godstow Nunnery, englisht ab. 1450, ed. Rev. A. Clark, M.A 
The Three Kings' Sons, edited from the unique Harl. MS. 326, ab. 1500 a.d., by Dr. Leon Kellner. 
The Macro Moralities, edited from Mr. Gurney's unique MS., by Alfred W. Pollard, M.A. 
A Troy-Book, edited from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. E. Wtilflng. 
AUiterative Prophecies, edited from the MSS. by Prof. Brandl, Ph. D. 
Miscellaneous AUiterative Poems, edited from the MSS. by Dr. L. Morsbach. 
Bird and Beast Poems, a collection from MSS., edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Scire Mori, &c., from the Lichfield MS. 16, ed. Miss Rosa Elverson, LL.A., and Miss Florence Gilbert. 
Nicholas Trivet's French Chronicle, from Sir A. Acland-Hood's unique MS., ed. by Miss Mary Bateson. 
Hours of the Virgin, from the Addit. MS. 27,592 in the British Museum, ed. G. N. Currie, M.A. (At Press.) 
Tie Guileville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, edited by G. N. Currie, M.A. 
Stories for Sermons, edited from the Addit. MS. 25,719 by Dr. Wieck of Coblentz. 


Vicary's Anatomie, 1548, ed. 1577, edited by F. J. & Percy Furnivall. Part II. [At Press. 

Bp. Fisher's English Works, Pt. II., with his Life and Letters, ed. Rev. Ronald Bayne, B.A. {At Press. 

Hoccleve's Minor Poems, from the Phillipps MS., ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. [At Press. 

A Parallel-text of the 6 MSS. of the Ancren Riwle, ed. Prof. Dr. E. Kolbing. 

Trevisa's Bartholomaeus de Proprietatibus Rerum, re-edited'by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 

Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1564, 1573, 1578. Ed. A. H. and M. Bullen. Pt. II. 

The Romance of Boctus and Sidrac, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

The Romance of Clariodus, re-edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Amadas, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Degrevant, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. Luick. 

Robert of Brunne's Chronicle of England, from the Inner Temple MS., ed. by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 

Maundeville's Voiage and Travaile, re-edited from the Cotton MS. Titus C. 16, &c, by Miss M. Bateson. 

Arthour and Merlin, re-edited from the unique MS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Guy of Warwick, Copland's version, edited by Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

The Sege of Jerusalem, Text A, edited from the MSS. by Dr. F. Kopka. 

Liber Fundacionis Ecclesie Sancti Bartholomei Londoniarum : the 15th century englishing in the Cotton MS. 

Vespasian B ix, ed. Norman Moore, M.D. 
Awdelay's Poems, re-edited from the unique MS. Douce 302, by Dr. E. Wulfing. 
William of Shoreham's Works, re-edited by Professor Konrath, Ph.D. 
The Wyse Chylde and other early Treatises on Education, ed. G. Collar, B.A. 

-■.-.sis of PhuVvoTihirs. 1477 with T ~' v1 ToUemache's MS. version, ed. S.I. Butler, Esq. 

6 Original and Extra Series Boohs, 1890-2. Deguilleville's Pilgrims. 


Jan. 1891. For this year the Original-Series Texts are now ready : No.' 96, Part II of the 
Anglo-Saxon version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, re-edited by Dr. T. Miller, and No. 97, 
Part I of the Earliest English Prose Psalter, edited from its two MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 
For the Extra-Series 1891, the first Text has been long ready,— No. 59, Part III of Prof. 
Zupitza's edition of the Komance of Guy of Warwick from the Auchinleck and Cams MSS.,— 
and the second Text is nearly ready : Dr. J. Schick's edition of Lydgate's Temple of Glass, 
with a full discussion and classification of its MSS., and a chronological arrangement of all 
Lydgate's chief works, with some account of his best poem, still in MS., 'Reason and" 
Sensuality.' As Dr. Schick's book is so nearly finisht, the issue of the three others for this 
year will probably be put off till the Temple of Glass is ready, so that all the 1891 Texts may 
go out together. 

The Original Series Texts for 1892 will be chosen from Prof. C. Horstmann's edition of 
' Capgrave's Life of St. Katherine ' ; his first volume of the Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., 
of both of which the text is all printed ; and Mr. Gollancz's re-edited Exeter-Book — Anglo- 
Saxon Poems from the unique MS. in Exeter Cathedral — Part I, of which the Text, with a 
modern englishing, has been long in type. Of the two concluding Parts VI and VII of the 
Cursor Mundi, by Dr. Haenisch, Dr. Kaluza, and Dr. Hupe, the German workers' portion 
is all printed, and the Parts need only for issue short Forewords by the editor, Dr. Richard 
Morris. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker has in the press — text nearly finisht — a treatise perhaps 
more valuable for Dictionary purposes than any yet issued by the Society, an englisht Lan- 
franc's Cirurgie, about 1400 a.d., which takes up to Chaucer's death the whole class of 
surgical and medical words (besides many others of common speech) which we before had 
only from the black-letters of Queen Elizabeth's time. The Editor is collating the English 
text with its Latin ; and he shows how largely our first printed Anatomie (Vicary's) is 
borrowd from it. Some of these Texts will form the issues for 1892, 1893 and 1894. 
Members are therefore askt to send Advance Subscriptions, in 1891 for 1892 and 1893, in 
order that the 1892-3 books may be issued to them as soon as the editions are finisht. The 
Society's experience has shown that Editors must be taken when they are in the humour for 
work. All real Students and furtherers of the Society's purpose will be ready to push-on the 
issue of Texts. Those Members who care only a guinea a year (or can afford only that sum) 
for the history of our language and our nation's thought, will not be hurt by those who care 
more, getting their books in advance ; on the contrary, they will be benefited, as each suc- 
cessive year's work will then be ready for issue on New Year's Day. Members are askt to 
realise the fact that the Society has now 50 years' work on its Lists, — at its present rate of 
production, — and that there is from 100 to 200 more years' work to come after that. The 
year 2000 will not see finisht all the Texts that the Society ought to print. 

For the Extra Series of 1892, Mr. Donald's edition of the prose Romance of Melusine, 
ab. 1500 a.d. , Prof. Ingram's, of the first englishing of Thomas a Kempis's Be Imitatione 
Ohristi, ab. 1440-50, and Dr. Deibling's re-edition of The Chester Plays from the latest and 
best MS., are almost all in type. Dr. MaryN. Colvin's edition of Caxton's Godfrey of Bologne 
has several chapters and all the Introduction in type. It will therefore be necessary to ask 
Members for advance Subscriptions in order that the Books for 1892 and 1893 may be issued 
when they are ready in 1891. During 1891 the Extra Series books for 1892 are almost sure 
to be ready. 

Mr. G. N. Currie — besides editing the Hours of the Virgin now at Press — is preparing an 
edition of the 15th and 16th century Prose Versions of Guillaume de Deguilleville's Pilgrim- 
age of the Life of Man, with the French prose version by Jean Gallopes, from Mr. Henry 
Hucks Gibbs's MS., Mr. Gibbs having generously promist to pay the extra cost of printing 
the French text, and engraving one or two of the illuminations in his MS. 

Guillaume de Deguilleville, monk of the Cistercian abbey of Chaalis, in the diocese of 
Senlis, wrote his first verse Pelerinaige de V Homme in 1330-1 when he was 36. 1 Twenty-five 
(or six) years after, in 1355, he revised his poem, and issued a second version of it, and this 
is the only one that has been printed. Of the prose representative of the first version, 1330-1, 
a prose Englishing, about 1430 a.d., was edited by Mr. Aldis Wright for the Roxburghe Club 
in 1869, from MS. Ff. 5. 30 in the Cambridge University Library. Other copies of this piose 
English are in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Q. 2. 25 ; Univ. Coll. and Corpus Christi, 
Oxford 2 ; and the Laud Collection in the Bodleian, no. 740. A copy in the Northern dialect 
is MS. G. 21, in St. John's Coll., Cambridge, and this is the MS. which will be edited by Mr. 
Sidney J. Herrtage for the E. E. Text Society. The Laud MS. 740 was somewhat condenst 
and modernised, in the 17th century, into MS. Ff. 6. 30, in the Cambridge University I ib- 
rary: 3 "The Pilgrime or the Pilgrimage of Man in this World," copied by Will. Baspoole, 
whose copy "was verbatim written by Walter Parker, 1645, and from thence transcribed by 
G. G. 1649 ; and fro??i thence by W. A. 1655. ' This last copy may have been read by, or 

1 He was born about 1295. See Abbe Goujet's Bibliotkeque frangaise, Vol. IX, p. 73-4.— P. M. 

2 These 3 MSS. have not yet been collated, but are believed to be all of the same version. 
* Another MS is in the Pepys Library. 

Deguilleville. Anglo-Saxon Psalters. More Money wanted. Saints' Lives. 7 

its story reported to, Bunyan, and may have been the groundwork of his Pilgrim's Progress. 
It will be edited by Mr. Currie for the E. E. T. Soc, its text running under the earlier 
English, as in Mr. Herrtage's edition of the Gesta Eomanorum for the Society. In February 
1464, l Jean Gallopes — a clerk of Angers, afterwards chaplain to John, Duke of Bedford, 
Regent of France — turned Deguilleville's first verse Pelerinaige into a prose Pelennage de la vie 
humaine. 2 By the kindness of Mr. Hy. Hucks Gibbs, as above mentiond, Gallopes's French 
.text will be printed opposite the early prose northern Englishing in the Society's edition. 

The Second Version of Deguilleville's Pelerinaige de I' Homme, A.D. 1355 or -6, was englisht 
in verse by Lydgate in 1426. Of Lydgate's poem, the larger part is in the Cotton MS. 
Vitellius C. xiii (leaves 2-308). This MS. leaves out Chaucer's englishing of Deguilleville's 
A B or Prayer to the Virgin, of which the successive stanzas start with A, B, C, and run all 
thro' the alphabet ; and it has 2 gaps, of which most of the second can be fild up from the 
end of the other imperfect MS. Cotton, Tiberius A vii. The rest of the stopgaps must be got 
from the original French in Harleian 4399, 3 and Additional 22,937 4 and 25,594 5 in the 
British Museum. Lydgate's version will be edited in due course for the Society. 

Besides his first Pelerinaige de I'homme in its two versions, Deguilleville wrote a second, 
"de l'ame separee ducorps,"and a third, "de nostre seigneur Iesus." Of the second, aprose 
Englishing of 1413, The Pilgrimage of the Sowle (perhaps in part by Lydgate), exists in the 
Egerton MS. 615, 6 at Hatfield, Cambridge (Univ. Kk. 1. 7, Caius), Oxford (Univ. Coll. and 
Corpus), and in Caxton's edition of 1483. This version has 'somewhat of addicions ' as Caxton 
says, and some shortenings too, as the maker of both, the first translator, tells us in the MSS. 
Caxton leaves out the earlier englisher's interesting Epilog in the Egerton MS. This prose 
Englishing of the Sowle will be edited for the Society after that of the Man is finisht, and will 
have Gallopes's French opposite it, from Mr. Gibbs's MS., as his gift to the Society. Of the 
Pilgrimage of Jesus, no englishing is known. 

As to the MS. Anglo-Saxon Psalters, Dr. Hy. Sweet has edited the oldest MS., the 
Vespasian, in his Oldest English Texts for the Society, and Mr. Harsley has edited the 
latest, c. 1150, Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter. Dr. Logeman then raised the question 
of how the other MSS. should be treated ; and he was authorised to prepare a Parallel- 
Text edition of the first ten Psalms from all the MSS., to test whether the best way of 
printing them would be in one group, or in two — in each case giving parts of all the MSS. on 
one page — under their respective Roman and Gallican Latin originals. If collation proves 
that all the MSS. cannot go together on successive pages, there will be two Parallel-Texts, 
one of the A. Sax. MSS. following the Roman version, and the other, of those glossing the 
Gallican ; but every effort will be made to get the whole into one Parallel-Text. This Text 
will be an extravagance ; but as the Society has not yet committed one in Anglo-Saxon, it 
will indulge in one now. And every student will rejoice at having the whole Psalter material 
before him in the most convenient form. Dr. Logeman and Mr. Harsley will be joint editors 
of the Parallel-Text. The Early English Psalters are all independent versions, and will follow 
separately in due course. 

Through the good ofiices of Prof. Arber, some of the books for the Early-English Ex- 
aminations of the University of London will be chosen from the Society's publications, the 
Committee having undertaken to supply such books to students at a large reduction in price. 
The profits from these sales will be applied to the Society's Reprints. Five of its 1866 Texts, 
and one of its 1867, still need reproducing. Donations' for this purpose will be welcome. 
They should be paid to the Hon. Sec, Mr. "W. A. Dalziel, 67 Victoria Rd., Finsbury Park, 
London, N. 

Members are reminded that fresh Subscribers are always wanted, and that the Committee 
can at any time, on short notice, send to press an additional Thousand Pounds' worth of work. 

The Subscribers to the Original Series must be prepared for the issue of the whole of the 
Early English Lives of Saints, under the editorship of Prof. Carl Horstmann. The Society 
cannot leave out any of them, even though some are dull. The Sinners would doubtless be 
much more interesting. But in many Saints' Lives will be found interesting incidental 
details of our forefathers' social state, and all are worthful for the history of our language. 
The Lives may be lookt on as the religious romances or story-books of their period. 

The Standard Collection of Saints' Lives in the Corpus and Ashmole MSS. , the Harleian 
MS. 2277, &c. will repeat the Laud set, our No. 87, with additions, and in right order. The 
differences between the foundation MS. (the Laud 108) and its followers are so great, that, to 

1 According to Mr. Hy. Hucks Gibbs's MS. 

2 These were printed in France, late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. 

3 15th cent., containing only the Vie humaine. 

4 15th cent., containing all the 3 Pilgrimages, the 3rd being Jesus Christ's. 

5 14th cent., containing the Vie hurnaine and the 2nd Pilgrimage, de I'Ame: both incomplete. 

<> Ab. 1430, 106 leaves (leaf 1 of text wanting), with illuminations of nice little devils— red, green, tawny 
&c. — and damnd souls, fires, angels itc. 

8 Future Work. A.-S. Homilies. Outside Help. MSS. fy Reprints to he edited. 

prevent quite unwieldy collations, Prof. Horstmann decided that the Laud MS. must be printed 
alone, as the first of the Series of Saints' Lives. The Supplementary Lives from the Vernon 
and other MSS. will form one or two separate volumes. The Glossary to the whole set, the 
discussion of the sources, and of the relation of the MSS. to one another, &c, will be put 
in a final volume. 

When the Saints' Lives are complete, Trevisa's englishing of Bartholomceus de Proprieta- 
tibus Serum, the mediaeval Cyclopaedia of Science, &c, will be the Society's next big under- 
taking. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker will edit it. Prof. Napier of Oxford, wishing to have 
the whole of our MS. Anglo-Saxon in type, and accessible to students, will edit for the 
Society all the unprinted and other Anglo-Saxon Homilies which are not included in Thorpe's 
edition of iElfric's prose, 1 Dr. Morris's of the Blickling Homilies, and Prof. Skeat's of 
iElfric's Metrical Homilies. Prof. Kolbing has also undertaken for the Society's Extra Series 
a Parallel-Text of all the six MSS. of the Ancren Siwle, one of the most important foundation- 
documents of Early English. 

In case more Texts are ready at any time than can be paid for by the current year's in- 
come, they will be dated the next year, and issued in advance to such Members as will pay advance 
subscriptions. The 1886-7 delay in getting out Texts must not occur again, if it can possibly 
be avoided. The Director has copies of 2 or 3 MSS. in hand for future volunteer Editors. 

Members of the Society will learn with pleasure that its example has been followed, not 
only by the Old French Text Society which has done such admirable work under its founders 
Profs. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, but also by the Early Russian Text Society, which was 
set on foot in 1877, and has since issued many excellent editions of old MS. Chronicles &c. 

Members will also note with pleasure the annexation of large tracts of our Early English 
territory by the important German contingent under General Zupitza, Colonels Kolbing and 
Horstmann, volunteers Hausknecht, Einenkel, Haenisch, Kaluza, Hupe, Adam, Holthausen, 
&c. &c. Scaudinavia has also sent us Dr. Erdmann ; Holland, Dr. H. Logeman ; France, 
Prof. Paul Meyer — with Gaston Paris as adviser ; — Italy, Prof. Lattanzi ; while America is 
represented by Prof. Child, Dr. Mary JSToyes Colvin and Prof. Perrin. The sympathy, the ready 
help, which the Society's work has cald forth from the Continent and the United States, have 
been among the pleasantest experiences of the Society's life, a real aid and cheer amid all 
troubles and discouragements. All our Members are grateful for it, and recognise that the 
bond their work has woven between them and the lovers of language and antiquity across the 
seas is one of the most welcome results of the Society's efforts. 

Among the MSS. and old books which need copying or re-editing, are : — 

Maumetrie, from Lord Tollemache's MS. Erie of Tolous. 

The Romance of Troy. Harl. 525. Ypotis. 

Biblical MS., Corpus Cambr. 434 (ab. 1375). Sir Eglamoure. 

Purvey's Ecclesie Regimen, Cot. Titus D 1. Emare. 

Hampole's unprinted Works. The Northern Verse Psalter, 

pe Clowde of Unknowyng, from Harl. MSS. 2373, 959, Le Morte Arthur, from the unique Harl. 2252. 

Eibl. Reg. 17 C 26, &c. Sir Tristrem, from the unique Auchinleck MS. 

A Lanterne of Lijt, from Harl. MS. 2324. Sir Gowther. 

Soule-hele, from the Vernon MS. Dame Siriz, &c. 

Lydgate's unprinted Works. Orfeo (Digby, 86). 

Eoethius, a.d. 1410, &o. ; Pilgrim, 1426, &c. &c. Dialogue between the Soul and Body. 

Vegetius on the Art of War. Barlaam and Josaphat. 

Lydgate and Burgh's 'Secreta Secretorum,' from Amis and Amiloun. 

Sloane MS. 2464. Ipomedon. 

Early Treatises on Music : Descant, the Gamme, &c. Richard Coeur de Lyon. Harl. 4690. 

Skelton's englishing of Diodorus Siculus. Sir Generides, from Lord Tollemache's MS. 

The Nightingale and other Poems, from MS. Cot. The Troy-Book fragments once cald Barbour's in the 

Calig. A 2, Addit. MS. 10,036, &c. Cambr. Univ. Library and Douce MSS. 

Lyrical Poems, from the Harl. MS. 2253. Partonope of Blois, &c, Athelston. 

Penitential Psalms, by Rd. Maydenstoon, Bramp- Gower's Confessio Amantis. 

ton, &c. (Rawlinson, A. 389, &c). Poems of Charles, Duke of Orleans. 

Documents from the Registers of the Bishops of all Carols and Songs. 

Dioceses in Great Britain. The Siege of Rouen, from Harl. MSS. 2256. 753, 
Ordinances and Documents of the City of Worcester. Egerton 1995, Bodl. 3562, E. Museo 124, &c. 

Chronicles of the Brute. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem. 

T. Breus's Passion of Christ, 1422. Harl. 2338. Mulcaster's Positions, 1561, ed. T. Widgery, M.A. 

Book for Recluses, Harl. 2372. Jn. Hart's Orthographie, 1569, and Methode to read 
Lollard Theological Treatise, Harl. 2343. English, 1570. 

H. Selby's Northern Ethical Tract, Harl. 23S8, art. 20. 
Hilton's Ladder of Perfection. 

The Pounder and Director of the E. E. T. Soc. is Dr. P. J. Furnivall, 3, St. George's Sq., Primrose Hill, 
London, N.W. Its Hon. Sec. is W. A. Dalziel, Esq., 67, Victoria Road, Finsbury Park, London, N. The 
Subscription to the Society is 21s. a year for the Original Series, and 21s. for the Extra Series of re-editions. 

1 Of these, Mr. Harsley is preparing a new edition, with collations of all the MSS. Many copies of 
Thorpe's book, not issued by the iElfrie Society, are still in stock. 

Of the Vercelli Homilies, the Society has bought the copy made by Prof. G. Lattanzi. 

cdfflur ^ttjjjrliraiiona. 

1529—1553 A.J). 

iarlg (Snglislj %t%t £ a titty, 





Simon jftsjj. 




% Stapplprfra to mtr masie Soueragtte fork 

(1544 A.D.), 

<| Strpplitatinn of % jpoow Commons 

(1546 A.D.), 

Qtfjt ©rag* of <£ttgfattir 

k % pat lmrltM* 0f %\qi 

(1550-3 A.D.), 







[Beprinted 1891.] 

i wini in , 


: Tke University of N. 0< 

Cftro Scries, XIII. 



When trying to get together some evidence on the Condition of 
England in Henry VIII's and Edward VI's reigns for the Introduc- 
tion to the Ballad of Noio a Dayes (1 ah. 1520, A.D.) for my first 
volume for the Ballad Society, I -was struck hy the difficulty of find- 
ing out what tracts and books on the subject there were, and how 
few of them could be easily got at, much less bought at any reason- 
able price. But when I did get hold of some of them, I found them 
of such interest and value that I resolved to reprint such of them as 
I could, and one of the earliest ' is now before the reader. 

The second in date, the celebrated Siqiplicacyon for the Beggers, 
is however the first in importance, from its influence on Henry VIII 
and the Reformation, and its calling forth an answer from Sir Thomas 
More, his Sujoplyoacyon of Soulys (in Purgatory), which gave rise to 
his controversy with Tyndal. I therefore give Foxe's full account of 
the whole matter from the third edition of his Acts and Monuments, 
a.d. 157G, pp. 986—991. 

1 Roy's Rede me and be not wroth is the earliest, and was in print by 
1527 or -8, says Mr Arber. Mr Hazlitt dates Roy, ' Wormes 1526' : but query. 
It is not in Foxe's list of Forbidden Books in 1526 (p. xii., below), though it is 
in that of 1531, printed in my Political, Religious, and Love Poems, 1866, 
p. 34 : '7. The burying of the masse in English yn ryme.' Of Roy's other 
book in that list, ' 13. A Boke made by freer Roye ayenst the sevyn sacra- 
mentis,' I know of no copy. Bohn's edition of Lowndes says of the ' Rede me 
and be not wroth ', " in tbe Roxburghe Sale Catalogue this piece stands entitled 
'The Buryinge of the Mass, a Satire'." Can Foxe's 'M. Roo' on the next 
page be William Roy 1 

supplication. b 



m. Simon Fyshe, Before the tyme of M. Bilney, and the fall of the 

author of the Cardinal!, I should haue placed the story of Symora 

booke, called the ' *1 J m J 

supplication of .bish, with the booke called "the Supplication of 
Beggars. Beggars," declaryng how and by what meanes it came 

to the kynges hand, and what effect therof followed after, in the 
reformation of many thynges, especially of the Clergy. But the 
missyng of a few yeares in this matter, breaketh no great square in 
our story, though it be now entred here [under the year 1531] which 
should haue come in sixe yeares before. The maner and circum- 
staunce of the matter is this : 

After that the light of the Gospel, workyng mightely in Germanie, 
began to spread his beames here also in England, great styrre and 
alteration folowed in the harts of many : so that colored hypocrisie, 
and false doctrine, and painted holynes, began to be espyed more and 
more by the readyng of Gods word. The authoritie of the Bishop of 
Rome, and the glory of his Cardinals, was not so high, but such as 
had fresh wittes sparcled with Gods grace, began to espy Christ from 
Antichrist, that is, true sinceritie from counterfait religion. In the 
number of whom, was the sayd M. Symon Fish, a Gentleman of 
Grayes Inne. It happened the first yeare that this Gentleman came 
to London to dwell, which was about the yeare of our Lord .1525. 
that there was a certaine play or interlude made by one M. Roo of 
the same Inne, Gentlema?e, in which play partly was matter agaynst 
Ex certa relatione, the Cardinal Wolsey. And where none durst take 
nio p q ropri*ip n 8ius v P on tnem to play that part, whiche touched the 
conmgis. sayd Cardinall, this foresayd M. Fish tooke vpon him 

to do it ; wherupon great displeasure ensued agaynst him, vpon the 
Cardinals part : In so much as he, beyng pursued by the sayd 
Cardinall, the same night that this Tragedie was playd, was com- 
pelled of force to voyde his owne house, & so fled ouer the Sea vnto 
Tyndall : vpon occasion wherof, the next yeare folowyng this booke 
was made (beyng about the yeare .1527.) and so not long after, in the 
yeare (as I suppose) 1528. was sent ouer to the Lady Anne Bulleyne, 
who then lay at a place not farre from the Court. "Which booke, her 
brother seyng in her hand, tooke it and read it, & gaue it her agayne, 
willyng her earnestly to giue it to the kyng, which thyng she so dyd. 
The booke of the This was (as I gather) about the yeare of our Lord 

beggarTgeuen to -l 528 - The k yng> after he had receaued the booke, de- 
the kyng. maunded of her, who made it. Wherunto she aunswered 

and sayd, a certaine subiect of his, one Fish, who was fled out of the 
Realme for feare of the Cardinall. After the kyng had kept the 
booke in his bosome iij. or iiij. dayes, as is credibly reported, such 
knowledge was giuen by the kynges seruantes to the wife of y e sayd 
Symoft Fishe, y l she might boldly send for her husband, without all 


perill or daunger. Whereupon, she thereby- beyng incouraged, came 
first, and made sute to the kyng for the safe returne of her husband. 
Who, vndersta«dyng whose wife she was, shewed a maruelous gentle 
and chearefull countenaunce towardes her, askyng where her husband 
Avas. She auwswered, if it like your grace, not farre of. Then sayth 
he, fetch him, and he shall come and go safe without perill, and no 
man shal do him harme ; saying moreouer that hee had much wrong 
that hee was from her so long : who had bene absent now the space 
of two yeares and a halfe. In the whiche meane tyme, the Cardinall 
was deposed, as is aforeshewed, and M. More set in his place of the 

Thus Fishes wife, beyng emboldened by the kynges m. Fishe brought, 
wordes, went immediatly to her husband beyng lately t^neTonh"'"" 
come ouer, and lying priuely within a myle of the k y n s- 
Court, and brought him to the kyng : which appeareth to be about 
the yeare of our Lord .1530. . When the kyng saw him, and vnder- 
stode he was the authour of the booke, he came and embraced him 
with louing countenaunce ; who after long talke, for the space of iij. 
or iiij. houres, as they were ridyng together on huntyng, at length 
dimitted him and bad him take home his wife, for she had taken 
great paynes for him. Who aunswered the kyng agayne and sayd, 
he durst not so do, for feare of Syr Thomas More, then Chauncellour, 
& Stoksley, then Byshop, of London. This seemeth to be about the 
yeare of our Lord .1530. 

The kyng, takyng his signet of his finger, willed hym m. Fishe rescued 
to haue him recommended to the Lord Chauncellour, by the kyng - 
chargyng him not to bee so hardy to worke him any harme. M. Fishe, 
receiuyng the kynges signet, went and declared hys message to the 
Lord Chauncellour, who tooke it as sufficient for his owne discharge, 
but he asked him if he had any thyng for the discharge of his wife ; 
for she a litle before had by chaunce displeased the Friers, for not 
sufferyng them to say their Gospels in Latine in her house, as they 
did in others, vnlesse they would say it in English. Whereupon the 
Lord Chauncellour, though he had discharged the man, _ Tho More 
yet leanyng not his grudge towardes the wife, the next persecuted m. 
mornyng sent his man for her to appeare before hym : 
who, had it not bene for her young daughter, which then lay sicke 
of the plague, had bene lyke to come to much trouble. Of the 
which plague her husband, the sayd M. Fish, deceasing M . Fishe dyeth 
within halfe a yeare, she afterward maryed to one M. of the P la § ue - 
lames Baynham, Syr Alexander Baynhams sonne, a worshypfid 
knight of Glostershyre. The which foresaid M. lames Baynham, 
not long after was burned, as incontinently after, in the processe of 
this story, shall appeare. 

And thus much concernyng Symon Fishe, the author The summe of 
of the booke of beggars, who also translated a booke transktedby m. 
called the Summe of the Scripture, out of the Dutch. Fish e. 


Now commeth an otlier note of one Edmund Moddys, tlie kynges 
footeman, touchyng the same matter. 

m. Moddys the This M. Moddys beyng with the kyng in talke of 

kynges fooieman. religion, and of the new bookes that were come from 
beyond the seas, sayde, if it might please hys grace to pardon him, & 
such as he would bryng to his grace, hee should see such a booke as 
was maruell to heare of. The kyng demaunded what they were. 
The booke of He sayd, two of your Marchauntes, George Elyot & 
?o e tfe r ky^ r gby ht George Robinson. The kyng poynted a tyme to speake 
George Kiyot, & with them. When they came afore his presence in a 
ewge o ynson. p rlU y e c i ose t } ne demaunded what they had to saye, or 
to shew him. One of them said y* there was a boke come to their 
hamls, which they had there to shew his grace. When he saw it, 
hee demaunded if any of them could read it. Yea, sayd George Elyot, 
if it please your grace to heare it. I thought so, sayd the kyng, for 
if neede were, thou canst say it without booke. 

The kynges The whole booke beyng read out, the kyng made 

ti^ookeoT 11 a l° n g pause, and then sayd, if a man should pull 
beggars. downe an old stone wall and begyn at the lower part, 

the vpper part thereof might chaunce to fall vpon his head : and 
then he tooke the booke, and put it into his deske, and commaunded 
them vppon their allegiance, that they should not tell to any man, 
that he had sene the booke. &c. The Copie of the foresayd booke, 
intituled of the Beggars, here ensueth. 

[The Boke of Beggars follows here in print.] 

The supplication Agaynst this booke of the Beggers aboue prefixed, 

Purgator U y, e m°ade beyng written in the tyme of the Cardinal!, another con- 
Mofe^agaynst the trary booke or supplication, was deuised and written 
booke of beggars, shortly upow the same by one sir Thomas More, knight, 
Chauncellour of the Duchy of Lancaster, vncler the name and title 
of the poore sely soules pewlyng out of Purgatory. In the which 
booke, after that the sayd M. More, writer therof, had first deuided 
the whole world into foure partes, that is, into heauen, hell, middle 
earth, and Purgatory : then he maketh the dead mens soules, by a 
Rhetoricall Prosopopoea, to speake out of Purgatory pynfolde, some- 
tymes lamentably complayning, sometymes pleasauntly dalying and 
scoffing, at the authour of the Beggers booke, sometymes scoldyng 
and rayling at hym, callyng hym foole, witlesse, frantike, an asse, a 
goose, a madde dogge, an hereticke, and all that naught is. And 
no meruel, if these sely soules of Purgatory seeme so furnish & testy. 
Eor heate (ye know) is testie, & soone inflameth choler; but yet 
those Purgatory soules must take good hede how they call a man a 
foole and heretike so often. For if the sentence of the Gospell doth 
Math. 5. pronounce them guiltie of hell fire, which say, fatue, 
foole : it may be douted lest those poore sely melancholy soules of 


Purgatory, calling this man foole so oft as they haue done, do hryng 
themselues therby out of Purgatory fire, to the fire of hel, by y e iust 
sentence of the gospell : so that neyther the v. woundes of S. 
Fraunces, nor all the merites of S. Dominicke, nor yet of all the 
Friers, can release them, poore wretches. But yet for so much as I do 
not, nor cannot tliincke, that those departed soules, eyther would so 
farre ouershoote themselues if they were in Purgatory, or els that 
there is any such fourth place of Purgatory at all (vnlesse it be in 
M. Mores Vtopia) as Maister Mores Poeticall vayne doth . 
imagine. I cease therfore to burden the soules departed, say, Nusquam, 
and lay all the wyte in maister More, the authour and no p ace- 
contriuer of this Poeticall booke, for not kepyng Decorum Personca, 
as a perfect Poet should haue done. They that geue preceptes of 
Arte, do note thys in all Poeticall fictions, as a speciall . „ « 

' . » '. r . A Poete sayth 

obseruation, to foresee and expresse what is conuenient Horace, Reddcre 
for euery person, accordyng to hys degree and condition, awSLiMa 
to speake and vtter. Wherefore if it be true that cuiqac 
maister More sayeth in the sequele of hys booke, that grace and 
charitie increaseth in them that lye in the paynes of Purgatory, then 
is it not agreeable, that such soules, lying so long in Purgatory, 
should so soone forgette their charitie, and fall a rayling in their 
supplication so fumishly, both agaynst this man, with such oppro- 
brious and vnfittyng termes, and also against Iohn Badby, Richard 
Howndon, Iohn Goose, Lord Cobham and other Martirs of the Lord 
burned for hys worde : also agaynst Luther, "William Tindall, 
Richard Hunne and other mo, falsly belying the doctrine by them 
taught and defended : which is not lyke that such charitable soules 
of Purgatory would euer doe ; neyther were it conuenient for them 
in that case, which in dede though their doctrine were false, should 
redound to the more encrease of their payne. Agayne^ where the B. 
of Rochester defineth the Angels to be ministers to Purgatory soules, 
some wyll thinke peraduenture maister More to haue missed some 
part of his Decorum in makyng the euill spirite of the authour and 
the deuill to be messenger betwene middle earth and Purgatory, in 
bringing tidinges to the prisoned soules, both of the booke, and of 
the name of the maker. 

Now, as touchyng the maner how this deuill came M _ Mores 
into Purgatory, laughyng, grynnyng, and gnashyng his Antickes - 
teeth, in sothe it maketh me to laugh, to see y e mery Antiques of M. 
More. Belike there this was some mery deuil, or els had eaten with 
his teeth some Nasturtium before : which comming into Satan 
Purgatory to shew the name of this man, could not nasturcmtur - 
tell hys tale without laughing. But this was (sayth he) an enmious 
& an enuious laughing, ioyned with grynnyng and gnashyng of teeth. 
And immediatly vpore the same, was contriued this scoffing and 
raylyng supplication of the pewlyng soules of Purgatory, as hee hym 
selfe doth terme them. So then here was enmying, enuying, laugh- 


ing, grinning, gnashyng of teeth, pewlyng, scoffing, rayling, and 
begging, and altogether to make a very blacke Sancttts in Purgatory. 
a biacke Santus ^ n deede we read in Scripture, that there shall bee 
hi purgatory. wepyng and gnashyng of teeth in hell, where the soules 
& bodyes of men shall be tormented. But who woulde euer haue 
thought before, that the euill aungell of this man that made the 
booke of Beggers, beyng a spirituall and no corporall substance, had 
teeth to gnashe, & a mouthe to grynne] But where then stode M. 
More, I meruell al this meane while, to see the deuill laugh with his 
mouth so wyde, y* the soules of Purgatory might see all hys teeth ? 
Belyke this was in Vtopia, where M. Mores Purgatorye is founded. 
But because M. Moore is hence departed, I will leaue hym with his 
mery Antiques. And as touchy ng hys booke of Purgatory, whiche' 
The aunswere of he hath lefte behyiide, because Iohn Frith hath learnedly 
m. h Mores agamst and effectuously ouerthrowne the same, I will therfore 
purgatory. referre the reader to hym, while I repayre agayne (the 

Lord willyng) to the historye. 

After that the Clergye of England, and especially the Cardinall, 
vnderstode these bookes of the Beggars supplication aforesayd, to be 
strawne abroade in the streetes of London, and also before the kyng, 
the sayd Cardinall caused not onely his seruauntes diligently to 
attend to gather them vp, that they should not come into the kynges 
handes, but also, when he vnderstode that the kyng had receaued one 
or two of them, he came vnto the kynges Maiesty saying : If it shall 
please your grace, here are diuers seditious persons which haue 
scattered abroad books conteyning manifest errours and herisies ; 
desiryng his grace to beware of them. Wherupon the kyng, puttyng 
his hand in his bosome, tooke out one of the bookes, and deliuered it 
vnto the Cardinall. Then the Cardinall, together with the Byshops, 
consulted how they might prouide a spedy remedy for this mischief, 
Prouision b the & wherupon determined to geue out a Commision to for- 
By shops, agaynst bid the readyng of all Englishe bookes, and namely this 
booke of Beggars, and the new Testament of Tyndals 
translation : which was done out of hand by Cuthbert Tonstall, 
Byshop of London, who sent out his prohibition vnto his Arch- 
deacons, with all spede, for the forbiddyng of that booke and diuers 
other more ; the tenor of whiche prohibition here foloweth. 

IT A prohibition sent out by Cuthbert Tonstall, 

Bishop of London, to the Archdeacons of his dio- 

cesse, for the callyng in of the new Testaments 

translated into English, with diuers 

other bokes : the Cataloge wher- 

of hereafter ensueth. 

a prohibits "pVthbert by the permission of God, Byshop of 
against English \J London, vnto our welbeloued in Christ, the Arch- 
deacon of London, or to hys Officiall, health, grace, and 


benediction. By the duety of our pastorall office, we are bounde 
diligently Avith all our power, to foresee, prouide for, roote out, and 
put away, all those thynges which seerne to tend to the peril & 
daunger of our subiectes, and specially the destruction of their soules. 
Wherefore, we, hauyng vnderstandyng by the report of diuers credible 
persons, and also by the euident apparaunce of the matter, that 
many children of iniquitie, maintayners of Luthers sect, blynded 
through extreme wickednes, wandryng from the way of truth and the 
Catholicke fayth, craftely haue translated the new Testament into 
our English tongue, entermedlyng therwith many hereticall Articles 
& erroneous opinions, pernicious and offensiue, seducyng the simple 
people, attemptyng by their wicked and peruerse interpretations, to 
prophanate the maiestye of the Scripture, which hetherto hath re- 
mained vndefiled, & craftely to abuse the most holy worde of God, 
and the true sence of the same ; of the which translation there are 
many bookes imprinted, some with gloses and some without, con- 
tayning in the English tongue that pestiferous and most pernicious 
poyson dispersed throughout all our diocesse of London in great 
number : which truly, without it be spedely foreseene, wythout doubt, 
wyll contaminate and infect the flock committed vnto us, with most 
deadly poyson and heresie, to the grieuous peril and danger of the 
soules committed to our charge, and the offence of gods diuine 
maiesty. Wherfore we, Cuthbert the bishop aforesayd, greuously 
sorowyng for the premisses, willyng to withstand the craft and 
subtletie of the auncient enemy and hys ministers, which seeke the 
destruction of my flock, and with a diligewt care, to take hede vnto 
the flock committed to my charge, desiring to prouide spedy remedies 
for the premisses, do charge you ioyntly and seuerally, & by vertue 
of your obedience, straightly enioyne and commaunde you, that by 
our authority you warne or cause to be warned all & singular, aswel 
exempt as not exempt, dwelling within your Archdeaconries, that 
within .xxx. dayes space, wherof .x. dayes shalhe for the first, .x. for 
the second, & .x. for the third and peremptory terme, vnder paine of 
excommunication, and incurring the suspicion of herisie, they do 
bryng in, and really deliuer vnto our vicare generall, all & singular 
such bookes as conteyne the translation of the new Testameut in the 
Englishe tongue ; and that you doe certifie vs, or our sayd Coru- 
missarye, within ij. monethes after the day of the date of these 
presentes, duely, personally, or by your letters, together with these 
presentes, vnder your seales, what you haue done in the premisses, 
vnder payne of contempt, geuen vnder our seale the .xxiij. of 
October, in the v. yere of our consecration .an. 1526." 

IT The lyke Commission in lyke maner and forme, was sent to the 
three other Archdeacons of Middlesexe, Essex, and Colchester, for 
the execution of the same matter, vnder the Byshops seale. 



demned'and THe supplication of beggers. (2)1 

forbidden. JL The reuelation of Antichrist, of Luther, (3) 

The new Testament of Tindall. (22) 

The wicked Mammon. (23) 

The obedience of a Christen man. (24) 

An introduction to Paules Epistle to the Eomanes. (22) 

A Dialogue betwixt the father and the sonne. (1) 

Oeconomicse Christianse. (6) 

Vnio dissidentium. 

Pias precationes. (5) 

Captiuitas Babilonica. 

Ioannes Hus in Oseam. 

Zwinglius in Catabaptistas. 

De pueris instituendis. 

Brentius de administranda Eepublica. 

Luther ad Galatas. 

De libertate Christiana. 

Luthers exposition vpon the Pater noster. 

The editor of the reprint of the Supplicacyon in 1845. refers also 
to Strype's Memorials, i. 165, and says that Wilkins (Concilia, 3. 706) 
gives us tills edict or injunction [of Tonstall's, above] issued by the 
authority also of Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury. Again, in the 
year 1530, a public instrument agreed upon, says "Wilkins (3. 728), 
in an Assembly of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of 
Durham and others, by order of King Henry the Eighth, was put 
forth " containing divers heretical and erroneous opinions selected 
from various books, which had been considered and condemned." 
One of those is from the Supplication, and is the passage [on Pur- 
gatory] beginning, " There be many men of great literature, &c." 
[p. 10, below, 1. 21], and ending, "in all holy Scripture." And, 
once more, in the same year (Wilkins, iii. 737), or, with less probabil- 
ity, in 1529 (Strype, i. 165), a Eoyal Proclamation was published 
" for resisting and withstanding of most damnable heresies sown 

1 These numbers refer to those in the 'List of Books proscribed in 1531 ' 
printed in my edition of Political, Religions, and Love Poems, for the Society, 
1866, p. 34-5, in which nine hooks in Tonstall's 1526 list are repeated. (The 
Pre of No. 5 there should he Pie.') 


•within this realm hy the disciples of Luther, and other heretics, per- 
verters of Christ's religion ; " at the end of which, with some other 
books, "the Supplication of Beggars" is strictly prohibited. Mr 
Arher tells me that Foxe's list of books on the opposite page is 
a spurious one, because it contains the names of several books 
not publisht till after 1526, — among them our Supplication of 
Beggars, which can be proved to have been publisht late in 1528 
or early in 1529 l ; — that the Unio dissidentium is by H. Budius ; 
and that Pice Precationes, Captivitas Babylonica, and De Libertate 
Christiana, are Luther's. 

Wood's account of Fish, in his Athence Osconienses, is taken from 
Foxe, but he notes also what Sir T. More, in his 'Apology' (Worlcs, 
&c, ed. Bastell, 1577, p. 881), says of Fish: that he "had good 
zele, ye wote well, whan he made the Supplicacion of beggers. But 
God gaue hym suche grace afterwarde, that he was sory for that good 
zeale, and repented hymselfe, and came into the church agayne ; and 
forsoke and forsware all the whole hill of those heresyes, out of 
which the fountain of that same good zeale spra^ge." 

" In More's Supplication of Souls, written to counteract the 
effect of Mr Simon Fish's Supplication of Beggars, More continually 
calls Fish 'this beggar's proctor,' and represents one of the souls in 
purgatory as saying of him, ' He is named and boasted among us by 
the evil angel of his, our and your ghostly enemy, the devil ; which, 
as soon as he had set him at work with that pernicious book, ceased 
not to come hither, and boast it among us : but with his enmious 
and envious laughter, gnashing the teeth and grinning, he told us 
that his people \i. e. the reformers] had, by the advice and counsel of 
him, [i. e. the devil] and of some heretics almost as evil as he, made 
such a book for beggars, that it should make us beg long ere we got 
aught.' — More's ' Works, 7 pp. 288-9. The Supplication of Beggars 
.... was originally transmitted to England from the Continent, 
whither Fish had fled ; so that More would suppose that Tyndale 
and Joye were privy to its composition." — Parker Soc.'s Tyndah's 
1 Works,' iii. 268, note. In the Parker Society's Tyndale's Works, 
ii. 335, Tyndale, in his tract on The Practice of Prelates, again makes 
mention of Fish's Supplication, " which secretary (Thomas More) yet 
must first deserve it with writing against Martin [Luther], and 

1 See Mr Arber's Preface to his facsimile reproduction (1871) of Tyn- 
dale and Eoy's first printed English New Testament, Cologne-Worms 1 1525, 


against The Obedience and Mammon, and become the proctor of 
purgatory, to write against The Supplication of beggars." 

Bishop Tanner ascribes to Fish 'The boke of merchants 1 rightly 
necessary to all folkes, newly made by the lord Pontapole,' and 
' The spiritual nosegay.' 

That he translated from the Dutch the Sum of the Scriptures 
Foxe has already told us in the last lines of page vii above. 

Fish was living at his house at Whitefriars in 1527-8. See 
Necton's Confession. Strype, I. ii. 63, ed. 1822. (Arber.) 

No new facts about Fish are given in any modern biographical 
dictionaries that Mr W. M. Wood has searched for me. Foxe, as 
Ave have seen (p. vii, above, 1. 9 from foot), says that Fish died of the 
plague about 1530 ; and the way that Sir Thomas More speaks of him 
seems to assume that he died before 1533. 

The reader will notice how the Supplication of the Poore Com- 
mons, 1546, refers, on p. 61-2 below, to the Supplicacyon of Beggers, 

and its influence on Henry VIII. 

F. J. F. 

The second and third Supplications, printed from the original 
black-letter editions now in the British Museum, 2 are anonymous. 
The dates of their publication are 1544 for the second, and 1546 for 
the third. It is useless to guess who was the author (I believe the two 
proceed from one pen), but I have not much hesitation in suggesting 
Henry Brinklow (" Boderyck Mors "), who was busy at this time. 
Brinklow's two tracts 3 will as soon as practicable be included in 
this series, and then our readers will be able to judge for themselves. 
The same vehement language, and unqualified abuse of the clergy 
and all who were not of his way of thinking, will be observed 
throughout. The references to certain topics of the day cannot be 

1 Lond. Jugge, 1547, 12mo. — Lowndes. 

2 Mr B. Brock read the proofs with the originals. 

3 ' The Complaynt of Roderyck Mors . . . for the redresse of certen wicked 
lawes, euel customs, and cruel decreys, 1536 ' ; and ' The Lamentacyon of a 
Christen Agaynst the Cytye of London, for some certayne great vyces vsed 
therin, 1545.' 


reckoned on to weigh much with regard to the questi m of author- 
ship in a case like this, else we might direct attention to several such 
in this Preface. Three must suffice : 

The Lamentacyon of a Christen. 

And I thinke within fewe 
years they will (wythout thy 
greate mercy) call vpon Thomas 
Wolsey late Cardinall, & vpon 
the vnholy (I shulde saye) holy 
Mayde of Kent. 1. 4. 

Accord yng to there office they 
harked vppon you to loke vppon 
the poore, so that then some re- 
lefe they had ; hut now, alasse, 
ye he colde, yea euen those whiche 
saye they be the favorers of the 
Gospell. 1. 9, hk. 

London beyng one of the 
flowers of the worlde, as touch- 
inge worldlye riches, hath so 
manye, yea innumerable of poore 
people forced to go from dore to 
dore, and to syt openly in the 
stretes. a beggynge, and many 
.... lye in their howses .... 
and dye for lacke of ayde of the 
riche. 1. 9. 

Ye abhorre the remedy or- 
dayned of God [marriage], and 
mayntayne the remedy of Sathan. 
1. 22, b'k. 

A Supplication of the Commons. 

Now must we beleue that 

they not erre though 

they were baudes and fornicators 
with the holy whore of Kent. p. 

Although the sturdy beggers 
gat all the deuotioB of the good 
charitable people from them, yet 
had the pore impotent creatures 
sone relefe of theyr scrappes, 
where as nowe they haue nothyng. 
Thew had they hospitals, and 
almeshouses to be lodged in, but 
nowe they lye and starue in the 
stretes. Then was their number 
great, but now much greater, p. 

Hordome is more estemed 
then wedlocke . . . amongest a 
great numbre of lycensious per- 
sons, p. 82. 

These are not worth much, but they may serve as a hint to those 
who care to go further in this direction. 

The subjects embraced by the second and third Supplications are 
such as to justify their being placed in the same volume as Fish's more 
famous tract. 1 That gained its celebrity as much from its early appear- 
ance in the great struggle, and the notice taken of it by the king, as 
by its own intrinsic merits. More than this, Foxe embalmed it in his 

1 Whoa the Sup plication of the Poore Commons first appeared, it hore on 
its title page "^[ Whereunto is added the Supplication of Beggers." This is 
now omitted, as the Supplication of Beggars contained in the present volume is 
printed from a copy of the original black-letter edition in the British Museum. 


pages, so that while the Supplication to the King and the Supplica- 
tion of the Commons have not "been reprinted for more than 300 
years, and are unknown except to a few, the Suprplication of the 
Beggers has been reproduced as often as Foxe's own immortal 

The ignorance and immorality of the clergy are commented upon 
in severe terms. They, as usual, are charged with being the authors 
of every crime either by the suppression of the Bihle, or by their 
false teaching. Their want of faith and neglect of preaching are said 
to be the cause of insurrections, commotions, popish blindness, 
idolatry, hypocrisy. It is said that many of the Abbots of the sup- 
pressed monasteries were admitted to have the cure of souls to the 
increase of all ignorance and to the damnation of those committed to 
their care. Of course. Having turned out these men, how could 
the virtuous patriots cf the day do less than persecute them to the 
death 1 They had voluntarily or involuntarily resigned their livings 
into the hands of the Eoyal Defender of the Faith, and were willing 
to conform to the new order of things ; but this was not enough. It 
was held that no good thing could come out of the Church as it ex- 
isted a few years before, and so these men must submit to every 
indignity and be taxed with every crime. It was even considered 
dangerous to admit a man to the ministry who had studied the 
decrees and laws of the Church of Rome (p. 46). 

But Church matters are not the only ones which gain attention. 
We hear of the extravagance which prevailed in fashions — now the 
French, now the Spanish, then the Italian, and then the Milan (p. 
52), till many were brought to poverty by the foolish fancies and 
vain pride of men and women. The crimes of the rich make the 
writer apply Hosea's words to his own country — " There is no truth, 
no mercy, no knowledge of God in earth ; cursing, lying, murder, 
theft, adultery, hath broken in " — and yet, notwithstanding all this, 
" doo owre shepherdes holde theyr peace." 

The miserable poverty of the people, who expected great things 
from the expulsion of the monks, is clearly expressed. Under the 
old order of things there was some relief (p. 79), but under the new, 
instead of the monk there was the " sturdy extortioner." The people 


could get no farm, not even a cottage, Rents were raised, abbey 
lands bought up, and the old leases declared to be void. Altogether 
the picture is anything but a cheering one, and makes us curious to 
know in what part of England " free fare and free lodging, Avith 
bread, beef, and beer," were to be had, and no questions asked. l 

The last tract in this volume was copied from one then in the 
Lambeth Library, but as that was mislaid when we went to press, our 
text has been made to correspond 2 with the copy of another edition 
in the Cambridge University Library. The date 3 of this "Sheep- 
tract" must be 1550-3 a.d. ; but the name of its author is unknown. 
It, too, is in the form of a petition or supplication, which seems to 
have been a favourite mode of exposing the grievances under which 
the people groaned. A noteworthy circumstance in connection 
with this tract is that the clergy are not even mentioned ! 
It deals with rural troubles only. In cities men saw and perhaps 
envied the rich ; in large centres of population also, just as in our 
own day, the clergy were the especial objects of the attacks of " re- 
formers ; " but this writer, whose style is far less effective than that 
of the Supplications, confines himself solely to the misfortunes which 
resulted from excessive pasture /farming. His references to Hbrth- 
amptonshire, Buckinghamshire, and Oxfordshire, lead us to believe 
that his lot was probably cast in one of these counties. The com- 
plaint is made in very homely language and manner, but they give to 
it an air of truthfulness. 

The calculations as to the losses sustained by the country are very 
interesting. A single plow, it seems, was calculated to keep six 
persons and leave thirty quarters of grain for sale annually. 

1 For further information on the subjects of these Supplications the reader 
is referred to the Introduction to Ballads from MSS, vol. i. by Mr F. J. Fur- 
nivall, and to the Preface to England wader Henri/ VIII., a Dialogue, &c, 
by Mr J. M. Cowper. 

2 Mr Denis Hall of the Camb. Univ. Library collated the proofs with the 

3 Hugh Singleton's print of The vocaeyon of Joharx Bale is dated 1553, and 
he died between July 1592 and 1593. Herbert gives the date of Singleton';: 
ed. of Fox's Instruction of Christen Fayth as 1550. (Dibdin's Ames, iv. 290.) 
The copy of the Sheep-Tract mentioned in Ames as among the Harleian 
pamphlets is not now in the British Museum. It was the same edition as the 
missing Lambeth copy, having an e in onely and housholde in the title. — F. 


Put into figures, the first calculation (p. 98) will stand thus : — 

40 plows decayed in each county : 

1 plow = 6 persons .". 40 plows = 240 persons. 

In addition each plow yielded 30 qrs. corn. .\ 40 
plows = 1 200 qrs. Allowing 4 qrs. to each person, 
this shows a further loss of 300 „ 

Total in each county 540 „ 

But if there be 80 plows less in each of these shires, " as we do 
think " (p. 99), this number will be doubled, and in each county 
1080 persons are deprived of their means of support. 1 In the 
writer's own touching language we may say, " Now these persons 
had need to have living : whither shall they go 1 into Northampton- 
shire ? And there is also the living of an equal number of persons 
lost. Whither shall then they go 1 Forth from shire to shire, and 
to be scattered thus abroad, within the King's Majesty's Realm 
where it shall please Almighty God ; and for lack of masters, by 
compulsion driven, some of them to beg, and some to steal " (p. 98). 

These Reformation Tracts are submitted to the careful attention 

of all who wish to study this period of our history, in the firm belief 

that the only way in which Englishmen can form a correct estimate 

of the wonderful change the country then went through, the causes 

which led to it, and the means by which it was brought about, is by 

placing in their hands all the contemporary documents which are 

within our reach. 

J. M. Cowper. 

1 The calculation on p. 101 suggests a condition of things too frightful for 
belief : 

1 Plow kept 6 persons 

besides producing corn sufficient for 7\ „ 

50,000 plows X 13i = 675,000 „ 

thrown upon the country ; which, supposing the population to have been 
5,000,000, would be one-eighth of the whole population, and reveals a state 
of things worse than that which exists at the present day, when every twenti- 
eth person receives parish relief, exclusive of the ;< beggars " who swarm on 
our highways, tramping from Union to Union because they can't sleep in the 
same " house ' ' two nights together. 


Simon jftslj. 






souereygne lorde. 

Ost lamentably compleyneth theyre wofull mysery xiie Kind's 

, i • i T -t -i j ,i beadsmen, though 

vnto youre highnes, youre poore daily bedemew, tbe , re> maimeil) 

and blind, find 
not half enough 
alms to sustain 
them ; 

wretched hidous inonstres (on whome scarcely for 
horror any yie dare loke,) the foule, vnhappy sorte of 
lepres, and other sore people, nedy, impotent, blinde, 
lame, and sike, that live onely by almesse, howe that 
theyre nombre is daily so sore encreased, that all the 
almesse of all the weldisposed people of this youre realme 
is not halfe ynough for to susteine theim, but that for 
verey constreint they die for hunger. And this most and this by 

. reason that 

pestilent mischief is comen vppon youre saide poore others who are 
beedmere, by the reason and x there is, yn the tymes of Vfor that] 
youre noble predecessours passed, craftily crept ynto strong and able 

J X X J L J ) |ave cl -p],t 111, 

this your realme an other sort (not of impotent, but) " ,ime,ims enough 

of strong, puissaunt, and counterfeit holy, and ydell, kingdom. 

beggers and vacabundes, whiche, syns the tyme of 

theyre first entre by all the craft and wilinesse of Satan, 

are nowe encreased vnder your sight, not onely into a 

great no?nbre, but also ynto a kingdome. These are These are no 

shepherds, but 

(not the herdes, but the rauinous wolues going in wolves, that is, 

Bishops, Abbots, 

herdes clothing, deuouring the fiocke,) the Bisshoppes, &c., 

Abbottes, Priours, Deacons, Archedeacons, Sufiraganes, 

Prestes, Monkes, Chanons, Freres, Pardoners and 

Somners. And who is abill to no»tbre this idell, 
supplication. 1 


who work not, 
but have the 
third of the land 
in their hands ; 

with the tithe of 
corn and wool, 

and of every 
servant's wages, 

as well as the 
eggs, or else she 
has no Easter 

Then, they gain 
much by 
probates, private 
tithes and 

for which dead 
men's friends 
must pay ; and 
from confessions 
(which they 
divulge), from 
cursing and 

Then again, how 
great is the 
number of the 
begging Friars. 

In England are 
52,000 parish 
churches, 10 
households in 
each parisli ; 

from each 
household the 

rauinous sort, whiclie (setting all laboure a side) haue 
begged so importunatly that they haue gotten ynto 
theyre hondes more then the therd part of all youre 
Realme. The goodliest lordshippes, maners, londes, 
and territories, are theyrs. Besides this, they haue the 
tenth part of all the corne, medowe, pasture, grasse, 
wolle, coltes, calues, larnbes, pigges, gese, and chikens. 
Ouer and bisides, the tenth part of euery seruauntes 
wages, the tenth part of the wolle, milke, hony, waxe, 
chese, and butter. Ye, and they loke so narowly vppon 
theyre proufittes, that the poore wyues must be count- 
able to theym of euery tenth eg, or elles she gettith not 
her ryghtes at ester, shalbe taken as an heTetike. hereto 
haue they theire foure offering daies. whate money pull 
they yn by probates of testamentes, priuy tithes, and 
by mennes offeringes to theyre pilgremages, and at 
theyre first masses? Euery man and childe that is 
buried, must pay sumwhat for masses and diriges to be 
song for him, or elles they will accuse the dedes frendes 
and executours of heresie. whate money get they by 
mortuaries, by hearing of confessions (and yet they wil 
kepe therof no counceyle) by halowing of churches, 
al tares, superaltares, chapelles, and belles, by cursing 
of men, and absoluing theim agein for money ? what a 
multitude of money gather the pardoners in a yere 1 ? 
Howe moche money get the Somners by extorcion yn a 
yere, by assityng the people to the commissaries court, ■ 
and afterward releasing thapparau?jee for money? 
Finally, the infinite nombre of begging freres : whate 
get they yn a yere? Here, if it please your grace to 
marke, ye shall se a thing farre out of ioynt. There are 
withyn youre realme of Englond .lij. thousand parisshe 
churches. And this stonding, that there be but tenne 
houshouldes yn euery parisshe, yet are there fiue 
hundreth thousand and twenty thousand houshouldes. 
And of euery of these houshouldes hath euery of the 


fiue ordres of freres a peny a quarter for euery ordre, five orders tak^. 

20 pence a year, 

that is, for all the fine ordres, fiue pens a quarter for or in round 

every house. That is, for all the fiue ordres .xx. d, a £43,333 6*. sd. 

yere of euery house. Summa, fiue hundreth thousand 

and twenty thousand quarters of angels. That is .cclx. 

thousand half angels. Summa .cxxx. thou and angels. 

Summa totalis .xliij. thousand poundes and .cccxxxiij. 

li. vi.s. viij.d. sterling, wherof not foure hundreth 

yeres passed they had not one peny. Oh greuous and Tour ffighness'a 

. , , ■lip predecessors did 

peyniull exactions tnus yereiy to be paied ! from the not pay this, and 

whiche the people of your nobill predecessours, the 

kinges of the auncie?«t Brito?2s, euer stode fre. And 

this wil they haue, or els they wil procure him that 

will not giue it theim to be take/4 as an heretike.' whate 

tiraunt euer oppressed the people like this cruell and 

vengeable generacion 1 whate subiectes shall be abill to no subjects can 

helpe theire prince, that be after this facion yereiy they are so 

polled? whate good christen people can be abill to carTgfve aimsT" ° 

socoure vs pore lepres, blinde, sore, and lame, that be U3 ' 

thus yereiy oppressed 1 Is it any merueille that youre 

people so compleine of pouertie 1 Is it any merueile How will the 

. taxes, which you 

that the taxes, nttenes, and subsidies, that your grace have so tenderly 
most tenderly of great co??*passion hath taken emong for these raveners 
your people, to defend theim from the thretened ruine beforehand, 
of theire comon welth, haue bin so sloughtfully, ye, 
painfully leuied 1, Seing that almost the vtmost peny 
that mought haue bin leuied, hath ben gathe ed bifore 
yereiy by this rauinous, cruell, and insatiabill genera- 
cion. The danes, nether the saxons, yn the time of Neither Dane 

. tin i i-ii nor Saxon could 

the auncient Britons, shulde neuer haue ben abill to have won Britain, 

haue brought theire armies from so farre hither, ynto S uch a brood at 

your lond, to haue conquered it, if they had had at 

that time suche a sort of idell glotons to finde at home. 

The nobill king Arthur had neuer ben abill to haue Nor could Arthur 

have resisted 

caried his armie to the iote of the mountaines, to resist Lucius, with such 
the coming downe of lucius the Emperoure, if suche 


among his people, yerely exactions had ben taken of his people. The' 

nor the Greeks 

besieged Troy, grekes had neuer hen ahill to haue so long continued' 
at the siege of Troie, if they had had at home suche. 
an idell sort of cormorauntes to finde. The auncient 

nor Home won Eomains had neuer hen abil to haue put all the hole 

the world, nor the 

Turk so much of worlde vnder theyre obeisaunce, if theyre people had 


hyn thus yerely oppressed. The Turke nowe, yn youre 

tyme, shulde neuer he ahill to get so moche grounde of 

cristendome, if he had yn his empire suche a sort of 

These men, then, locustes to deuoure his suhstaunce. Ley then these 

the substance of somnies to the forseid therd part of the possessions of 

the realme, that ye may se whether it drawe nighe vnto 

the half of the hole suhstaunce of the realme or not : So 

shall ye finde that it draweth ferre ahoue. Nowe let 

vs then compare the nombre of this vnkind idell 

sort, vnto the nombre of the laye people, and we shall 

se whether it be indifferently shifted or not that they 

and yet they are shuld haue half. Compare theim to the nombre of 

but one in a 

hundred of the men, so are they not tne .C. person. Compare theim 

women and ' to men, wimen, and children ; then are they not the 

onein e four ; e ' -CCCC. parson yn nombre. One part tberfore, yn foure 

hundreth partes deuided, were to moche for theim 

but yet they have except they did laboure. whate an vnequal burthen is 

or the realm. it, that they haue half with the multitude, and are not 

the .CCCC. parson of theire nombre ! whate tongue is 

abill to tell that euer there was eny comon welth so 

sore oppressed sins the worlde first began 1 

wnat do they with •[[ And whate do al these gredy sort of sturdy, idell, 

their exactions? 

Nothing, but holy theues, with these yerely exactions that they 

claim all power ; inm i ,, . •■ , . . 

excite rebellions, take of the people 1 Iruely nothing but exempt theim 
silues from thobedience of your grace. Nothing but 
translate all rule, power, lordishippe, auctorite, obedi- 
ence, and (lignite, from your grace vnto theim. No- 
thing but that all your subiectes shulde fall ynto diso- 
bedience and rebellion ageinst your grace, and be vnder 
theym. As they did vnto your nobill predecessour 


king Iohn : whiche, forbicause that he wolcle haue against that noble 
punisshed certeyr traytours that had conspired with the one of them 

^11-11 ■• ] i ■ n 1- j interdicted tlie 

•enche king to haue deposed him from his crowne and land . 

dignite, (emoug the whiche a clerke called Stephen, 

whome afterward ageinst the kinges will the Pope 

made Bisshoppe of Caunterbury, was one) enterdited his 

Lond. For the whiche mater your most .nobill realme and fr ° m that 

time the land 

wrongfully (alas, for shame !) hath sto?^d tributary (net has been 

• n ■ ii ti tributary to a 

vnto any kind temporal! prince, but vnto a cruell, devilish wood- 
deuelisshe bloudsupper, dronkera in the bloude of the supper * 
sayntes and marters of christ) euer sins. Here were an a holy sort of 

prelates to treat 

holy sort of prelates, that thus cruelly coude pimisshe a righteous king 

so ! 

suche a rightuous kinge, all his realme, a?«d succession, 
for doing right ! 

IT Here were a charitable sort of holy men, that coude Ho1 y men wore 

they ! hating one 

thus enterdite an hole realme, and plucke awey tho- who more feared 

to shed blood of the people from theyre naturall liege lorde than lose his 

and kinge, for none other cause but for his rightuous- 

nesse ! Here were a blissed sort, not of meke herdes, 

but of bloudsuppers, that coude set the frenche king 

vppon suche a rightuous prince, to cause hym to lose 

his crowne and dignite, to make effusion of the bloude 

of his people, oneles this good and blissed king of 

greate compassion, more fearing and lamenting the 

sheding of the bloude of his people then the losse of 

his crowne and dignite, agaynst all right and conscience 

had submitted him silf vnto theym ! case most but they had 

translated all 

horrible ! that euer so nobill a king, Eealme, and sue- power to 
cession, shuide thus be made to stoupe to suche a sort 
of bloudsuppers ! where was his swerde, power, crowne, 
and dignite become, wherby he niought haue done ius- 
tice yn this maner 1 where was their obedience become, 
that shuld haue byn subiect vnder his highe power yn 
this mater ] Ye, where was the obedience of all his 
subiectes become, that for maintenaunce of the comon 
welth shuide haue holpen him manfully to haue re- 


sisted these bloudsuppers to the shedinge of theyre 

bloude 1 was not all to-gither by theyre polycy 

translated fiwra this good king vnto theim? Ye, and 

No man's wife what do they more ? Truely nothing bnt applie theym 

or daughter is . J J & VV J 

safe for them ; silues, by all the sleyghtes they may, to haue to do 

so that no man 

can be sure of his with euery mannes wife, enery mannes doughter, and 

own child; and . 

still by abstaining euery mannes mayde, that cukkoldne and baudne shulde 

they- may make reigne ouer all emong your subiectes, that nomaw shulde 

desolate? knowe his owne child e, that theyre bastardes might 

enherite the possessions of euery man, to put the right 

begotten children clere beside theire inheritaunce, yn 

subuersion of all estates and godly ordre. These be 

they that by theire absteyning from mariage do let the 

generation of the people, wherby all the realme at 

length, if it shulde be continued, shall be made desert 

and inhabitable. 1 

But for them, 1f These be they that haue made an hundreth thou- 

wouid have lived sand ydell hores yn your realme, whiche wolde haue 

gotten theyre lyuing honestly, yn the swete of theyre 

faces, had not theyre superfluous rychesse illected theym 

They carry to vnclene lust and ydelnesse. These be they that corrupt 

one to another, the hole generation of mankind yn your realme; that 

and boast of their ■ -i j i -ii p 11 . i . 

success. catche the pokkes ot one woman, and bere theym to an 

other ; that be brent wyth one woman, and bere it to 
an other ; that catche the lepry of one woman, and 
bere it to an other ; ye, some one of theym shall bost 
emong his felawes, that he hath medled with an 
hundreth wymen. These be they that when they haue 
ones drawee mennes wiues to suche incontinewcy, 

They draw spende awey theire husbondes goodes, make the 

women from their . „ , . . . . 

husbands. wimen to runne awey irom theire husbondes, ye, rynne 

awey them silues both with wif and goodes, bring both 

1 Sir Thomas More points out the seeming contradiction 
between this sentence and the last : for if the monks were such 
good begetters of bastards, they would increase the population, 
rather than diminish it. But this is answered in the next page 


man, wife, and children, to ydelnesse, theft, and 

Ye, who is ahill to nombre the greate and brode why should you 

not punish them 

botomles occean see, full of euilles, that this mis- as you do other 


cheuous and sinful generacion may laufully bring vppon 

vs vnponisshed 1 where is youre swerde, power, crowne, Evils numberless 

,,.., , ill -i/i • tnev Drm & ° n us - 

and dignite become, that shuld punisshe (by punisshe- 

ment of deth, euen as other men are punisshed) the 

felonies, rapes, murdres, and treasons committed by 

this sinfull generackm? where is theire obedience become, 

that shulde be vnder your hyghe power yn this mater 1 

ys not all to-gither translated and exempt from your 

grace vnto theim ? yes, truely. whate an infinite why should they 

not be married 

nombre of people might haue oen encreased, to haue like other men ? 

peopled the realme, if these sort of folke had be?* 

maried like other men 1 whate breche of matrimonie is 

there brought yn by theim ] suche truely as was neuer, 

sins the worlde began, emong the hole multitude of the 


IT Who is she that wil set her hondes to worke, to what woman will 

.... , n i , i , 11^ work for 3d - a 

get .nj. d. a day, and may haue at lest .xx. d. a day to day, when she 

slepe an houre with a frere, a monke, or a prest 1 what ™eepfng with I 

is he that wolde laboure for a grote a day, and may monk? 

haue at lest .xij. d. a day to be baude to a prest, a 

monke, or a frere 1 whate a sort are there of theime How many men 

that mari prestes souereigne ladies, but to cloke the ladies, just to get 

prestes yncontinency, and that they may haue a liuing a llvlIlg by ll ? 

of the prest theime silues for theire laboure 1 ? Howe 

many thousandes doth suche lubricite bring to beggery, 

theft, and idelnesse, whiche shuld haue kept theire good 

name, and haue set theim silues to worke, had not ben 

this excesse treasure of the spiritualtie 1 whate honest 

man dare take any man or woman yn his seruice that 

hath here at suche a scole with a spiritual maw 1 Oh 

the greuous shipwrak of the comon welth, whiche yn Before these 

auncie^t time, bifore the coming yn of these rauinous wo ves came ' 


there were but 
few thieves, few 
poor, and those 
had given to 
them enough 
without asking. 

Why wonder, 
then, there are so 
many beggars, 
thieves, &e. ? 

You cannot make 
laws against 
them. They are 
stronger in 
Parliament than 

Who dare lay 
charges against 
them ? 

If any one does, 
he is accused of 
heresy : 

wolues, was so prosperous, that then there were hat 
fewe theues ! ye, theft was at that tyme so rare, that 
Cesar was not cowpellid to make penalite of deth vppon 
felony, as your grace may well perceyue yn his insti- 
tutes. There was also at that tyme hut fewe pore 
people, and yet they did not begge, hut there was giuew 
theim ynough vnaxed ; for there was at that time none 
of these rauinous wolues to axe it from theim, as it 
apperith yn the actes of thappostles. Is it any merueill 
though there he nowe so many beggers, theues, and 
ydell people 1 Nay truely. 

IT "Whate remedy : make lawes ageynst theim 1 I 
am yn doubt whether ye he able : Are they not stronger 
in your owne parliament house then your silfe 1 whate 
a nombre of Bisshopes, abbotes, and priours, are lordes 
of your parliament 1 are not all the lerned men in your 
realme in fee with theim, to speake yn your parliament 
house for theim ageinst your crowne, dignite, and comon 
welth of your realme ; a fewe of youre owne lerned 
counsell onely excepted 1 whate lawe can be made 
ageinst theim that may be aduajdable 1 who is he 
(though he be greued never so sore) for the murdre of 
his auncestre, rauisshement of his wyfe, of his doughter, 
robbery, trespas, maiheme, dette, or eny other offence, 
dare ley it to theyre charge by any wey of accion ? and 
if he do, then is he by and by, by theyre wilynesse, 
accused of heresie. ye, they will so handle him or he 
passe, that except he will here a fagot for theyre 
pleasure, he shal be excommunicate, and then be all his 
accions dasshed. So captyue are your lawes vnto theym, 
that no man that they lyst to excommunicat, may be 
admitted to sue any accion in any of your courtes. If 
eny maw yn your sessions dare be so hardy to endyte a 
prest of eny suche cryme, he hath, or the yere go out, 
suche a yoke of heresye leyd in his necke, that it 
rnaketh him wisshe that he had not done it. Your 



grace may se whate a worke tliere is in London, howe as your Grace 

. ,1 p ' ias seen, because 

the bisshoppe rageth for em ly ting of ; certayn curates of cei tain curates 
extorcion and incontinency, the last yere in the war- W iti, incontin- 
nioll quest.' Had not Richard hunne commenced ac- Take Richard 
cyon of premunire ageinst a prest, he had bin yet a- Hunne s case - 
lyue, and none eretik, a tall, but an honest man. 

IF Dyd not dyuers of your noble progenitours, — Did not your 

. ancestors pass 

seynge theyre crowne and dignite runiie ynto ruyne, the statute of 
and to be thus craftely translated ynto the hondes of [hem? a '" dgain 
this myscheuous generacyon, — make dyuers statutes for 
the reformacyon therof, emong whiche the statute of 
mortmayne was one % to the intent that after that tyme 
they shulde haue no more gyuen vnto theim. 

But whate avayled it 1 haue they not gotten ynto But what avails 

• it? The y have 

theyre hondes, more londes sins, then eny duke yn since got more 

ynglond hath, the statute notwithstanding ? Ye, haue f^ ke has.*"* 

they not for all that translated ynto theyre hondes, 

from your grace, half your kyngdome thoroughly 1 The Th e kingdom is 

divided, and they 

hole name, as reason is, for the auncientie of your kyng- have the over- 
dome, whiche was bifore theyrs, and out of the whiche 
theyrs is growen, onely abiding with your grace 1 and 
of one kyngdome made tweyne : the spirituall kyng- 
dome (as they call it), for they wyll be named first, 
And your temporall kingdome. And whiche of these 
.ij. kingdomes (suppose ye) is like to ouergrowe the 
other 1 ? ye, to put the other clere out of memory? 
Truely the kingdome of the bloudsuppers ; for to theym 

1 There is a custome in the Cytye, ones a yeare to haue a 
quest called the warnmall queste, to redress vices ; but alasse, 
to what purpose cometh it, as it is vsed ? If a pore man kepe 
a whore besides hys wife, & a pore mans wyfe play the harlot, 
they are punished, as well worthie. But let an alderman, a 
Ientleman, or a riche man, kepe whore or whores, what punish- 
ment is there ? Alasse, this matter is to bad. — The Lamenta- 
ei/on of a Christen against the Citye of London (by Henry 
Brinklow, A.D. 1542), ed. 1548, sign. b. vii. back. 

Quest or Quest Men, Persons who are chosen yearly in 
every Ward, and meet about Christmas, to enquire into Abuses 
and Misdemeanours committed therein, especially such as re- 
late to Weights and Measures. — Kerseifs Phillips, ed. 1706. 



for they sain, 
but never give 

They will break 
any law, and will 
swallow all 
your substance. 

They profess to 
pray for us and 
deliver us from 

(which in many 
learned men's 
opinion exists 
not, but is their 
own invention;) 

and if there be 
a purgatory, the 
Pope might 
deliver 1000 as 
well as one. 

is giuen daily out of your kingdome. And that that is 
ones gyuen theim, comith neuer from theim agein. 
Suche lawes haue they, that none of theim may nether 
gyue nor sell nothing. 

Whate lawe can be made so stronge ageinst theim 
that they, other with money, or elles with other policy, 
will not breake and set at nought 1 whate kingdome 
can endure, that euer gyuith thus from him, and re- 
ceyueth nothing agein 1 0, howe all the substauwce of 
your Eealme forthwith, your swerde, power, crowne, 
dignite, and obedience of your people, rynneth hedlong 
ynto the insaciabill whyrlepole of these gredi goulafres, 1 
to be swalowed and devoured ! 

IF Nether haue they eny other coloure to gather 

these yerely exaccions ynto theyre hondes, but that 

they sey they pray for vs to God, to delyuer our soules 

out of the paynes of purgatori ; without whose prayer, 

they sey, or at lest without the popes pardon, we coude 

neuer be deliuered thens ; whiche, if it be true, then is 

it good reason that we gyue theim all these thinges, all 

were it C times as moche. But there be many men of 

greate litterature and iudgement that, for the love they 

haue vnto the trouth and vnto the comen welth, haue 

not feared to put theim silf ynto the greatest infamie 

that may be, in abiection of all the world, ye, yn perill 

of deth, to declare theyre oppinion in this mather, 

Avhiche is, that there is no purgatory, but that it is a 

thing inuented by the couitousnesse of the spiritualtie, 

onely to translate all kingdomes from other princes 

vnto theim, and that there is not one word spoken of 

hit in al holy scripture. They sey also, that if there 

were a purgatory, And also if that the pope with his 

pardons for money may deliuer one soule thews ; he 

may deliuer him aswel without money : if he may 

1 Fr. Govlfre, Govffre .• m. A gulfe ; whirlepoole, deepe 
hole, or vnmeasurable depth (of waters) that swallowes vp 
whatsoeuer approaches, or comes into, it. — Cotgrave. 


deliuer one, he may deliuer a thousand : yf he may 
deliuer a thousand, he may deliuer theim all, awl so 
destroy purgatory. And then is he a cruell tyraunt 
without all charite, if he kepe theim there in pryson 
and in paine, till men will giue him money. If Lyke Again, they pray 

only for those 

wyse saie they of all the hole sort of the spiritueltie, who give them 

that if they will not pray for no man but' for theim 

that gyue theim money, they are tyrauntes, and lakke 

charite, and suffer those soules to be punisshed a^d 

payned vncheritably, for lacke of theyre prayers. 

These sort of folkes they call heretikes, these they They who cannot 

pay, are called 

burne, these they rage agemst, put to open shame, and heretics, and are 
make theim bere fagottes. But whether they be here- 
tikes or no, well I wote that this purgatory, and the 
Popes pardons, is all the cause of translacion of your 
kingdome so fast into their hondes ; wherfore it is mani- 
fest it can not be of christ, for he gaue more to the Christ, on the 
temporal! kingdome, he hym silfe paid tribute to Cesar, p^^Tand ^ 
hetoke nothing from hym, but taught that the highe P aidtribute > 
powers shuld be alweys obeid : ye, he him silf (although 
he were most fre lorde of all, and innocent,) was obedi- 
ent vnto the highe powers vnto deth. This is the which is their 
great scabbe why they will not let the newe testament withholding the 

, , , , , ill • New Testament 

go a-brode yn your moder tong, lest men shulde espie m the mother 

that they, by theyre cloked ypochrisi, do translate thus tongue5 

fast your kingdome into theyre howdes, that they are 

not obedient vnto your highe power, that they are 

cruell, vnclene, vnmerciful, and ypochrites, that thei for they seek 

their own honour, 

seke not the honour of Christ, but their owne, that re- not Christ's, 
mission of sinnes are not giuen by the popes pardon, 
but by Christ, for the sure feith and trust that we haue 
in him. Here may your grace well perceyue that, 
except ye suffer theyre ypocrisie to be disclosed, all is 
like to runne ynto theire hondes ; and as long as it is 
couered, so long shall it seme to euery maw to be a - 
greate ympiete not to gyue theim. For this I am sure 



All are of my 
opinion, Lords, 
Knights, and 
yeomen ; 
else the statute 
of mortmain robs 
us of salvation. 

Declare, then, 
their hypocrisy. 

Doctor Allen 
appealed to 
another Court to 
the derogation 
of your dignity; 

and Doctor 
Horsey murdered 
Hunne, because 
he sued a writ of 
" premunire " 
against a priest. 

And one offender 
rmid only £500 

your grace thinketh, (as the truth is,) I am as good a 
man as my father, whye may I not aswell gyue theim 
as moche as my father did 1 And of this mynd I am 
sure are all the loordes, knightes, squire, gentilmen, and 
yemen in englond ; ye, and vntill it be disclosed, all 
your people will thinke that your statute of mortmayne 
was never made with no good conscience, seing that it 
taketh awey the liberte of your people, in that they 
may not as laufully by theire soules out of purgatory 
by gyuing to the spiritualte, as their predecessours did 
in tymes passed. 

If Wherfore, if ye will eschewe the ruyne of your 
crowne and dignite, let theire ypocrisye be vttered ; 
and that shalbe more spedfull in this mater then all 
the lawes that may be made, be they never so stronge. 
For to make a lawe for to punisshe eny offender, except 
it were more for to giue other men an ensample to be- 
ware to committe suche like offence, whate shuld yt 
avayle 1 Did not doctour Alyn, most presumptuously, 
nowe yn your tyme, ageynst all his allegiaunce, all that 
ever he coude, to pull from you the knowlege of suche 
plees as long vnto your hyghe courtes, vnto an other 
court, in derogacion of your crowne and dignite ] Did 
not also doctor Horsey and his complices most hey- 
nously, as all the world knoweth, murdre in pryson 
that honest marchaunt Richard hunne 1 For that he 
sued your writ of premunire against a prest that wrong- 
fully held him in pie in a spiritual! court, for a mater 
wherof the knowlege belonged vnto your hyghe courtes. 
And whate punisshement was there done, that eny man 
may take example of to beware of lyke offence ? truely 
none, but that the one payd hue hundreth poundes (as 
it is said) to the bildinge of your sterre chamber ; and 
when that payment was ones passed, the capteyns of 
his kingdome (bicause he faught so manfully ageynst 


your crowne and dignite,) haue heped to him benefice the other, £ con ; 

vpon benefice, so that he is rewarded tenne tymes as received many 

nioche. The other (as it is seid) payde sixe hundreth h^as^neiTfiom 

poundes for him and his complices, whiche, forbicause p 1 " 1 ' 11114168 - Tllus 

that he had lyke wise faught so manfully ageynst your 

crowne and dignite, was ymmediatly (as he had opteyned 

your most gracyous pardon,) promoted by the capiteynes 

of his kingdome with benefice vpon benefice, to the 

value of .iiij. tymes as moche. who can take example of 

this punisshement to be ware of suche like offence? 

who is he of theyre kingdome that will not rather take others will be 

encouraged to 

courage to cowamitte lyke offence, seyng the promocions commit like 
that fill to this men for theyre so offending] So weke g0 weak' is your 
and blunt is your swerde to strike at one of the of- u^ofondti's!' 6 
fenders of this croked and peruers generacyon. 

IF And this is by the reason that the chief instru- The reason is 
ment of your la we, ye, the chief of your counsell, and chancellor is a 
he whiche hath youre swerde in his hond. to whome pn . es '. w 

« only his own 

also all the other instrumentes are obedient, is alweys a kin g dom - 

spirituell man, whiche hath euer suche an inordinate 

loue vnto his owne kingdome, that he will mainteyn 

that, though all the temporall kingdoms and comoH- 

welth of the worlde shulde therfore vtterly be vndone. 

Here leue we out the gretest mater of all, lest that we, 

declaring suche an horrible carayn of euyll ageinst the 

ministres of iniquite, shulde seme to declare the one 

onely faute, or rather the ignoraunce, of oure best 

beloued ministre of rightousnesse, whiche is, to be hid 

till he may be lerned by these small enormitees that we 

haue spoken of, to knowe it pleynly him silf. But Many hospitals 

will not help us, 

whate remedy to releue vs your poore, sike, lame, and for the priests 

sore, bedemen 1 To make many hospitals for the relief best part, 

of the poore people 1 Nay truely. The moo the worse ; do i ie with Vour 

for euer the fatte of the hole foundacion hangeth on the ancestors ' gifts - 
prestes berdes. Dyuers of your noble predecessours, 



They are paid 
for masses, yet 
never say one. 

Your Grace 
should build us 
a sure hospital, 
and send these 
loobies to work 
for their living. 

Genesis iii. 19. 

Whip them at 
the cart's tail 
that they take not 
our alms ; so 
shall we decrease, 
and your power 
not pass from 

your people will 
obey you, the 
i He work, people 
marry, be rich, 
have the gospel 
preached, none 

kinges of this realme, haue gyuen loncles to monasteries 
to giue a certein somme of money yerely to the poore 
people, wherof, for the aunciente of the tyme, they 
giue neuer one peny : They haue lyke wise giuen to 
them to haue a eerteyn masses said daily for theim, 
wherof they sey neuer one. If the Abbot of Westminster 
shulde sing euery day as many masses for his founders 
as he is bounde to do by his foundacion, .M. monkes 
were to fewe. wherfore, if your grace will bilde a sure 
hospitall that neuer shall faile to releue vs, all your 
poore bedemerc, so take from theim all these thynges. 
Set these sturdy lobies a brode in the world, to get 
theim wiues of theire owne, to get theire liuing with 
their laboure in the swete of theire faces, according to the 
commaundement of god, Gene. iij. to gyue other idell 
people, by theire example, occasion to go to laboure. 
Tye these holy idell theues to the cartes, to be whipped 
naked about euery market towne til ihey will fall to 
laboure, that they, by theyre i/??,portunate begging, take 
not awey the almesse that the good christen people 
wolde giue vnto vs sore, impotent, miserable people, 
your bedemen. Then shall, aswell the nombre of oure 
forsaid monstruous sort, as of the baudes, hores, theues, 
and idell people, decreace. Then shall these great 
yerely exaccions cease. Then shall not youre swerde, 
power, crowne, dignite, and obedience of your people, 
be translated from you. Then shall you haue full odedi- 
ence of your people. Then shall the idell people be set 
to worke. Then shall matrimony be moche better kept. 
Then shal the generation of your people be encreased. 
Then shall your comons encrease in richesse. Then 
shall the gospell be preached. Then shall none begge 
oure almesse from vs. Then shal we haue ynough, and 
more then shall suffice vs ; whiche shall be the best 
hospitall that euer was founded for vs. Then shall we 


daily pray to god for your most noble estate lo??g to ana ail win ever 

pray for your 
endure. 1 long reign. 

Domins ealuumfac regem. 

1 Sir Frauncys Bygod, about 1534, in his Treatyse concern- 
ynge impropriations of benefices thus supports the last remedy 
of the Beggers Supplicacyon : 

But & as man might (sauyng their pacyence) be so bolde 
•with them / what mater were it (vnder correction I speke) if all 
these improfy table sectes / and stronge sturdye route of idle Idle paunches 
paunches were a lytell poorer / to thende that the trew relygion should be poorer, 
of christ miy/it thereby somthynge be sette vp and avaunsed / 
and syffycient company of the ministers of goddes true worde 
prouyded for in all partes. I praye you / what an idle sorte be 
fouttde and brought vp in Abbeyes / that neuer wyll laboure 
•whyles they ben there / nor yet whan they come thence to 
other mens seruyce / in so moche that there goth a comen 
prouerbe : That he which hath ones ben in an abbey, wyll euer Once in an Abbey, 
more after be slouthefull / for the whiche cause they ben called ever idle ; Abbe y 
of many men / Abbey loutes or lubbers. And some saye that ou 8 or u ers " 
many of our holye fathers spende nat a lytell vpon my cosyn 
lane / Elsabeth and Marget (ye knowe what I meane) inso- Monks' women, 
moche that / that euen they which be most popysshe of all / 
& knowe none other god almost than the gret drafsacke of 
Bome / can nat deny this to be trew. 

Bage 6. Priests' 1 immorality. The women were occasionally to blame. In 
a story told by the author of the Menagier de Paris, a young wife married to 
an old husband from whom she gets no solace, thus answers the question of 
whom she will love: "Mere, j'aimeray le chapellain de ceste ville, car 
prestres et religieux craingnent honte, et sont plus secrets. Je ne vouldroie 
jamais amer un chevalier, car il se vanteroit plus test, et gaberoit de moy, et 
me demanderoit mes gages* a engager." Compare Bobert of Brunne's com- 
plaint in his Handlyng Synne of these women who will have priests. But the 
lechery of the monks, &c, is continually complained of throughout Early 
English Literature ; see the series of extracts on this subject in my Ballads 
from Manuscripts, p. 59 — 86 (Ballad Soc. 1868), and The Image of Ypocrcsye, 
ib. p. 194-5, &c. 

Bage 6. Chech to the increase of Population by the not-marrying of the 
Clergy. This is complained of in the Becord-Office MS Dialogue between 
Cardinal Bole and Lupton, written by Starkey, one of Henry VIII's chaplains, 
which Brof. Brewer has recommended us to print, and which we have had 
copied. Lupton is made to say : " I haue thought long & many a day a grete 
let to the increse of chrystuw. pepul, the law of chastyte ordeynyd by the 
church, whych byndyth so gret a multytude of mew to lyue theraftur, as, al 
Becular prestys, mo/ikys, frerrys, chawnonys, & nuwnys, of the wych, as you 
know, ther ys no smal nombur ; by the reson wherof the generatyon of maw 
ys maruelously let & mynyschyd. Wherfor, except the ordyna/tce of the 
church were, (to the wych I wold neuer gladly rebel,) I wold playnly luge that 
hyt schold be veray comienyent somethyng to relese the band of thys law ; 
specyally co»syderyng the dyffyculty of that grete vertue, in a mane?- aboue 

* Peut-6tre faudroit-il bagues, effets, joyaux. — J. Pichon. 


nature. . . " Pole answers "... in this mater I thynke hyt were necessary 
to tempur thys law, and, at the lest, to gyue and admyt al secular prestys to 
mary at theyr lyberty, cow-sydyryng now the grete multytude and nowmbur of 
them, but as touchyng mowkys, chanonys, frerys, and nu/mys, I hold for a 
thyng veray co/tuenyent and mete, in al wel-ordeynyd commyn welys, to haue 
certayn monasterys and abbeys, to the wych al such as, af tur lauful proue of 
chastyte before had, may retyre, and from the besynes and vanyte of the world 
may wythdray themselfe, holly gyuyng theyr mywdys to prayer, study, and 
hye cow tew pi aty on. thys occasyon I wold not haue to be taken away from 
chrystyan pollycy, wych ys a grete cowfort to many febul and weiy soulys, 
wych haue byn oppressyd wyth wordly vanyte. but as touchyng the secular 
prestys, I vtturly agre wyth you, and so that obstacul to take away, wych 
lettyth by many ways the increse of our pepul, as many other thyngys dow 
more also ; among the wych a nother chefe, aftur my mynd, ys thys : — that 
grete multytude of spyuyng men, wych in scmyce spend theyr lyfe, neuer 
fyndyng mean to many co/tuenyently, but lyue alway as cowtmyn corruptarys 
of chastyte." 

Page 7. The good luck of a wench who is taken as a priest's concubine is, 
noticed in the Poem on the Evil Times of Edward II. (Camden Soc. Political 
Songs, 1839 ; Percy Soc. 1849), "And wel is hire that first may swich a parsoun 
kacche in londe," ib. p. 62. 

Pages 9 and 12. Richard ITimne's case. "In the year 1514, a citizen of 
London, named Eichard Hunne, a merchant tailor, fell into a dispute with the 
parson of a country parish in Middlesex, about a gift of a bearing-sheet, 
which the clergyman demanded as a mortuary, in consequence of an infant 
child of Hunne's having died in his parish, where it had been sent to be 
nursed. Hunne made some objection to the legality of the demand ; but it is 
probable that he was secretly inclined to the new doctrines, and that this was 
the true cause of his refusal. Being sued in the spiritual court by the parson, 
he took out a writ of premunire against his pursuer for bringing the king's' 
subjects before a foreign jurisdiction, the spiritual court sitting under the 
authority of the pope's legate. This daring procedure of the London citizen 
threw the clergy into a fur}', and, as the most effectual way of crushing him, 
recourse was had to the terrible charge of heresy, upon which Hunne was ap- 
prehended and consigned to close imprisonment in the Lollard's Tower at St 
Paul's. After a short time, being brought before Fitzjames, bishop of London, 
he was there interrogated respecting certain articles alleged against him, 
which imputed to him, in substance, that he had denied the obligation of pay- 
ing tithes, — that he had read and spoken generally against bishops and 
priests, and in favour of heretics, — and lastly, that he had 'in his keeping 
divers English books prohibited and damned by the law, as the Apocalypse in 
English, epistles and gospels in English, Wycliffe's damnable works, and other 
books containing infinite errors, in the which he hath been long time ac- 
cusiomed to read, teach, and study daily.'* It appears that Hunne was 
frightened into a qualified admission of the truth of these charges ; he con- 
fessed that although he had not said exactly what was asserted, yet he had 
' unadvisedly spoken words somewhat sounding to the same ; for the which,' 
he added, ' I am sorry, and ask God mercy, and submit me unto my Lord's 
charitable and favourable correction.' He ought upon this, according to the 
usual course, to have been enjoined penance and set at liberty ; but, as he still 
persisted in his suit against the parson, he was the same day sent back to his 
prison, where, two days after, namely, on the 4th of December, he was found 

* Foxc, p- 737. 


suspended from a hook in the ceiling, and dead. The persons in charge of 
the prison gave out that he had hanged himself ; but a coroner's inquest came 
to a different conclusion. According to the account in Burnet, the jury ' did 
acquit the dead body, and laid the murder on the officers that had the charge 
of that prison ; ' and, by other proofs, they found the bishop's sumner* and 
the bellringer guilty of it. It may be suspected that the excited feelings and 
strong prejudices of the coroner's jury had perhaps as much share as the 
weight of circumstantial evidence in winning them to the belief of this not 
very probable story ; but, be that as it may, the violence and indecency 
shown on the other side were fully equal to any they can be thought to have 
displayed. While the inquest was still going on, the Bishop of London and 
his clergy began a new process of heresy against Hannc's dead tody. The 
new charges alleged against Hunne were comprised in thirteen articles, 
the matter of which was collected from the prologue or preface by Wycliffe to 
the English Bible that had been found in his possession. He, or rather his 
dead body, was condemned of heresy by sentence of the Bishop of London, 
assisted by the Bishops of Durham and Lincoln, and by many doctors of 
divinity and the canon law ; and the senseless carcase was actually, on the 
20th of December, committed to the flames in Smithfield. This piece of 
barbarity, however, shocked instead of overawing the public sentiment. The 
affair now came before the parliament, and a bill, which had originated in 
the Commons, was passed, restoring to Hunne's children the goods of their 
father, which had been forfeited by his conviction. This, however, did not 
put an end to the contest. When the Bishop of London's chancellor and 
sumner had been charged on the finding of the coroner's jury as both 
principals in the murder, the convocation, in the hope probably of drawing off 
attention to another part of the case, called before them Dr Standish, who had 
asserted the claims of the civil power in a debate before the king, and put 
him upon his defence for what he had said on that occasion ; and an appeal 
was made to the conscience of Henry, that he would not interpose to shield 
the delinquent from justice, as he regarded his coronation oath, and would 
himself escape the censures of holy church. Henry's headstrong and despotic 
character had scarcely yet begun to develop itself ; his pride as a true son of 
the church had received no check from coming into collision with any of his 
other selfish and overmastering passions : when the convocation, therefore, 
assailed him in this manner on the one hand, and the parliament on the other 
likewise addressed him ' to maintain the temporal jurisdiction, according to 
his coronation oath, and to protect Standish from the malice of his enemies,' 
he was thrown into great perplexity. So, to free his conscience, he commanded 
all the judges, and the members both of his temporal and his spiritual councils, 
together with certain persons from both houses of parliament, to meet at 
Blackfriars, and to hear the matter argued. This was done accordingly ; and 
the discussion was terminated by the unanimous declaration of the judges, that 
all those of the convocation who had awarded the citation against Standish had 
made themselves liable to a premunire. Soon after, the whole body of the 
lords spiritual and temporal, with all the judges and the king's council, and 
many members also of the House of Commons, having been called before the 
king at Baynard's Castle, Cardinal Wolsey, in the name of the clergy, humbly 
begged that the matter should be referred to the final decision of the pope at 
Bome. To this request, however, Henry made answer, with much spirit, ' By 
the permission and ordinance of God, we are king of England ; and the kings 

* Or summoner, the officer employed to cite parties before the ecclesiastical courts, 
more commonly called the apparitor. 



of England in times past had never any superior, but God only. Therefore, 
know you well that we will maintain the right of our crown, and of our 
temporal jurisdiction, as well in this as in all other points, in as ample a 
manner as any of our progenitors have done before our time.' The renewed 
solicitations of the Archbishop of Canterbury, that the matter might at least 
be respited till a communication could be had with the court of Rome, had 
no effect in moving the king from his resolution ; and Dr Horsey, the Bishop 
of London's chancellor, against whom warrants were out, on the finding of 
the inquest, for his trial as one of the murderers of Hunne, seemed to be left 
to his fate. At this point, however, the clergy, or perhaps both parties, saw 
fit to make advances towards an accommodation : it was agreed that Horsey 
should surrender to take his trial ; that he should not stand upon his benefit 
of clergy, but plead not guilty : and that, satisfied with this concession, the 
attorney-general should admit the plea, and the prisoner be discharged. This 
form was gone through, and Horsey immediately left London, where, it is 
said, he never again showed his face. Dr Standish, however, was also, by the 
king's command, dismissed from his place in the court of convocation, so that 
the issue of the business by no means went altogether against the clergy. But, 
besides the augmented popular odium to which they were exposed, from the 
strong suspicion that was entertained that Hunne had been murdered, a heavy 
blow had been undoubtedly dealt at their favourite pretension of exemption 
from the jurisdiction of the civil courts in criminal cases." — Macfarlane' s 
Cab. Hist, of England, vol. vi., p. 113 — 116. 

Page 12. Doctor Alyn. By the sayd power Legantine, he [Wolsey] kept 
also generall visitations through the Bealme, sending Doct. Iohn Alein, his 
Chaplein, riding in his gowne of Veluet, & with a great traine, to visite all 
religious houses. — Foxe, 1576, 3rd edit., p. 960. 

Page 2. The tenth jj art of euery xeruauntes wages. " Then the proving of 
testaments, the prizing of goods, the bishop of Canterbury's prerogative ; is 
that not much through the realm in a year? There is no servant but that he 
shall pay somewhat of his wages." — Tyndale's Obedience of a Christian Man, 
Parker Soc.'s edit, of Tyndale's "Works," vol. i. p. 237. 

gl $nplgjtnpt 

to our mogte iSoueraigne SLor* 

oe Itpcjc f&enrg tjjc (^pjjijt /, ttonojc of Etfc 

glano, of jjtaunce, ano of Erelanoe /, & most: 

ernest ©efentrer of (Eijristcs ffiospcll /: <Suprr= 

me 3&eaoe ontier ffiotr fjrre in <S5rtj)e /, 

next & tmmetioatl2 of fjts Cijur= 

cfjeg of ISnglanoe anti 

Ireland Y 

Utattb/i .fa. 

®b;£ Ijarkeste is jpate, hut tlje labours aw fefae. SHUj.erfor.e prage % 
lorbe of % fjatfoesle to uviaz fortlje labours into big barkeste. .'. '.' .'. 


A Supplication to our moste 

Soueraigne Lorde Kynge Henry the Eyght, 

Kynge of England /, of Eraunce /, 

and of Irelande, &c. 

1 M Ost dreade Soueraigne Lorde & most Christen 
Prynce, / whew I remembre the lamentable & wonder- when i remem- 
f ull great blyndnes wherin the most parte of all Eng- „ess in which 
la?zde, not onely of the layete, called the temporaltie /, ^ity" of England 
but also of the clergie, / haue pytuousely erred and S^££J 
wandered many hundereth yeres /, acceptinge /, re- years ' 
putynge /, & most vngodly, / erronyousely /, and 
blyndely /, estemynge the bysshop of Eome to be 
supreame head ouer & ahoue all Christen congregatio?zs ; 
and in dyuerse other poyntes suche as be touchynge the 
necessarye articles of our faithe ; I coidde not but i can but 

marvel why such 

meruell how, and by what meanes, suche pestdent errors have been 
errours and horrible darke blyndenes coulde, or myght, continue, 
entre /, invade, & ouerflowe this your realme /, & to 
contynewe so longe in the same /, not espied /, per- 
ceyued /, nor repelled. Consideringe, that by all that considering the 

, n ,,. , , ,-, j ± j> number of learned 

tyme and space, this your realme (as the most parte ot men - m t Ms 
men dyd then iudge and esteame) was well endowed /, eam ' 
replenyshed /, and furnyshed with many profounde 
lerned clerkes /, wherof some were bysshops, arche- clerks of both 
deacons /, deanes /, prebendaries /, parsons /, doc- 
tours /, bachelars in deuinite /, & other profounde 
1 A six-line ornamental initial letter in the original. 


lerned clerkes in bothe the Yniuersytees, which were / 

graue /, sage /, & auncyent fathers. Contemplatinge 

and reuoluinge these things in my mynde — not a lytle 

I tried to find out nioued /, troubled /, and vexed with the same / — I 

the cause of this , 

blindness, applyed me with ail my powre & dyligence, exquysytely 

to serche & to knowe the originall grounde & cause 

and happening to therof. And, in cortclusyon, amo??gest other things it 

read the fifth , 

chapter of isaiah, chaunced me to reade in the .v. chapiter of Ezay a pro- 
position that muche lamenteth the captyuite and bond- 
age which cowmeth & groweth to all people for lacke 
of knowleage in Godds "Worde /; sayeng /, " Th erf ore 
co?«meth my flocke also into captyuite /, because they 
haue not vnderstandinge /; their glory is famyshed 
with hunger /, & their pryde marred with thyrst'e. 
Therfore gapeth hell and openeth her mouthe meruel- 
i found that lack ousely wyde." By this text, graciouse Lorde, it ap- 
the cause of all peareth that all myserable hlyndenes, captyuite, & 
bondage vnder synne /, commeth for lacke of knowleage 
Mar. xij, in Gods "Worde. I had forgotten, at that tyme /, that 

that cimst said, Christ reproued the Pharasees /,' sayeng /, "You erre 
knowing the' n °t kuowinge the Scriptures ; " which reproue and re- 
whicVrebuke huke sliulde haue hen a suffycient admonycio?i and 
beln sufficient, doctryne to me, and to all other; wherby we myght 
haue knowen that all erroure commeth for lacke of 
But how could vnderstandinge & knowleage in the Scriptures. But 
from not knowing by what reason, then, coulde there be suche erroure and 
blyndenes for lacke of knowleage in Gods "Worde in 
There are this your realme, most gracyouse Lorde /, seing there 

found clerks and were suche profounde clerkes, & auncyent fathers /, 
in the country bysshops, and studentes in the same /, which dyd 
peopie aChthe teache & preache vnto the people co?itynuaUy? The 
But Paul says Apostle Paul, in the .vi. chapiter to Timothe, descrybeth 
kinds of know- two kyndes of doctrynes ; / the one he calleth a godly 

doctryne & a doctryne of helth /; the other he calleth 
a proude doctrine, full of vnprofitable questions /, 
stryuynge more for wordes than for godly knowleage /'; 


" wherof spryngeth envy /, stryffe /, raylings /, euyll 
surmysyngs /, & vayne dysputacions of men with cor- 
rupte myndes, destytute of the tmeth /; which think e 
that lucre is godly nes." This kynde of lernynge and 
subtle dysputacyons vnto this daye we call scole _ f , m the latter 
matters /; from the which Paul commaundeth all Chris- ^™* s * eparate 
tyans to separate them selues. Soche cle'rkes, sayeth y. Ti. iij. 
Paid /, be " euer lernynge /, but neuer atteyne to \lie 
knowleage of the trueth." With suche wayne, vngodly, There is too 

. much vain, 

and vnprontable lernmge /, this your realme, most re- ungodly learning, 

\ ... ■-, ~ ~. , 111 and this comes of 

doubted Soueraigne, was ouer moclie replenysned the preaching 

through the preachinge and teachinge of suche scole the schoolmen, 

men & subtyll disputers /; otherwise called deceyuers. 

Which was one of the causes of our myserable blynd- 

nes /, and of dyuerse errours and abuses spronge vp 

and crept into this your Graces realme. For certeynely, for which the 

clergy are to 

if the clerkes, of this your Graces realme /, had bene blame, 
endowed with true knowleage of Gods Worde /, and because they do 

not sincerely 

had also syncerely preached the same /, althoughe preach God's 


suche errours and blyndnes had entered into this 
realme /; yet they shulde neuer haue so longe con- 
tynewed in the same /, but we shulde haue bene 
delyuered through the Worde clerely from them. As 
Christe saieth : "If you continewe in my Avordes /, Io.rlij. 
then are you my very disciples /, & shall knowe the 
trueth /, & the trueth shall delyuer yow /, and make 
you free." Therfore, most dread Soueraigne Lorde /, 
seinge that all erroure /, spyrytuall blyndnes /, myser- As aii errors 

spring from a 

able captyuite /, and seruyle bondage vnto synne, com- lackofknow- 
meth for lacke of knowleage and syncere vndersta»dinge scriptures, 
in the Holy Scriptures /; and, of the cowtrarye parte,/ 
through the knowleage & syncere A^nderstandinge of and through 

knowledge of 

the Holy Scripturs, we knowe God our Father and his them we know. 

Sonne, Ihesus Christ, our Lorde /, which is eternall j ' a v 

liffe /; we be also become free from all condempnation Jo. xvij. 
of synne. And through the syncere and true know- 



and become His 

nothing is so 
necessary as 
God's Word. 

Treason, murder, 
theft, adultery, 
and such, trouble 
nations j 

Prouer. xiiij. 

and these the 
faithf il try to 

avuid and abolish, 

Gal. V. 

endeavouring to 
crivify the tiesh, 
and by faith 
to il i all gooJ 

Mom. v. 

God's Word is 
the comfort of 
the Christian, 

who has no 
refuge, no help 
bul this. 


ti ,j. 

Roma, xiiij. 

Hcb. xi. 

leage of the Worde we be newly regenerate, & become 
the childerne of God /, the habitacle and dwelliiige 
place of the Holy Ghoste /, which nioueth & steareth 
vs euer to mortefye the fieshe /, & all her synfull lusts 
and concupiscence, / [and] to abhor and resyst vice. 
What is then so necessary, good, and profitable for the 
Christian people, bothe spirituall and cyuile wealthe /, 
as the Worde wherby we receyue faithe /, & by faithe, 
the Holy Ghoste 1 What troubleth all comraen 
wealthes /, but treason /, murder, thefte /, couetous- 
nes, / adulterye /, extorcion /, whordome, / dronckenes /, 
periurye /, & suche other synue 1 / as saythe the 
Holy Ghoste : " Iustice and rightuousnes maketh 
the people wealthy /; but synne maketh the people 
most myserable." And all these the faithfull, through 
the true and syncere vndersta/?dinge of Gods Worde /, 
doo euer studye and labour to ouercome /, and vtterly 
to abholyshe by faythe. As Paul sayeth : " They 
which be Christes /, doo crucyfye the fieshe, with her 
lustes and concupiscence." All good workes and coun- 
ceyles [be] encreased and stablyshed through faythe. 
There is no study /, striffe /, nor laboure agaynst synne, 
but through faithe. All couscyences that be quyet 
from synnes /, onely through faythe be made quyet. 
As Paul sayeth /: "Because Ave are iustyfyed by 
faithe /, we are at peace with God, through our Lorde 
Ihesus Christ." What counforte hathe any Christian 
man in aduersytyes /, temptacions /, desperation /, but 
onely by fayth in Gods Worde ? The Christyan man 
hathe noo refuge nor helpe to resyst synne /, but onely 
by Gods Worde /, as our Sauiour Christ dyd /; wherin 
he must fyxe a sure and constant faythe. Faythe 
causeth vs and all ours / to be acceptable in the syght 
of God. For a conclusio??- /: "What soeuer is not of 
fayth that same is synne." And witliowte a constante 
and sure fayth /, it is impossyble to please God. All 


men niaye well perceyue / that, by the lawes, and by 

the iuste execution of them /, although synne may be sin cannot he 

suppressed except 

for a tyme cohybyted and restrayned /, yet it can not through faith. 

be suppressed and abholyshed /, but onely through 

fayth. For there was neuer more godly lawes made Theie "ever were 

more goilly 

for the punyshmente of synne /, nor neuer more iuste laws made, 

and laws never 

and godly executyon of lawes admynistred /; and yet were better en- 

forced than now ; 

there was neuer more synne raygnynge. l H or cyuyle and yet there 

, . , z , i r- , nr> was never more 

lawes made by man / can not be ol greater erJycacye or sin _ 
strength /, nor worke greater perfectyon, vertue, and 

good wyll in man /, than the lawe of God: but the God's law does 

lawe of God not onely worketh no obetlyence or ver- obedience, 

, , t . ,1 , t i , ■• p j i • nut rather stirs 

tue /; but rather, through occasyo?* taken 01 the in- men np t0 sin> 

firmyte of the fleshe j, steareth vp synne, / as sayethe did S with"him! S '' 

Paul : "I knowe not what Iuste dyd meane /, except Re. vij. 

the lawe had sayed, thow shalte not Iuste. But synne 

toke an occasyon by the meanes of the commande- 

mente /, and wrought in me all maner of co?zcupiscence :/ 

for verely, withoute the lawe, / synne Avas dead." " I 

ones," sayth Paul /, " lyued without lawe ; but when 

the co??imandement came /, synne reuyued, / and I was 

dead /: and ^e very same commaundement, which was 

ordeyned vnto lyffe /, was founde to be vnto me an Bo. vij. 

occasyon of deathe." But nowe, graciouse Lorde /, for 

asmoche as it appeareth / that the lawe of God was not The Law of 

God was given, 

geuen to take awaye synne /, but rather to declare and not to take away, 

- . but to punish, sin. 

to puny she synne ; moche lesse any lawe made by man / 

can auoyde and put away synne. But fayth e is the 

true instrument appoynted by God /, wherby synne is 

ouercome & exiled. As the Scripture sayeth /, that Act. xv. 

"God through faithe / dothe puryfye & make cleane 

all hartes." Also Christ sayethe /: " Nowe are yow Io. xv. 

cleane /', by the meanes of the wordes / whiche I haue 

spoken vnto you." This faythe shall cause /, noryshe, Faith will pro- 

and breade / true obeydyence /, and all other vertues, true obedience to 

in your Graces subiectes hartes /; wherby they shall be aiK i man . 



Rom. x. 

And of this faith 
the clergy should 
be ministers ; 

because it is their 
duty to teach it 
to the people 
sincerely and 

If they do not, 
sin will abound, 
and the people 
become divided, 
and perish. 

Act. XX. 
i. Pe. v. 
Mai. ij. 

Prone, xxix. 
Sa. xiij. 

The want of 
preaching has 
caused insurrec- 
tions and com- 
motions in the 
realm 5 

brought in popish 
vain ceremonies, 
men's traditions, 

and hypocrisy : 
and all for lack 
ol a knowledge 
of the Bible. 

enforced to laboure, not onely to obserue & kepe Godes 
lawes /, but also all your Graces ordynances, eom- 
maundementes, and lawes /, without grudge or mur- 
muracyon. This fay the, as the Apostle sayeth, " com- 
methe by hearinge " of Gods Worde preached /; wherof 
byshops, parsons /, vicars /, & suche other, called to 
haue spirituall cure /, be ; or shulde be, dylygent myn- 
isters /; to whose voeatyow iustely parteyneth to declare 
and publyshe Gods Worde, syneorely & truely, / to all 
the people co»nnytted to their spirituall charge. Most 
myghty Pry nee, wherfor, if the pastours appoyntecl to 
preache & teache Gods Worde/, within this your Graces 
realme, / doo not dylige?;tly instructe & teache the 
people co?»mytted to their spirituall charge with the 
sayd Worde, / accordiuge as tliey be commaunded in 
the Scriptures, Act. xx., i. Pet. v., and Malache. ii. 1 ; 
all kynde of synne shall increase and abounde, / & the 
people vtterly be devyded. As sayethe the Holy 
Ghoste : " When the worde of God is not preached, the 
people perysheth." .Also the Wyse Man sayethe : " All 
men be vayne in whom there is not the knowleage of 
God." Wherfore, without any doubt, the wsmte and 
lacke of preaching of Godes Worde syncerely and truely 
hathe bene the very originall grounde and cause of all 
the insurrection, / co??miotkm /, [and] dyscention /, 
which hathe rysen, or begone, within this your Graces 
realme, or any parte therof. Por through the want of 
preach yng of Godes Worde synce[re]ly, haue entered 
in all popyshe blyndenes /, vayne & dead ceremonyes /; 
me?mes tradycyons be crept into the conscyences of the 
symple innocentes, in the steade of the lawe of God. 
Yea, ydolatrye, and all hypocrysye, with detestable 
superstycyon, for lacke of the lyght of Godes Worde /, 
is become Gods seruyce. And yet, notwiV/sxandinge 
this wante & lack of knowleage in Godes Worde & the 
1 Orig. .xx. 


euyll which co?mnethe manyfestly therof /, (the more it 

is to be lamented /) there be many popishe monckes, Many monks are 

admitted to l..e 

which late were abbottes, (to whom not onely vnwor- cure of souls; 

thely /, but also vniustely /, were geven greate pen- 

syons) and many of their covent monckes, hauinge having neither 

learning nor 

nother lernynge nor other godly qualytyes, (apte, meate, gudiy qualities; 

or convenyent to be in spirituall pastours) be nowe ad- 

mytted to haue cure of soules. And some suche wliich some of them 

. never knew what 

ded neuer knowe what is a soule /, nor yet be able to a soul is, 

and certainly 

haue cure ouer one soule, / be nowe admytted to haue were never able 
charge ouer an hundreth and many moo /, to the in- souls. 

„ ,, in • i i 1 i ; This increases 

crease ot ail yngnora?^cye, and all popishe blyndnes /; ignorance and sin, 

the hyghe waye & meanes to let in all kynde of synne, / damnation of the 

to the vtter dampnacion of all the soules commytted to Lo uncharge, 

their spirituall charge. Alas ! doo nother the patrones Patrons and in- 

. cumbents do not 

of suche benefyces /, nor yet the mcumbentes, ponder, regard God's 


or regarde, Gods threatenyngs by iris prophete Ezechiell, Eteeh. 

sayeng : / " As truely as I lyue, sayeth the Lorde, for ^xxllij. 

asmuche as my shepe are robbed, and deuowred of the 

wilde beastes of the felde, hauynge noo shepeherde, / 

and seing that my shepherdes take noo regarde of my byEzekiei, 

shepe /, but feade them selues onely, / and not my rob His sheep to 

shepe: Therfore, here the worde of the Lorde, ye 

shepherdes : / thus sayeth the Lorde God, Beholde, I 

my selfe will [be] vpon the shepherdes /, and requyre He win require 

His sheep at their 

my shepe from their handes /, and make them cease from hands. 

feadinge of my shepe ; yea, the shepherdes shall feade 

them selues nomore : / for I will delyuer my shepe 

owte of their mowthes /, so that they shall not deuoure 

them after this." If this threatenynge be not suffy- iftheydonot 

i t i i regard this 

cient warnynge & monycion to suche blynde shep- threatening, 
herdes /, yet, at the lest, let them feare Goddes curse f ear the curse 

i . ,i , ., , -i t pronounced by 

pronownced in the same chapiter agaynst suche negly- the same prop het, 
gent and ingnora??t shepherdes ; / sayenge : " Woo be ™woeto S the 
to the shepherdes of Israeli that feade them selues ! / ShemsSs - 
1 Orig. xiiij. 



You have eaten 
the fat, but the 
flock you have 
not nourished." 

One shepherd 
cannot attend two 
or three flocks, 

especially when 
they are far 

The duty of a 
good shepherd is 
to seek the lost, 
to call back the 
strayed, to heal 
t..e broken, 

and to adventure 
his life for the 
defence of the 

i. Pe. v. 

His example, 
his pains and 

his humility, 
his love and care, 
should be seen 
by all men. 

shulde not the shepherdes feade the floeke /'I yow haue 
eaten vp the fatt, / yow haue clothed yow with the 
wolle /, the hest fedd haue youe slayne /: but the floeke 
haue yow not noryshed /." Heauen and erthe shall 
muche rather perishe /, than these wordes, wherwith 
God threatened suehe pastours, shalbe found vntrue / ; 
that is /, " I will requyre rny floeke of the handes of 
the shepherde." Suerly, most myghty Prynce, it is to 
busye an office /, to muche and laborouse, for one 
spirituall shepherde, (althoughe he were very expert 
and connynge) to guyde, ordre /, and kepe /, two or 
thre flockes of shepe /, specially beyng so farre dysta?zt 
one from an other /, that the sayd shepherde can not 
be dayly present Avith them /, to se the governaunce of 
them /, whose nature is dayly to falle into dyuerse 
offences and spirituall dyseases. For the office of a 
good shepherd is, not onely to feade his shepe in good 
pasture /, but also to seke the lost shepe /, to call 
agayne the strayed shepe in-to the ryght waye /, to 
salue and to make hole the broken which is broken by 
aduersyte /, the weake and sycke shepe in the faythe /, 
with the counfortable promyses of God /, declared in 
the Gospell /, to make stronge & constant ; and, in 
co?zclusyon, to aduenture his liffe (if nede requyre) for 
the defence of his shepe /. Ever circu??ispecte, lyeng 
in wayte / to resyst the roringe lyon /, whiche neuer 
slepeth /, " goinge abowte and seakynge whome he 
maye devoure." Suche, I saye, shulde be their dili- 
gence and dayly cure over their floeke shewed /, that, 
not onely their shepe /, but also all other /, seing and 
perceyvinge 1 their greate paynes and labours sustayned 
and takew for the helpe and counforte of their shepe /, 
the gentle entertayninge with all pacyence /, humylyte, 
& meakenes / ; the fatherly love /, cure /, and affeccion, 
which the said byshops and other pastours shulde 
1 Orig. scing and preceyvinge. 


daylye shewe /, exercyse, & practyse towardes Christes 

flocke, commytted to their spiritual! charge ; shall iudge 

them, not onely good shepherdes, which enter in by 

the dore, / but also shall receyue & take the?rc to be 

most gentle /, prouydent, kynde, / & lovinge spirituall 

fathers. But, most prudent Gouernoure, how shall The non-resident 

this fatherly cure /, love /, zeale /, & affection /, be show these 

shewed by the pastoure to his spirituall shepe, which vir ues ' 

daylye cowcheth and wayteth in your Graces house- 

holde and courte /, and in other noble & worshipfull 

me?^nes howses /, attendinge to please men Avhych is 

called onely to serue God 1 And, not w/t//standinge 

his callinge to be a shepherde to feade Christes flocke, / he does not visit 

yet he will scase se and visyte them ones in the yere. onceTyear'" 6 

And when he visyteth his shepe /, what ghostely coun- 'ttto^it* 

cell he geveth them/, God knoweth. But. for the £«■«*«•. 

° I ' ' God knows. 

more parte /, he loketh more to his owne profett than 

to their wealthe. Alas ! the ambicyouse appetyte & 

burnynge covetuouse desyre of the yerely cowmody- 

ties /, profettes, and advauntages of the benefyces /, 

hathe vtterly extynguyshed and supped vp the spirituall 

love /, zeale, and affeccion which ought to be in the 

spirituall shepherdes. So that nowe it is straunge and it is wonderful 

wonderfull to se, or knowe, one iustely to execute his herd'whTdoes 1 '" 

offyce. Is this the honowre of any kynge, or of any hls duty ' 

other gouernowre /, that, vnder the cloke and coloure 

of hys seruyce /, a byshope or pryste, called to feade 

the flocke of Christe /, shall leaue the same vntaught /, should a king so 

and so transgresse the commaundement of Christe for pie"sure S of men? 

the pleasure of men 1 Haue not kynges and other Kings and rulers 

rulers sufncyent to endowe their chapelaynes /, w/tAout w^ohav^otiier 

retayninge suche which haue receyued lyuinge and llvings ' 

stypende to be in their churches feadinge Christes 

flock % This is tomoche dishonoure to the higher which is a 

powers /, agaynste Goddes commaundement & word, to foOie commands 

retayne an other mans seruaurct. But certenly althoughe ° oc ' 



Anno .xxi. 
Henrici .viij. 

Chaplains to the 
Royal Family 
and others may 
hold two livings, 

and every duke, 
marquess, earl, 
viscount, arch- 
bishop, bishop, 
and others, 
may keep two 

Chaplains may 
be non-resident, 
and so may 

If there had been 
godly shepherds 
we never should 
have agreed to 
this statute. 

Are benefices 
nothing but 

your Highnes, or other rulers, wolde nother call nor 1 e- 
tayne suche ambyciouse blynde guydes and couetouse 
pastours /, yet they their sclfe will, by their fryndes, 
make importunate sute, and laboure to be in seruice 
with youre Magestye, and with other rulers. The 
cause is thys / (one inconuenyence graunted /, many 
folowe) : there is a la we made in this your noble 
realme /, that all spirituall parsons of youre counsell 
maye haue thre benefyces with cure. And all the 
chaplaynes of the Kynge, / Queue /, prynce /, prynces, 
or of any of the Kyngs children /, brethren, / sisters /, 
vncles and auntes /, maye haue lycence to haue two 
benefyces with cure. Euery duke /, marques /, erle /, 
vycounte /, archebysshope /, bysshope /, with dyuers 
other estates, aswell men as women, maye haue two 
chaplaynes which maye haue two benefyces with cure/. 
And also dyuerse other degres of scole maye haue euery 
one two benefyces with cure /; so that ouer one of his 
cures, althoughe he take the profyttes, yet from that he 
muste neades be no[n] resydent ; and, peraduenture, to 
bothe he wilbe no feader nor teacher. And also, in the 
same estatute, all attendaunce in the courte and all 
other attendaunces vpon suche noble and worshipfull 
men which be lycenced to haue chaplaynes, maye be 
not resydent ; / yea, pylgrymes, in the tyme of goynge 
and commynge from their pylgrymage, be by that 
estatute dyspenced to be non resydent. O Lorde, 
where was the light of thy worde /, which shulde haue 
bene written in the hartes of the makers of that esta- 
tute 1 If there had ben godly shepherdes, which had 
dyligently executyd their office and callynge /, we had 
neuer wandered so blyndely to agree or consent to the 
makynge of any suche estatute. Doo we, which thinke 
vs Christen men, esteame spirifrialt benefyces to be 
nothinge els but lyvinges to be geuen at owre pleasure 
to prystes for seruyce done 1 Is not the benefyce geuen 


in respecte of a spirituall offyce to be executyd & done ] livings to be given 

at pleasure ? 

Doth not God co???maunde straytely shepherdes to God commands 

n i n • n i -it nan t shepherds to 

feade their iiocke dyhgently ? ban man, or any lawe feed their flocks, 

made by man, dyspence with Gods commaundement 1 can not dispense 

Lorde, in thy handes be the hartes of all kynges with God ' s ' 

and other riders /; enlyghten tbeyr hartes, Lorde, with 

the light of thy worde, that they maye knowe and see 

this pestylent yll blyndenes /, which so longe hathe 

caused thy shepe to wander in darckenes. And, when 

they perceyue it, they maye hatie grace and tyme to 

reforme the same, to thy glory and the helpe of this 

realme. And I shall euer desyer of God, and wishe in i desire that 

my harte, to all suche as be called to be attendaunte only such to any 

nere youre Magestie, and all other gouernowres /, that spiritual office 

for any carnall loue /, fauoure /, or affectyon whiche known to them 

they beare to any man for kyndred /, frendshipe /, 

luker /, or otherwise /, they doo not make any suche 

vngodly suytes, petycions, or requestes to your Highnes, 

or to any other gouernowre, for any parson to be ad- 

mytted to any offyce, other spirituall or temporall /, 

whome they doo not certeynly knowe, by most certeyne 

and sure proues and witnesses /, to be apte /, meate /, to be fit for the 

duties required, 

and conuenyent, aswell in lernynge as in condycions /, 
to excercise, vse, and to occupye suche offyce and rome /, 
wherunto he, by suche their sute m[ade], / shulde be 
called /, appoynted, and admy[tte]d (not onely for the 
shame, rebuke, and troble whiche, vpon dewe examy- 
nacion had, and founde contrary to their vntrewe sute) 
myght come and growe to them /; but also for the euyll because of the 

mischiefs which 

mcommodyte and pestilent myschef which shall ensewe may arise from 
to all suche which shalbe commytted to his or their appointments, 
gouernaunce & charge. Alas, that euer amongest the Alas, that the 

most godly office 

Chrysten fiocke, shulde be knowen or sene that suche should become 
office, which in Christes churche shulde be the most i rdiy dignity, 
godly /, most necessary /, most spirituall, and most pro- 
fytable, bothe to the bodye and sowle /, nowe is become 



and tli e possessor 
have nether 
virtue nor 
godliness ! 

It is needful to 
be circumspect 
in the choice of 

and to deprive 
such as are unfit, 
because they 
either cannot or 
do not execute 
their office, 

and put others 
inlo their places. 

Such as do not 
their duty 

are images, 
bearing only the 
name and appear- 
ance of bishop 
or pastor, 

a worldely honowre /, a lordely dygnyte, / a riche, carnal], 
prowde lyuinge, estate, and countenance /; and the pos- 
sessor therof, hauinge onely the name of a spirituall 
minyster /, hut no vertue nor godly qualyte, which of 
right ought to he in euery suche minister. If this he 
well pondered and remembred, most mercy full Gouer- 
nowre, / it is most to he lamented. But seynge this 
blyndnes hathe so lorcge co^tynewed, & somoch ewill 
hathe ensewed & folowed therof, in the defaulte of 
godly pastours 1 /; it is not onely nedefull ahoue all 
thinges to be circimspect in chosynge ernestly tryed /, 
experte /, and well lerned ministers to preache Gods 
worde syncerely /, hut also to compell the same to he 
demurante, ahydinge, and resydent vpon their cures. 
And all suche whiche he crepte into benefices for luker 
& aduauntage, vpon vntrewe suggestion and false fayned 
sutes made, / which can not or doo not feade their 
fiocke /, to depryue them of suche benefyces, because 
they other can not or doo not execute the offyce to that 
belonginge. Suerly no wyse man lyghteth a cawdell 
and putteth hym vnder a bushell. And if he set vp a 
candell (which, other for lacke of talowe or for other 
cause, can not geue light) shortely he taketh hym 
downe and putethe an other which can geue good light 
in his place. So all godly wyse men will order all 
spirituall lightes, which in dede can not geue godly 
lighte for lacke of spirituall grace which shulde be in 
them. For byshops and other pastors, which be 
chosyne & instytuted co?itrary to the ordynaunce ap- 
poynted & prescribed by Gods Worde /, which other 
doo not or can not execute the offyce perteyninge to his 
or their callynge /, be not godly & trewe byshops, but 
rather images & idolles, hauinge and bearinge onely 
the name and outwarde apparance of a byshoppe or 
pastor. But as concernynge the lernynge, vertue, & 
1 Orig. postours. 


other godly qualyties whiche parteyne & be of greate and have none of 

. . the godly 

necessyte and lustyce requysyte to be in euery godly qualities 

pastor, / they haue nothinge lesse. For if Christ jf Christ do not 

(which sayed to Peter "from henceforthe I make the learning and 

a fysher to catche men") doo not endowe the, offycer before he be 6aCh 

wyth lernynge /, grace, / power, & good will to preache admitted - 

his worde, before patrons present hym to any suche 

spiritual! office ; / the electe and admytted, notwith- 

standinge the admyssion and patrons presentment, / he shall be con- 
sidered a 
shall contynually abyde and remayne an hypocryte /: hypocrite. 

and suche one, which dothe not enter in by the dore /, loan. x. 

but presumeth to enter withowte a weddynge garment, / _ . " XX1 3- 

r J ° O ' I Such a one enters 

whom Christ condempneth to owtwarde darckenes /, notinb y the 
and also callethe hym a thef /, whose rewarde, withowte ls without the 

wedding garment, 

doubt /, shalbe, at the daye of the laste iudgement, and shall be con- 
demned at the 
with thefes j; if he repent not, and reasygne vp hys last. 

offyce, which he can not execute, fulfyll, and performe. 

Wherfore I mystruste not but that all suche which Patrons, after 

reading this book, 

haue power to present and to admytte theyr clerkes to for the discharge 
spirituall off'yces, readynge this lytle boke for the dys- science, 
charge of theyr conscyence, and for the glory of God /, and the good of 

the common- 

the commodyte and vtylite of the common wealthe wealth, 
(which will ensewe the godly presentacyon and admys- 
sion of well lerned /, approued, & godly clerckes to 
spirituall offyces) will, from thenceforthe, applye and ought only admit 

to livings accord- 

conforme them to the forme and maner of electyon of ing to God's 

spirituall mynisters appoynted, prescrybed, and lymyt- 

ted by Godes Worde /, which is this : — That euery which is this, 

that every man 

man chosyn to vse any spyrituall offyce /, shulde be shall be first well 

. - in proved in learn- 

fyrste well proued, aswell lor theyr lernynge as also lor j ng and virtue. 

theyr other vertuouse condycions. Fyrst for theyr 

lernynge, wherwith they muste not onely be able to 

enstructe and teache the people commytted to theyr 

spyrytuall charge /, but also able to reproue other 

which resyst the same doctrine /, with many other 

godly qualyties. As it apperethe in the fyrste Epistle 
supplication. 3 


[■£.] Tim. iij. of Paul to Tymothe and also to Tyte. Nowe, moste 

J " myghty Defender of the Cliristyan religyon /, seinge 

that Godds Worde hathe prescrybed and declared that 

Every spiritual euery man, which shalbe called and appoynted to he a 

first be proved to spyrituall mynister, mnste fyrste he proued and knowen 

Scriptures, '"' howe godly and spirytually he hathe enstructe and 

teached the people /; what lernynge he hathe in the 

Scriptures /, and not in the lawes /, to reproue errours 

and to condempne heresyes ; what paynes he hathe 

taken in preachynge Godds Worde /; and also whether 

and to have given he hathe geuen good example of lyuinge accordinge to 

good example of 

living. his doctryne. In this maner euery Christian ought to 

proue his clerke before he other present or admytt hym. 
But nowe also, moste benyngne Lorde /, co?isydre of 

Remember why the co?ztrary parte, & remembre for what causes the 

your ancestors 

gave bishoprics, kynges, your noble progenitors in tymes paste, haue 

and other patrons . 

gave livings. chosen bysshopps /, cz other patrons haue presented 
theyr clerckes to personagyes & vicaragyes to haue cure 
of sowles. These bothe causes well consydered, no 
man wyll greately rnemell that we haue wandered so 

Kings have given longe in blyndenes. For, in tymes paste, kynges haue 

bishoprics to 

chancellors' geuen theyr bysshoprycks to theyr councellers / chap- 


laynes, whiche haue bene daylye attendauntes m the 

courte /; which also haue done to them good seruice / 

as enbasadoures /; or to suche which haue taken paynes 

to almoners, in theyr householcle /, as amners & deanes of the chap- 

cioset, and others; pell /, clercks of theyr closett, & suche other officers /; 

while God's Word where Gods Worde dothe not approue any byshopricke 

disapproves of 

all such gifts. to be geue?i to any mam for any suche seruice done /, or 
for any suche paynes takew /; but onely for the gifte 
whiche he hathe from God to preache his worde /, & 
for the paynes & laboures susteyned in preachinge of 
the sayd worde. And as kynges, in tymes paste, haue 

Noblemen have abused their giftes of byshoprikes /, so noble men & 

followed their . 

example, worshipfull men, aswell of the clergie as of the layete, 

haue abused their presentacioras to their prebendes, per- 


sonages. & vicarages /; geuing them to their chap- 

laynes /, or to other, for kyndied in bloude, or for 

alyaunce ; / or els to suche as haue ben surueyours of and have pre- 
sented livings 
thier landes, / receyuoures of their rentes /, stuardes of to surveyors, 

. receivers of rents, 

their housholde /, faconers /, gardyners, or to suche falconers, 

other whoni they fauoure for suche worldely seruice & such ni^'as 

qualyties. To suche they geue their benefyces as re- r as rewards. 

wardes or wagies to hyrelynges, for suche seruice done /, 

or to he done /; hauinge lytle or noo regarde to the 

great charge and spirituall cure which, by Goddcs 

Worde, belongeth to all suclie spirituall offices. For 

kynges and rulers, in tymes paste, had noo lesse know- Kings and ruiers 

were ignorant of 

leage of any thynge / then of Godes Worde, which the God's word in 

times past ; 

subtyll byshops & crafty prystes were euer studiouse the bishops were 

, . . , p j n i i ever anxious to 

and desyrouse to,kepe secrete Irorn the nygher powers, keep it secret. 

For so longe as Godes Worde was kepte secrete and 

hyden from gouernours /, so longe the clergye dyd 

leade, not onely the kynges /, but also, all gouernowres 

& the co??mions, whyther they wolde. Thys was the This was the 

policy of the 

crafty polycye of the clergye /, to kepe the knoAV leage clergy to keep 

this knowledge 

of Gods Worde from all men /, that they myght vn- from aii men 

lawfully and vnworthely be promoted to spirituall they might he 

cures / and vse the profettes of them vngodly /'; and spiritual cures. 

that they myght also contynually exercyse their lustes 

and iniquyties. As Paul say the : " They be agaynste [*.] The. ij. 

all men ; forbyddinge vs to speake to the people 

wherby they myght be saued /, that they myght fulfyll 

their iniquyte and synne contynually." Haue not some 

of the byshops, with their retynewe, at this daye prac- 

tysed their olde polycy to extinguyshe the light through 

all Englande /, that they myght ones agayne leade vs 

quyetly in darckenes 1 Is not there a lawe made, a law is made 

through their 

through their crafte & subtylte, which geueth power to craft appointing 


certayne commyssioners, wherof the byshoppes chaun- 
celer or co?ranyssarye shalbe named to be two of the 
co??imyssioners /, which shall haue full power to take 



to receive & burn 
all books which 
are contrary to 
the Six Articles, 

according to 
their discretion. 

The intention is 
to take away all 
b mks against 
the primacy of 
the Pope, 
because no one 
can write against 
this without 
touching some of 
the Six Articles. 
They punish all 
who have any 
learning, calling 
them heretics, 

lest the iniquity 
of the clergy 
should be known. 

No man who 
knows the 
Scriptures will 
marvel at this, 
Juan. iij. 

because he who 
does evil hates 
the light. 

And since they 
have contrived to 

into their custodyc all suche bokes wherin is conteyned 
any clause or artycle repugnaunte to any of the Syx 
Artycles, / and the same bokes to burne and dystroye, 
as to the discretion of thre of them shalbe thoughte ex- 
pedyent 1 Marke well what they purpose by this 
estatute. Are there any bokes which write agaynste 
the Popes prymacie /, but they also write agaynste 
some of the Syx Artycles? Their coloure is to take 
awaye all bookes which wryte agaynste the Syx 
Artycles /; but their very intewte, purpose, and mean- 
yng is to take awaye all bookes, Avhiche conteyne any 
godly lernynge, that write agaynste the Byshop of 
Homes prymacy. Howe cruelly doo the byshops 
punyshe all them which pretende to haue lernynge, 
and specially in Godds "Worde 1 Suche they call here- 
tyques, and persecute with putty nge them to open 
shame /, with enprysonme?^te /, and, in conclusyo??, 
with deathe most fearefull and paynefull. All this 
they doo to dyscorage all men from the studye of 
Gods Worde / fearinge leaste that, by suche studiouse 
braynes which learne Gods Worde and publyshe the 
same, their iniquyte shulde be made manyfest. What 
studye and paynes they take to kepe the light from the 
people ! But no man, which knowethe the Scriptures, 
will meruell of this their policye and crueltye. For 
Saynt Iohan declare the their practyse playnely, sayenge : 
" He that doth euyll hateth the light " /; and why 1 
because his workes, whiche be euill, shulde not be 
reproued by the light. And, for asmuche as oure 
byshops countenau?ice of lyuinge /, their greate posses- 
syons /, and lordely domynyons in them, agreeth with 
Godds Worde /, as deathe with lyffe /, God with the- 
deuill /, light with darckenes /; therfore they hate the 
light which declarethe the same /, and studye to sup- 
presse the same by all craft and polycye. And, seinge 
they can so craftely higgle, and haue suche frendshipe 


and fauoure 1 to conuey /, [&] brynge to passe / that all get such books 

into their hands, 

bookes shall come into their handes vndre the coloure 
of the Syx Artycles /, it is to he feared that, shortely, 
they will, by lyke crafte, subtylte and frendshipe, pro- they may also 

take the Bible 

cure the JByble in Englyshe to be taken from the from the laity, 

i i./pj.i iniii-Ti i and then we shall 

iayete /; & then we snalbe ledd m darckenes by our beiedindark- 
byshops and other blynde gydes, and not' pastoures, at j^^J^^ 
theyr pleasure and will /; whiche is the effecte of all 
theyr study, laboure, and purpose. jSTowe, most vale- 
aunt Defender of Christ /, it appearethe playnely howe 
many myseryes we be wrapte in /, through the vngodly 
electyon of suche as be admytted to haue spirytuall 
cure and offyce to teache Godds Worde /; whiche not 
onely haue lytle lernynge /, but also they be enemy es who have little 


to all men whiche can and doo preache Gods Worde and are enemies 

r l i j a i / v xi i t0 such as r>"each 

sy[njcerely and trewly, / because they lyue contrarye God's word. 

to the same /, as I haue before declared /. And this is This is the cause 

the origynall grownde and cause of the abundaunce ofsin. 

and increase of darkenes and of synne /; as also of the 

longe contynuaunce of popishe blyndnes whiche hathe 

raigned in this realme so longe. Wherfore, yf the if bishops and 

byshops, and other elected and appoynted to be shep- pre ach the word 

herdes accordinge to theyr vocatyon and callinge /, be 

not fyrste knowen and well proued to haue suche 

knowleage & godly doctryne /, so that they can, & also 

doo, instantely & dyligently preache Gods Worde, 

whiche is the light expellinge all darckenes of synne /, 

then muste nedes synne encrease & abounde, Avithout sin must increase, 

any restraynte or brydle. " For if the light whiche is j/ a ^ v - t 

amongest yow be darckenes /, howe muche shall the theland - 

darkenes be ! " Youre Grace and your cyuile power doo The civil power 

punishes sin 

punnyshe synne /, when it is done and commytted /, committed, as it 

accordinge to the iustyce of lawes /, as to your vocatyon 

& office of right belongethe to doo. But the office and but the pastor 

converts the 

dewtye of the pastor is to preache Goddes Worde /, sinner who is 
1 Oi-ig. fououre. 



disposed to 
commit sin; 

so that, 
through him, 
there is less sin, 

the higher 
powers have less 
occasion to 
execute the 
justice of the law, 
and men's l.ves 
are preserved. 

Wherefore it 
appears the good 
order of the 
realm depends 
upon the minis- 
ters of religion. 

It behoves 
patrons to he 
very careful in 
the bestowal of 
their patronage. 

If they present 
unfit pastors, 
such as do not 
feed the flock 
committed to 
Ezecli. xxxiij. 

they consent to 
the death of souls, 

wherby he shall connect the hart of the synner /, 
whiche is willinge & dissposed to doo syrme /, so that 
he shall not breake fourth e to doo syrme in the acte /, 
which the cyuyle powre, for the example of other, by 
equyte and iustyce is bounde to punyshe. Therfore 
the dyligent executyon of the office of the pastoure 
shalbe the pryncipall meane and occasyon that lesse 
synne shalbe commytted ; / and so the higher powers 
shall haue lesse occasyon to execute the extreame 
iustyce of lawes /, and, consequently, many mens lyues, 
whiche nowe for lacke of the knowleage of Godes Worde 
shuld be loste for co»/myttinge murder /, felonye /, and 
suche other offences, / shall then be preserued that 
they shall not commytte suche offences /, which the 
hygher powers, by the laAves of equyte & iustyce, be 
compelled to co/adempne and to punyshe with deathe. 
Wherfore, the godly tranqnyllyte, reste, and peace of 
all this your realme, soueraygne Lorde /, and the good 
order of the same, hangeth and resteth moche vpon the 
godly and dyligent executyon of the office of pastors 
and of the spiritual! shepherds, dewly called and ad- 
mytted accordinge to Godes Worde. Therfore it be- 
houeth the presenter of the clercke to a benefyce and 
cure of sowles, to be cyrcumspect and well ware what 
clerke he doth present /: and that he haue good know- 
leage, experience, and proue of his clercke before he 
present hym. For, if a pastour doo not feade the 
fiocke of Christe co?nmytted to his charge /, the deathe 
of their sowles shalbe required of his handes. As the 
prophete Ezechiell sayeth in the .xxxiij. chapi. : And 
if the patron willingely /, other for kyndred /, fauoure /, 
frendshippe /, seruice, or money /, present a clerke 
which he knoweth not to be so lerned in Gods Worde /, 
that he be able to instructe and teache the people co?n- 
mytted to his charge, bothe •with the lawe of God and 
Avithe the Gospell /, every suche patron co?zsenteth to 


the deathe & dampnacion of the sowles cdnzmytted to 

the charge of suche vnlemed preste. And th erf ore and will be 

punished with 

suche a patron snail also he punyshed with lyke eternal pain, 
payne /; whiche is eternall /, as the Apostell sayeth : Rom. i. 
" Not onely they that doo euill /, but also they whiche 
consent therunto, shalhe punyshed with lyke payne." 
What wyse man liuynge wolde hyer a shepherde to what man 

would hire a 

gouerne hys beastly & worldly shepe, which nother shepherd who 

ln iipi'i -n i ^ would not feed 

wolde nor coulde ieade /, handle /, same, nor ones see his sheep? 
his shepe commytted to his charge 1 Suche a Avyse 
shepherde wolde shortely make his masters profet come 
to lytle aduauntage. Surely, a wyse man wolde chose if a wise man 

were deceived 

no suche shepherde. And if he were deceyued through by his friends* 

,, p c i - n j / . x. 1. persuasion, yet 

the persuasyon ot some of his irendes /, yet, when he he would soon 

hathe proued that he hathe no connynge nor dyligence /, f r om Mrservice 

he will shortely dyscharge hym of his cure and seruice. 

Shall we be estemed Christen men whiche haue more 

tender loue and affpctyon to owre corruptyble profett /, 

than we haue to the honowre of God & the eternall 

wealthe of tliQ immortal! sowles of owre Christen 

bretheren /, whom Code commaundeth [vs] to loue as 

owre selfe 1 Christ ded not commytt to Peter the cure Io. xxi. 

and charge of his shepe, before he asked thryse of cimst asked 

Peter whether he loued hym. As who shulde saye, I i v e a Him, before 

wolde not commytt my best beloued ioywell and trea- His sheep to 

sure vnto the/, vnlesse thowe loue me hartely. I usciai s e > 

wolde wyshe that all gouernowres arid riders in this 

case wolde take example and folowe Christ, whiche, and patrons 

should follow 

knowynge tji-e good wyll of Peters harte /, yet as one this example, 
ingnora^te therof, ded demaunde this question of Peter He knew Peter's 

n good will, but 

before he ded commytt tjie cure of his fiocke to hym /; He asked the 
therby to geue example & common doctryne to all his example to aii ~ 
faythfull folowers, that they shulde haue suche tender followers, 
and feruent loue towardes the Christen sowles /, that 
they wolde not commytt the gouernaunce and cure of 
them to any man /, but ynto suche of whom they haue 



A pastor without 
knowledge is but 
a blind eye, 

and the patron 
who chooses him 
deceives the souls 
of men. 

An ignorant 
bishop cannot 
do his duty 
because he does 
not know the 

Some are 
players at un- 
thrifty games; 
without j ustice, 
or temperance. 

By such idle and 
wicked ones 
Christ's inherit- 
ance is trodden 
under foot. 

proue & sure knowleage /, that, aswell by their preach- 
inge & syncere teachinge of Gods Wbrde /, as also by 
their vertuouse lyuinge co»sonante to the same Worde, 
they had vnfaynedly a faythfull harty loue towardes 
Chrystes fiocke. A blynde eye, which can not dyrecte 
and leade the bodye, is a blemyshe and a burden to the 
naturall bodye /, and noo commodyte. In lykewyse a 
man, chosen to be a spyrytuall pastour, which hathe 
not the knowleage and grace to preache the lawe and 
the Gospell /, is but a blynde eye, not able to dyrecte 
and leade the spyrytuall bodye. Wherfore, if any 
patrow chose any suche ingnorante man to be a pas- 
toure /, a spirituall eye and light to leade the spirituall 
sowles /; he not onely deceyueth them, but also, as- 
moche as lyeth in hym, kyllethe the bodye / and clothe 
greate iniurye to Christes bloode. Now it maye please 
yowre Highnes to note and marke what myschef and 
inconuenyence folowe the electyon and admyssion of 
an ingnorante pastour. ' Fyrste, if an ingnorante byshope 
in Gods Worde be admytted /, he can not execute his 
office because he knoweth not the Scryptures which© 
teacheth hym what shulde perteyne to his owne office. 
And as the byshop is ignorante in Godes "Worde /, so 
he admytteth suche as be vnlerned in Gods Worde /; 
evyn suche as by noo possybylite can execute the office 
of their callinge ; idle parsons /, vnhappy / dronck- 
erdes /, swerers /, common players at all vnthryftye 
games /, in whom there is no chastyte, / noo humylyte /, 
iustyce /, nor temperance. For a conclusion, / suche 
they admytte in whom there is noo holynes /, godly 
doctryne /, nor good example of lyuinge. To suche 
they commytte the healthe of sowles /, the fiocke of 
Christe, dearely bought with his bloode /; by suche 
ydle and wicked harlottes the enheritaunce of Christe 
is troden vnder fote. All euyll condycions, maners, 
1 Orig. postour. 


and doctrynes by them be tawght /; so that in the 

steade of Holy Scripture is crepte in the doctryne of 

lyes /, all superstycions /, dead & vayne ceremonyes /, 

and lycence to doo all kyncle of synne. Some of the some of them 

blynde ignorante prestes teacbe the people that God is are relieved by 

honowred /, and soules releued of their paynes, through beUs? printing 

the rynginge of belles /, painting of postes /, and set- ^ttmgup 

tynge vp tapers and candelles before the sayd postes /, candles ; 

whom the blynde prestes doo bothe sence & spryncle 

with holy water. An other sorte of blynde shauelings 

teache the people to gett heuen with fastynge /; this by fasting on 

, ., , , . this or that day, 

prescnpte daye & that daye /, with trentalles and 

masses of scala celi /; with forbearinge of bodely workes 

& kepinge ydle holy dayes /. They preache muche and keeping 

holynes and Gods seruice to stande in their holy oyle /, They say much 

ln / i 1 j_/ii i /in i holiness stands 

holy creame /, holy water /, holy asshes /, hallowed in holy oilj 

bedes /, mumblynge of a numbre of psalmes in Laten /, jjjjj ^^"'3,,^ 

keapinge of church ales, in the whiche with leappynge, / such . h ^ e > . 

daunsynge /, and kyssyng, they maynteyne the profett church ales, 
of their churche (to the honoure of God, as they both 

saye and thyncke). And thus the blynde leadeth the Thus the blind 

...-„.... . . „ lead the blind, 

blynde /, that both tall hedlonge into the lake ot and both fail 

eternall brenninge fyer. What naturall harte is there 

whiche will not lamente the misery /, yea the dampna- 

cion, most certenly thretenede by Gods Worde vnto all 

ingnorante, and neglygent bysshopps, and other spyryt- 

uall shepherdes, which doo not dylygently execute 

theyr offyce and vocation 1 What honest louinge harte 

doth not bewayle the habundaunce of synne /, the 

longe myserable blyndnes, wherin this realme hath 

ben ledd and wrapped in through the yngnorancye and 

neglygence of suche blynde guydes 1 But is there any such things make 

Chrysten harte which can forbere contynuall syghinge mourn when 

and mornynge /, remembringe the multytude, yea, the tr!rhu™mber 

infynyte numbre, of sowles (whiche without the greate ^utterly' 10 ' 

mercye of God, passinge all his worckes) through ing- damned - 



The country is 

with priests of 
one sort or 

These idle 
parsons are no 

but a harm to 
the State; 
they are robbers 
of the king's 
subjects, who are 
deprived of the 
alms of many in 
the hope that 
prayers avail 
for the dead. 

Many are en- 
couraged to live 
wickedly by an 
ungodly trust in 
masses and 

norancye & neglige/zee of suche blynde shepherdes /, be 
vtterly cast awaye & dampned 1 "What good cyuyle 
harte wolde not, I saye, lament and bewayle the greate 
burden wherwith this your realm e (gracyouse Lorde) is 
ouercharged through the greate multytude of chauntery 
prestes /, soule prestes /, chanons /, resydensaryes in 
chathedrall churches /, prebendary es /, muncke pen- 
cyons /, niorowe nifts prestes /, vnlerned curettes /, 
prestes of gyldes and of fraternytees, or broth erhedes /, 
rydinge chaplaynes j and suche other ydle parsons H 
whyche yf they be well noted /, and also what frute 
spryngethe of them, indyfTerewtly valewed /, con- 
sydered /, and pondered, / it will appere manyfestly to 
all reasonable and godly wvttes /, that they do brynge 
noo marier commodyte, j)rofett, or ytylyte, other spyrit- 
uaJi or temporal!, to this your publycke wealthe. No /, 
no /! They be not onely no commodyte nor profett to 
the common wealthe /, but rather moche hynderance. 
And truly no lytle wasters /, spoylers /, and robbers /; 
and that of the most poore /, indyge^t, and neadye of 
youre louinge subieetes /, which be most craftely /, 
subtelly /, and vnrightuousely depryued of the charyt- 
able succoure and almes of many symple, vnlerned 
innocentes /, through a vayne hope and false confyd- 
ence that theyr sowles shulde be releued and released 
of theyr paynes and tormentes dewe for theyr synnes /, 
when they be departed this worlde /, by the longe 
prayers of prestes. And (the more it is to be lamented) 
noo lytle nombre of your subieetes, through suche 
vngodly truste and confydence in masses and dyryges 
to be songe and celebrated for them when they be 
dead /, be greatly encoraged to lyue both wickedly to- 
wardes God /, and also vnfrutefully towardes the 
worlde /; lytle remembrynge and estemynge their 
vocacion & callinge, wherin God hath appoynted them 
to walke /, and moche lesse the extreame necessyte of 


their Christen bretheren. This vayne hope in the Tie hope m the 
loHge prayers of prestes (no doubt, graciouse Lorde) is is a cause of 

„ , poverty amongst 

a greate occasyon ot mocne pouerte amowgest the poore the poor, 
and neady of this yowr realm e. For the spedy remedy 
of this pouerte amongest your louinge subiectes /, and 
the vtter suppressyon of suche vayne hope in the 
prayers of prestes to be made for your subiectes when 
they be deade /, Avhiche is the greate cause of this 
myserable pouerte /, it may please your Magestye, of 
your accustomed goodnes, to call to your graciouse 
remembra?2ce that all the people, of this your regyon, while the people 
be subiect vnto yowr gracyouse power /, rule /, and underthe 
dominion, as vnto their supreme hedd and gouernowre, k °™. Mono * e 
dewly by God appointed to gouerne them one]y durynge 
their naturall lyues /; but when it pleaseth God to take 
their sowles owt of this myserable worlde, / than yowr when they a\e, 
Grace is dyscharged of all gouernance /, cure, & charge charged of ins 
ouer them /, as of suche which, after their death, doo caie over 
not appertayne to yowr Grace /, nor be of your kynge- 
dome /; but onely of the kyngedome of God /, vnder 
his gouernance, prouisyon, and rule. Into the which e 
kyngedome, nother your Grace nor noo other erthely No earthly prince 
prynce,maye lawfully vsurpe or take any rule, prouisyon, authority over 
care or gouernance /, for the sowles entered therunto. 
Seinge that your Grace haue no auctoryte nor power 
ouer the sowles departed /, yow be not onely dys- 
charged to gouerne, to care, or to prouyde for them, 
beinge deade /; but moche rather to prouyde that they The kin** must 

, i ^ t ij.1 i _£*i see that the 

maye not be deceyued so vnder the coloure ol longe people are not 
prayre /, but that they may be taught syncerely Godds J^g 61 ™^ b 
"Worde, whyle they be lyuinge vnder your subiection, * au g nt > 
so that they maye beleue constantly and lyue godly /; 
and then, by Christes promesse, hell gates shall not and then the 
prevayle ageinste them /: moche lesse they shall haue S h a n not prevail 
any neade of suche straunge succoure and helpe of a s ainsttiem - 
men /, nothinge appointed nor tawght by Goclds Worde, 


When you treat 
for the reforma- 
tion of abuses, 

reform all which 
have no strength 
in God's Word. 

All lands and 
possessions taken 
from religious 
houses should be 
given to support 
common schools, 

and to relieve the 
poor while they 
live under the 
king's subjection. 

This would be 
better than to 
allow these 
possessions to be 
used under a 
pretence of re- 
lieving departed 

to be profitable or necessary for their sowles after their 
death. Wherfore, I mistraste not but that your 
Magestye, when you shall next intreate for the reform- 
acion of the enormytyes & abuses sprongen vp in the 
Christen religio?* /, yow will godly reforme suche abuse 
and dissembled couetuousenes /, and certeynely beinge 
no godly remedy nor helpe for sowles departed, which 
hathe noo strengthe nor effycacy of Gods Worde /, 
which is the very trew fowndacion of all the Christen 
religion and helpe for sowles. And, in the meane 
season, I doo no lesse thynke, and also pray hartely to 
God, that your Magestye will prouide and make ordin- 
aunce /, that all suche landes and possessyons, where- 
vpon so many ydle hypochrytes and deceyuers be greate 
burdeyn & charge to your realm e /, which hytherto 
haue lyued vngodly and vnprofytablely /, maye, from 
henceforthe, be partly conuerted to the supportation 
and mayntenaunce of common scoles /, wherby errours 
crepte vp through ingnora??ce maye be through know- 
lege repressed /, and godly lernynge and knowleage 
more ple^tuousely planted and admynistred /; and 
partely that your poore louing subiectes maye be more 
mercyfully releued & succoured /, whyle they lyue 
vnder your subiection, charge, and gouernaunce. This 
godly dystrybution (most prudent Soueraigne) of the 
landes and possessions, ordeyned and appoynted for the 
counforte, soccoure, and helpe of yowr poore louinge 
and lyuinge subiectes /, is moche more consonante and 
agreable to Godds Worde, and more certeyne dyscharge 
of your Graces co??scyence, then to suffer the same pos- 
sessyons to be vngodly caste awaye and consumed 
vnder suche false colowre and pretence to releue sowles 
departed /; of whom your Magestye haue nother cure 
nor charge /, nor can not assure to them, by Godds 
Worde, through suche longe prayers of prestes, relesse 
of paynes after their deathe /, or any other ayde, coun- 


forte, or succoure. For, with owt any doubt (gracyouse 

Lorcle) yf suche hyred prayers had ben godly and if prayers for the 

dead had been 

necessary for the sowles departed /, other Christ or his necessary, 

Apostelles wolde haue taught it /, or, at the leaste, haue have said so. 

praysed or practysed it /; & not so manifestly reproued 

& thretened it /, sayeng : — " Beware of them whiche Marc. x\j. 

deuoure wyddowes howses, vnder coloure of longe 

prayers J; theyr iudgment shalbe moche longer." In 

all the Newe Testament there is no mencyon made of There is no men- 

_ tion of them in 

any suche offycer, nor offyce instytuted, nor appoynted, the New Testa- 
to praye for the deade. And yet all men, I thynke, 
"will confesse that the truethe of Godes Worde was most 
syncerely set forthe and preached in the tyme of 
Chryste & of his Apostles /; in whose tyme there was The Apostles 

taught no such 

no suche craftye lernynge puhlyshed nor taAvght by thing. 

them /, nor longe tyme after. But then men stablysshed 

and grownded their religion and hope of healthe vpon 

Godds Worde /, whiche teacheth vs that who so be- He who believes 

has no need of 

leueth is saued, and hathe no neade of longe, prystishe priests' prayers, 
prayers /; and who so beleueth not /, shallbe co?i- 
dempned. Betwene these extreame contraries there is 

no meane /; as Saint Augustijn saieth. Wherfore I Note here S. 

exhorte all them (whiche contrary to all Holy Scrip- , / entvteled 

tures) truste to the thyrde place, and there to haue Hypogtw&U- 

release of paynes through the longe prayers of prestes ; / Wner g for e T 

that they wolde geue ouer suche fayned fantasye of « xhort a11 who 

■/ <-> ^ d believe in 

men (subtylly ymaeined only through insaciable couet- Purgatory to 

v J ° J ° J ° leave their vain 

uousenes of ambiciouse prestes, to gett mony therwith fancy, 

to mainteyne their vngodly lustes /, and to lyue ydlely 

and delycately) and to truste rather to the sure and and trust 

J J ' to the infallible 

infallyble trewthe of Godds Worde /, which, wi't/iowt truth of God's 


doubte, is to repent and beleue /, and vtterly to 
forsake all synne / ; and than constantly to trust to 
Goddes promesse of mercy. Here manifestly apperethe, 
soueraygne Lorde /, in what miserable blyndnes the 
most parte of this your realme haue lo?/ge tyme be[n] 



All men must 
lament the 
miserable blind- 
ness of such 

I trust the 
punishment with 
which the world 
was threatened 

Amos. viij. 

is past — a punish- 
ment of hunger 
and thirst for 
God's Word. 

Luce. i. 

It is dangerous 
to admit for 
ministers such 
as have studied 
popish laws ; 

they will poison 
the flock 
and increase 
popish power. 
[* leaf 22] 

It is hoped all 
men will now see 
the evil of ad- 
mitting unlearned 

and carnal priests 
to spiritual 

led /, yea, and allmost drowened, through the longe 
custome vsed theryn. Who is it that can not lament 
(I saye) this deplorate & miserahle sorte of blynde 
shepherdes t Be not they bowght with the same pryce 
wherwit/i we be bought, to be membres of one bodye, 
wherof Christ is heade 1 If we be membres of one 
bodye, certenly Ave can not then but taste and feale, 
not onely their euill /, but also the lamentable estate 
of al other caste awaye through them. Lorde, I truste 
the punyshement is past Avherwith thow haste threatened 
the worlde to be punished with hunger and thryste ; 
not with hungre and thryste of breade and drincke /, 
but for lacke of hearinge thy Worde. Yt is nowe tyme, 
Lorde, to shewe thyne accustomed goodnes & mercye /, 
for the whiche we doo dayly and hartely praye /, 
sayenge : " Through the tender mercy of God, wher- 
with he hathe vysyted vs /, geue light to vs which sytt 
in darcknes and in the shadowe of deathe /, to guyde 
our feate into the waye of peace." Also it is a daunger- 
ouse thinge to admitte one to be a spirituall pastoure, 
whose professyon and study all his youthe hathe ben 
in decrees and popishe lawes. For suche a study, for 
the most parte, inge^dereth a popishe harte. If any 
suche be admitted to be a pastoure /, he shal not onely, 
other secretly in confessyon or by some other crafty 
meanes /, poyson his flocke with mans tradycio«s & 
popishe doctrine /, but also shall augme?zt the popishe 
power /; for the abrogacion * wherof yowr Grace and 
yowr honorable Councell haue taken greate paynes & 
travayle. Nowe, eftsones, I. truste that all men, which 
reade this lytle boke, shall perceyue therby what in- 
conuenyence & dampnable euyll enseweth the vngodly 
presentacyon and admyssyon of the vnlerned in Godds 
Worde /, and carnall prestes to spyrituall offices. 2 

1 This page is transposed in the orig., and stands where the 
next one should be. u Orig. officers. 


And althouglie suche patrons haue lytle zeale and loue Although patrons 

x ii i ti-i in / n have little zeal, 

to the common and publike wealths /, yet for the 
syngnler and carnall loue which they beare to their 
clerkes (whom they addycte and bynde surely to 
eternall dampnacion /, if they gene them suche spyrit- 
uall offyces /, whiche they neyther can nor will execute 
and perfourme) or for the tender zeale and loue which 
they haue to the sowles so derely bought tyith Christes 
bloode /, they wyll, wyth all circumspection, prone it is hoped they 

ii j-iii i t Hi i wil1 examine 

theyr clerkes that they be not onely Avell lerned m clerks, and so 

Gods Worde /, but that they also haue taken greate they are well 

paynes in preachynge the same /, and that they haue aine " 

also lyued accordinge to their preachynge. Suche 

experymeret and proue was commaunded to be made of 

weddowes /, before they were admytted to lyue vpon 

the charge of the congregacyon, as it appearethe in 

Tymothy. *Muche more than euydent and sure proue i. Ti. v. 

of pastours (whose offyce is soo necessarie) shulde be 

hade and made before they be admytted to their spyrit- 

uall offyce and charge. And, althouglie the election of it bishops he 

the byshop and of other spirituall pastors in euery 

poynte be hade and done accordinge as I haue before 

wryteft /, yet (most dread soueraigne Lorde) I see two yet there are twc 

more evils be- 

fowle deformytes and grete lamentable myschefes longing to 

them : — 

annexed to the vocacyon & offyce of byshops /, which, 
not refourmed, will poyson and vtterly corrupte the 
godly vocacion and electyon of the sayd byshops. The 
one infection and pestylent poyson is there greate lord- i. Their great 

p lordships, 

ships and domynions, with the yerely prouentes ot the and the rents 

same. Whiche hathe so fasshyoned them in proude them.° 

countenaunces and worldely behauoure /, that nowe 

they be moste lyke to heathen prynces, and moste vn- They live like 

lyke vnto Christe /, althoug[h]e they wolde be esteamed 

of all men to be his trewe successours /; yet poore Christ 

1 This page from here is transposed ; in the original it pre- 
cedes the one just given. 


sayethe : — " The foxes haue hooles /, the hyrdes of the 
but" Poor ayre haue neastes /, but the sorme of man hathe not 

Christ " had not . 

where to lay wherm to laye his head.' But oure hyshops haue 
They have gorgeouse & sumptuouse buylded howses, maners, & 

pail's fun of deer; caste H es > pleasauntely set abowte with parckes, well 
andothfr' replenished with deare /; warrens swarniinge full of 

pleasures. conyes /, and fyshe poo!es well stored with dyuerse 

kyndes of fyshes. And not onely these commodities 
and pleasures /, but also diuerse other pleasures. Howe 
this lordely and worldely byshoplike estate agreeth 
with Christes wordes /; I thinke a man can not reason- 
ably conyecture or ymagen, by theyr countenaunce and 
lyuinge /, that they be Christes trewe disciples. The 
2. They have too other myschefe and euill is, that they haue to many 

many cures and < <•<■ -, i -,-, . .-, , 

too much worldly worldly cures and busenes. I 1 or to these maners and 

They manage lordeshipes belonge many tenauntes /, for whose leases 

ainhefr detail" • *° ^ e mh & e i fynes and haryottes to be appointed and 

taken /, amercyamentes to be assessed, taxed, & also 

forgeuen and dispenced /, there be noo fewe sutes made 

must hear testa- to my lorde byshope /; also the hearinge of testa- 
mentary causes, , . , „ , 
divorce suits, mentorye causes /, dyuorses /, causes of matrimonye /, 

of sclaunders /, of leacherye, / adultery /, and pun- 

and such other yshement of bawedrye /; and suche other bumme 

matters not 

belonging to their courte matters, wherof not one belong to his offyce & 

My lord is so vocation appointed by Godds Worde. My Lorde 

thesTthings that Byshope is so occupyed & vnquyeted /, that he hathe 

timTto^study or no ° leasure to studye nor to preache Gods Worde. 

to preach. -g u ^. suc j ie a ff a y res anc l worldly busynes, nothing per- 

teyninge to his vocation, be very greate hynderanee 

and lett to my Lorde Byshop, that he can not applye 

Mat. v[i~\. hym to exercyse his owne offyce. "For no man can 

serue two masters," sayeth Christ. The Apostles 

thought it not iuste and ecpiall to prouide for the 

Art. vi. necessary lyuinge of the poore /, leauinge Godds Worde 

vntawght. But my Lorde Byshoppe, doinge these 

things, nothing perteyniuge to his office /, thincketh 


that he hathe exactely done his offyce. From these 

greate maners commeth yerely, greate rentes, pleasures, His great income 

& profettes /; which, althowghe they be the good crea- heart to trust in 

tores of God /, yet thabundaunce of them (beinge nim " socoriup 

where they be more impedyment than helpe) be a 

greate occasyon of corrupcion in the vser of them. 

And, peraduenture, they wolde allure and intyse a 

byshops harte to truste in them and so corrupte hym /, 

as the Scripture sayeth : — "Blessed is the ryche, " Blessed is the 

... rich who is 

which is iounde withowt blemyshe, & hathe not gone found witiiout 

„, , , it- i ii blemish, and has 

alter golue, nor hoped, m money and treasures /; where not gone after 

is there suche a one and we shall commende hym and gold: 

call hym blessed /; for greate things dothe he amonge for he does 

his people." And if my Lorde Bysshoppe shulde geue among his" 

the superfluyte of his goodes to the poore (whose jgjji 6 ' 

goodes iustely they be) as the prophete Ezay sayethe /, Esa. iij. 

than my Lorde shulde lacke them to furnyshe his 

lordely countenaunce /; and so my Lorde shulde loose 

his lordely honoure and prayse of the worlde. "VVher- 

fore, as these superfiuouse possessions be annexed to 

estates of bysshops, by mans vayne fantasye and not 

by Gods Worde /, so my Lorde Byshoppe wyll other The bishops use 

keape them to make hym more fryndes/, remembrynge ma ke Mends, 

that " ryches makethe many fryndes /, but the poore 

is forsaken of his neyghbowre"/; or deuyse the exspence 

of them contrary to Godes Worde /, other to make or to bribe those 

about the court ; 

sure fryndes in the courfce aboute the kynge, to obteyne 

more promocions & benefices /, or in curiouse buyld- or else in building, 

fine living, 

inge /, sumptuouse and delycate fare /, well appareled 

seruauntes /, tryme decked horses, to ryde pompecusely servants, horses, 

and riding like 

lyke a lorde. Althoughe there were no auctorite to lords, 
proue this /, yet the lordely countenaunce & fasshyon 
of byshops /, yea, their common exercyse and also 
practyse, care well proue and testyfye this playnely be- 
fore the face of all men, which knoweth the lordely- 
nes of bysshopps. As the prophete Ezay sayethe : — Esa. iij. 




All which are 
opposed to the 
saying of the 
I. Tl. vi. 
" When we have 
food and raiment 
Jet us be content." 

Lu. xxij. 

Peter tells bishops 
to feed the flock 
of God; 

taking the over- 
sight willingly 
and with a godly 

But the proud 
countenance of 
our bishops is 
contrary to all 


Math. xij. 

And so long as 
this is so, 

they cannot sin- 
cerely and truly 

Horn. x. 


loan, xx} 

Christ was sent 
to preach, and He 
sent His disciples 
to do the same. 

" The chaungynge of their countenaunce bewrayeth 
them /, yea they declare theyr owne synnes them selfes 
as Sodomytes /, and hyed them not." Doo not these 
thinges fayntely agree with the sayenge of theyr pre- 
decessour, Paule the Apostle, which sayeth : — " When 
we haue foode and raymente we muste be contented 1 " 
Is not this lordely honoure dyrectely agaynste Chrystes 
wordcs /, which sayethe : — " The kynges of nacyons 
raygne ouer them / and they that haue auctoryte 
ouer them are called graciouse lordes. But yow shall 
not be so." Also Peter speakethe to his trewe suc- 
cessoures sayenge : — " Feade yow Christes fiocke as- 
muche as lyeth in yow /, takynge the ouersyght of 
them ; not as compelled theranto /, but wyllyngelye /, 
after a godly sorte /; nor for the desyer of fylthy 
luker /, but of a good mynde /; not as thoughe yowe 
were lordes ouer the paryshes /, but that yowe be an 
example to the fiocke /', and that withe good will." 
But owre lordely byshops estate, and proude counten- 
aunce of lyuynge (as it is nowe vsed) is contrarye to 
Godes Worde /, as it appearethe by these wordes : — "But 
yow shall not be so." And also by these sayengs : — 
" Not as thoughe yow were lordes ouer the paryshes." 
And Chryst sayethe : — " He that is not with me /, is 
agaynste me." Wherefore, so longe as they raigne so 
lordely in the clergie, contrary to Godds Worde /, so 
longe be they againste God. And so longe as they be 
agaynste God /, they be not sente from God /, and then 
can they not preache trewly and syncerely his worde. 
" For howe can they preache excepte they be sente ? " 
sayeth Paul. Christe was sente to preache, as it appear- 
ethe. Marc, i., Luce, iiij., and Ezaye. lxi. And Christe 
fayeth to all his trewe dysciples : — "As my Father sente 
me /, so I do sende yow." And commaundeth also all 
his Apostles, & trewe successors of the Apostles, to 
1 Orig. .5j. 


preache the Gospell to the holle worlde, and not lordely 

to raigne in the clergye. Whom Paul teacheth to he 

as mynisters /, sayeng : " Lett a man this wise esteame 

vs /, euyn as the mynisters of Christe and the stuardes i. Cor. iiij. 

of the secretes of God." To preache the Gospell ther- To preach the 

gospel is the 

fore (most gracyouse and prudente Lorde) is the trewe vocation of ail 
vocacyon and offyce of all godly byshops /, parsons /, parsons." 
vycars, and of other shepherdes j; and not to he en- ami not to be 

. ambassadors or 

hasadowrs to prynces, / nor to he mdges to here matters judges. 

of contencyon, / testamentarye causes /, dyuorses /, 

sclaunders, / bawdery /, and suche other. Your Grace 

hathe, of your laye fee, suffycient bothe in lerninge, There are plenty 

and wysedonie, and of good conscyence, to here and learned and wise 

. -. , / j i i enough to hear 

iudge suche causes and varyaunces /; remyttynge by- and judge such 

shops to attende their offyce and vocacyon by God (and leaving bishops to 

not by man) appoynted. And therfore they shulde not ^JJ^ 81 * 

excercyse any other offyce than God hathe appoynted 

to them. For " no man can serue two masters." And Mat . vi. 

if byshops and other pastoures wolde dyligently execute 

theyr vocacyon and offyce /, moche fewer of these 

matters of contencyon shalbe in vre and experience, 

other to be harde or iudged. Seinge the Scriptures 

commaundeth so ernestly euery man to walke as he is 

called, many Christen men meruell gretly why the by- Men marvel why 

bishops strive 

shops desyre and procure so greadely to exercyse the after other office", 

lt , , . . , i /iii and leave their 

offyce perteynmge to an other vocacyon /, and to feue own vocation 
their vocacyon and offyce (appoynted by God to them ™P erformed - 
to be exercysed) not executed nor performed and done. 
Yerely bycause they lone the glorye of men / more loan, xii. 1 
then the glorye of God. And surely euen as Cayphas cauS e they love 

i A T. ■ t_ i i j-T, £C the praise of men 

and Annas, bemge byshops, and exercysynge the offyce m01 .g than the 
of seculer and temporall iudges, ded iudge Christ to be P ralseofGoJ - 
crucifyed /, so owr byshops, so longe as they, contrarye 
to their callynge, doo exercyse the offyce of temporall 
iudges /, so longe shall they persecute Christe and his 
1 Orif<. ix. 



There is business 
enough to em- 
ploy them in their 
own office. 

Sin reigns 

Costly apparel 
and change of 
fashions have 
made men who 
once could main- 
tain 20 or 30 

and comfort 
many poor, 
now scarce 
able to maintain 
their own house- 

These two things 
costly apparel 
and varj-ing 
especially of 
the women, 
are the chief 
cause of this 
altered state of 

Men are com- 
pelled to sell their 

or get in debt. 

They have to 
burden their lands 
with provision 
for children who 
should have been 
provided for 
during life. 

menibres /, aud studye to suppresse his worde /, and 
not to preache the same. Haue not they busynes 
suffycyent, wherwith to occupye them in their owne 
offyce ] If they wolde loke well therunto /, doo not 
they see on euery syde detestable synne raigne through- 
owt all this your realme ? Is there not suche excesse 
and costelynes of apparell /, bycause of dyuersyte and 
chauwge of fasshyons, that scarce a worshipfull mans 
landes, which in tymes paste was wonte to fynde and 
maynteyne twenty or thirty tall yowemen /, a good 
plentyfull howsholde for the releyfe and counforte of 
many poore and neadye /; and the same nowe is not 
suffycyent and able to maynteyne the heyre of the 
same landes /, his wiffe /, her gentle woman or mayde /, 
two yowmen /, and one lackey 1 The pryncypall cause 
herof is their costly apparell /, and specially their 
manyfolde and dyuerse chaunges of fasshyons whiche 
the man, and specially the woman, muste weare vpon 
bothe headde and bodye. Somtyme cappe /, somtyme 
hoode /; nowe the Frenshe fasshyon /, nowe the Span- 
yshe fasshyon /; than the Italyan fasshyon /, and then 
the My lien fasshyon /; so that there is nco ende of 
consumynge of substaunce, and that vaynely, and all to 
please the prowde folyshe man and w omens fantasye. 
Hereof spryngethe great myserye and neade. The fa- 
thers consumynge theyr goodes in vayne / pryde /', and 
wanton lustes (called vpon by yowr Grace to serue 
yowr Magestye for the defence of this yowr realme) 
haue not to doo their dewtye /; wherby they be com- 
pelled to sell theyr landes /, or els to burd eyrie their 
fryndes /, or els to daunger them selfe in dette to many. 
Hereof rysethe it that the father is compelled to declare 
his will vpon hys landes to be executed after his deathe 
(when he can not occupye the same hym selfe) for the 
aduauncement and helpe of his children, and the pay- 
ment of his dettes /, whom easely he myght in his lyffe 


liaue aduaunced, holpen, and dyscharged /, yf suche 

ryotuouse expenses had ben auoyded. The prophete 

Osee sayethe : — " There is noo trewethe /, no ruercye /, Ose. iiij. 

no knowleage of God in earthe /; cursynge /, lyenge / 

murdre, thefte /, adulterye, hathe broken in" /; and yet 

doo owre shepherdes holde theyr peace. What com- Drunkenness, 

swearing by 

messacyon /, dronckenes /, detestable swearinge by all Christ's Body, 
the partes of Christes bodye (and yet callynge them in 

scorne " huntinge othes ") extorcyon /, pryde /, couet- pride, and vice 

uousenes /, and suche other detestable vyce, raigne in realm, 

this yowr realme /; agaynste the whiche owre byshops, against which 

bishops and 

and other pastoures, shulde contynually crye owt /, as pastors should 

the Prophete sayethe : — ■" Crye nowe as lowed as thow Em -^^ i 

canste /, leaue not of /, lyfte vp thy voyce lyke a trom- spare not - 

pett /, and shewe my people their offences, and the 

howse of Iacob their synnes." But, alas ! they be be- But, alas! they 

come bothe blynde and dome /, as the Prophete say- duml) , 

ethe : — " His watchmen are all blynde ; they haue all Esaye Ivi. 2 

together noo vnderstandinge /, they are all dome dogges, 

not able to barcke /; they are slepye /, folyshe are 

they, and lye snortinge /. They are shameles dogges and shameless. 

that be neuer satysfyed. The shepherdes also in lyke 

maner haue no vnderstandinge /; but euery man turn- 

ethe his owne waye /, euery one after his owne couet- 

uousenes, with all his powre." What is the cause that why don't the 

they doo not execute this their offyce 1 Other bycause their office*? " ° 

tbey can not /, or bycause they haue somoche worldely 

busynes that they will not, apply them selfes to per- 

fourme bothe. Or els they be afrayed to speake the 

trwethe /, lest they shulde dysplease men. Whom 

Paul reproueth sayenge : " If I shulde please men, I Gal. i. 

shulde not be the seruaunte of Christe." Also the 

Prophete sayethe : — ■" God breakethe the bones of them Psal. Uj. s 

whiche studye to please men j; they be confounded /, 

1 Orig. v. 2 Orig. lxvi. 

3 53rd in A. Version. 



They love their 
possessions ; 

they will not 
displease men; 

they will main- 
tain their pride, 
and will continue 
in it; 

Esa. [Ix^vj, 

and so long as 
they continue in 
wealth and 
honour they will 
not do their duty, 
but rather per- 
secute the Bible 
which declares 
what their duty 

When the Pope 
was first endowed 
with great pos- 
sessions, a voice 
was heard — 
"Now poison is 
cast into the 
Church of God." 

So long as 
honour and 
wealth are 
annexed to 

because the Lorde dispyseth them." Notwithstandynge, 
owr hyshops loue so well their greate domynions, wher- 
by they maynteyne their lordely honoure /, that they 
will not dysplease men with preachynge the treuth /, 
lest they shulde then loose their greate possessyons /; 
and, consequently, their lordely glorye. But surely as 
longe as they possesse theyr greate domynions /, so 
longe they wyll contynewe and maynteyne their pryde. 
And so longe as they contynewe in pryde /, so longe 
they shall not receyue the Holy Ghoste /, whiche shall 
teach them to speake the treuthe. "For vpon whom 
shall my Sprete reaste " (sayeth the Prophete Esaye) 
" but vpon the meake and lowely /, and vpon hym 
which fearethe my sayengs." Also the Prophete say- 
eth : " God resysteth the prowde /, and vnto the 
meake and lowely he geuethe his grace." "Wherfore, so 
longe as the byshops contynewe in this worldely wealthe 
and honowre /, so longe will they neuer do their dewtye 
and offyce /; but rather persecute the Worde of God 
whiche declarethe and shewethe what is their offyce 
and their dewtye. And so longe as they do not exer- 
cyse their offyce and vocatyon /, but doo persecute the 
Worde and suche as syncerely preache the same /, so 
longe shall synne increase. " For if the eye be 
wicked /, all the body shalbe full of darcknes." For 
euen as at suche tyme when the Byshoppe of Eome 
was fyrste endowed with greate possessyons /, a voyce 
was harde /, seyinge : — " Nowe venome and poyson is 
caste and shed forthe into the churche of God." In 
lykewyse, no doubt, most godly Gouernoure /, semblable 
voyce and sayenge maye be veryfyed in and vpon all 
the churche of Englande /, sythen yowr byshops were 
endowed with so greate possessyons and lordely do- 
mynions. No doubt, gracyous Eorde /, so longe as 
grete lordely domynions /, worldely honours and 
wealthe /, be anexed and knyt to the vocacyon and 


offyces of byshops and other pastours /, these myscheues these mischiefs 

• will follow. 

& inconuenye«ces shall euer ensue & iolowe. lyrste 

the moste prowde and ambycyouse /, the moste couet- The proudest 

will seek the 

uouse and wycked, / which other by money, frendshyp, benefice for its 

. honours, 

or nattery, can obtayne Hie benefyce /, wyll laboure 
with all study and polycye to gett the benefice, / only 
for the world ely honoure, and not for the zeale and 
loue which he shulde haue to enstructe and teache the and not to teach 

. the people ; 

people commytted to his cure and charge. And for 
the profett which belongethe and apperteynethe to the 
same benefyce /, they wyll dyssemble humylyte and he win feign 

humility, and 

despeccyon of all worldely profettes and pleasures /, so seem to despise 

n / i i n i i7 all worldly profits 

colorablye and subtelly /, that yt shall be very harde and pleasures. 

for youre Magestye, or any other hauynge aucthoryte, 

to geue benefyces, to perceyue them. And when they But when he has 

haue obteyned the benefyce /, than euery Christen man christian win 

shall well perceyue that he hathe not entered in by the Centered in 

dore ; that is, for the zeale and loue, to doo and execute y e oor ' 

the offyce /, but hathe clymmed vp and assended by a 

nother waye ; / that ys, for the Inker and honoure 

annexed to the offyce. And than certenly, whosoeuer 

assendeth and enterethe in by a nother waye /, can not and is therefore 

only a thief and 

be but a thefe /, by daye and by nyght ; / whose study a robber, 

I/ill/ t i whose study 

and laboure muste be to steale /, kyll /, and to destroy. mU st be to steal, 
As Christe (whose wordes muste euer be true) sayethe : ' ' an 
— " The thefe commethe not but to steale, / to kyll /, loan. x. 
and to destroye." So that, so longe as so moche 
worldely profett and honoure belongethe to the bene- 
fyce, so longe wyll he that, for wante and lacke of 
lernynge can not doo the offyce /, and also the moste 
couetuouse and proude, / wyll laboure to haue the 
offyce /, whereby the people commytted to his cure /, The people win 

ii/ i i i-/-~ii De untaught, 

shall not onely be vntawght 1 /, and not lerned m Gods and those who 
Worde /, but also all they which can preache and 
teache Godds "Worde and loue the same, / by suche 
1 Orig. vntawgth. 



will be persecuted 
and tormented. 

It is easier to 
gather grapes of 
thorns than of 
such greedy 
thieves to have 
any Christian 

Seeing all 
these things, 

bound to take 
away from 
bishops and other 
spiritual minis- 
ters all their 
superfluous pos- 
sessions and 
worldly cures ; 

and, this done, 
to appoint such 
as can preach and 
Lave preached ; 

and to remove all 
such as will not. 

The poison 
being removed, 
faith shall in- 
crease and sin 
decrease ; 

a worldely wolfe /, shall be extremely persecuted and 
tormented. For he can not hut steale /, kyll /, and 
destroye /, and vtterly ahhore /, and hate the godly /, 
as Christe sayethe : — " Yf you were of the worlde /, the 
worlde wolde loue his owne. But because you be not 
of the worlde /', but I haue chosen you from the worlde /, 
therfore the worlde dothe hate you." No doubt a man 
shall moche rather vpon thornes gather grapes /, and 
ypon brambles and bryres gather fygges, / than of 
soche gredy theues to haue any Chrysten relygyon, 
other setforthe /, preached, / or stablyshed. Wherfore 
(moste redoubted Prynce) seinge that theyr greate pos- 
sessyons /, ryches /, worldely offyces /, cures /, and busy- 
nes /, be the impedyment and let that they do not execute 
theyr vocacyon and offyce /, whiche is so godly, profyt- 
able, and necessarye for this yoAvr common wealthe /; 
yowe beinge owr soueraigne Lorde and Kynge (whom 
God hathe called to gouerne this yowr realme /, and to 
redresse the enormytyes and abuses of the same), by all 
iustyce and equyte are bounden to take awaye from 
byshoppes and other spirytuall shepherdes suche super- 
fluyte of possessyons, and ryches, and other seculer 
cures, busynes, and worldely offyces /, whiche be the 
cause of moche synne in them /: and no lesse occasyon 
whereby they be letted to execute their offyce /, to the 
greate losse and hynderance of moche faythe, vertue, 
and goodnes /, which myght be admynistred to your 
subiectes /, through the trew preachynge of Godes 
"Worde. And that done /, than circumspectly to take 
heade that none be admytted to be pastoures, / but 
suche as caw preache, and haue preached syncerely 
Godes Worde. And all suche as will not /, to remoue 
them from theyr cures. This godly ordre obserued in 
the electyon of spirituall pastoures /, and the pestylent 
poyson moued and taken away from theyr vocatyon /, 
faithe shall increase /, and synne shall decrease /; trewe 



obedience shall be obserued wyth all humylite, to your 
Magestye and to the hygher powers 
by your Grace appoynted in office. 
Cyuile quyetnes, reste, and pea- 
ce shalbe stablyshed /, God shal 
be feared, honoured, and lo- 
ued /, whiche is theffec- 
te of all Chri- 
sten lyuin- 

peace shall be 
established, and 
God shall be 


OLorde, saue our moste soueraygne Lorde, Kynge o Lord, save 
Henry the Eyght /; and graunte that he may ones m ay he once feel 
throughly feale and perceyue what m'yserable calamyte, f rom ^ e ^ cr 
sorowe, & wretchednes we suffer now in these dayes a tyrant8- 
brode in the countre j , by these vnlerned /, popyshe /, 
and moste cruell tyrauntes /, euen the very enemyes of 
Chrystes crosse /; whose payne shall be withowt ende /, 
whan we shall lyue in ioye for euer. Graunte yet 
ones agayne, I say, goode Lorde, and moste mercyfull 
Father, through thy Sone Ihesus Christe /, that whan 
his Grace shall knowe and perceyue (by thy gyfte & Grant that when 

he knows their 

goodnes) theyr most detestable wayes in mysusynge thy ways he may 
heretage /, that he wyll ernestly go a boute to se a 
redresse a monge them /; and to the penytent and con- 
tryte in harte to shewe his accustomed goodnes /, and 
to the other his iustyce /, accordinge to Saynt Paules 
doctryne /, and his Graces lawes. 

And, moste dreade Soueraygne (with all humylyte and 
humblenes of harte), I beseche your Grace / (accordinge i beseech your 
to your accustomed goodnes), to take this my rude my supplication 


as a fruit of my supplycacyon to the beste /, as a frute of my obedy- 


ence /, wheryn I haue not dysserubled /, but haue 

opened fully vnto your Grace the ground e and very 

bottome of my hart ; / not of any grudge, euyll wyll, or 

and not of malice malyce that I beare to any spirytuall shepherde (God I 

to any spiritual 

shepherd. take to recorde), but onely for the glory 

of God /, the honoure of your Gra 
ce /, and the wealthe and profett 
of your moste naturall 
j. and louiuge 



% Enprynted in the yeare of our 

Lorde .M. CCCCC. xliiij. 

in the moneth of 


tton of tljt 3|0ott 

% |hmurbts .xxx. CljHpitfr. 

% SEfto so stoppetfj i)ts eare at 

tfje crtpnge of tfje poore, jje sfjall 

crge jjpt selfe, antr sjjall not 

be jjeartu 


^f To the most victorious 
Prynce Henry the viii. by the Grace of God 
Kyng of Englande, Eraunce, & Ireland ; 
Defender of the Eayth, and Supreme 
Head of the Churche of England, 
and Ireland, immediatly next 
vnto God : hys humble and 
most faythfull Subiectes 
of the Healme of En- 
gland, wysh lyfe 

PItuously complaineth the pore co?nmons of this The commons 
complain of their 
your Maiesties realme, greatly lamentyng their miserable 
. n . condition, 

owne miserable pouertie ; and yet muche more especially of their 
the most lamentable and more there wretched e> '" ( 
estate of their chyldrew and posterite. "Whose myserie, 
forsene and throughly considered, is and ought of very 
nature, to be more dolorous and sorowful vnto euerye 
naturall hert then that which we our selues feale and 
sustayne. !Not many yeres tofore, your Higbnes poore some years ago 
subiectes, the lame, and impotente creatures of this and^mpotenT' 
realme, presented your Highnes with a piteful and ^^1^ a 
lamentable complaint, imputyng the head and chiefe ^"tady*" 4 
cause of their penury and lacke of reliefe, vnto the be &g ars > 
great & infinite nombre of valiant and sturdy beggers 
which had, by their subtyll and crafty demaner in who had got into 
begging, gotten into their ha?zdes more then the third 



the yearly 

Your Majesty 
weeded out the 

mpnks and nuns, 
who, under the 
disguise of 
contempt of 
this world, wal- 
lowed in riches ; 

and removed 
many gilded 
beggars, whose 
holiness was held 
in such esteem 
that we 

reverenced them 
as gods. 

When they were 
abolished, like 

we fell into an 

and.forgetting our 
obedience to the 
king, we behaved 
as the Ephesians 
did to S. PauL 

and the Jews to 
Stephen, when he 
said God dwelt 
not in temples 
made with hands. 

part of the yearely reuenewse and possessions of this 
your Highnes realme. Wher vpon (as it semed) your 
Hyglmes (sekynge a redresse and reformation of thys 
greate and intollerable enormitie, — as a merciful father 
ouer this your natural country ; moued wyth pitie to- 
wardes the miserable and pittiful nombre of blind, 
lame, lazar, & other the impotent creatures of this your 
realme) hath, wyth most ernest diligence, supplanted, 
and, as it were, weeded out, a greate numbre of valiaunt 
and sturdye monckes, fryers, chanons, heremites, and 
nunnes. Which disguised ypocrites, vnder the name 
of the contempt of this world, wallowed in the sea in 
the worldes wealth. .And to the entent your louing & 
obedient subiectes might the better be able to releue 
the neadie & impotent creatures, you toke from them 
the greate nu??ibre of gilted beggers, whose holines was 
so fast roted in the hertes of vs your pore commons, 
through the false dilusio?zs of the forsayd sturdy & 
valiant beggers, that we wold not stick to go an .0. 
myles on our bare fete to seke one of them, that we 
might not only bestow our almes vpo??. them, but also 
do the??i reuerence and honour none other wise then if 
they had bene very gods. Yea, whe?z your Hyglmes 
had ordeyned that al these forsayd beggers shulde be 
vtteiiy abolished, neuer to deceyue vs of our almes anye 
more, we, like me??, alwaies brought vp in folish super- 
stickm of these false Phariseis & flateryng hypocrites, 
knewe not the obedience that we owe to you, our 
natural and most rightful Prince, but in-continent fel 
in an vprore criyng, " Our holi dayes, abbayes & pyl- 
grimages ! " None o[t]her wise than the Ephesians 
dyd agaynst the elect vessell of God, Sancte Paule, 
whan he sayd, "They are not godes, which be made 
with handes," and as the Iewse did against holy Steuen, 
whan he sayd that " God dwelleth not in an house 
made with mans hand." Yea, had not God wrought 


on your parte, in apeasing that sturdy thronge, this 

realme had, euen then, hen like to haue hene vtterly 

decayed. For euen those whome your Highnes had But you finished 

called to-gither to assiste you in that daungerous tyme, wWiou^wood- 

were (for the moste parte) so hente to the opinion of commons* 6 

the other, that many of them woulde not stike to say, 

"When we shal come to the hattaile, — we know what 

we haue to do." But no we (the Lorde he thanked ther- 

fore) that your Highnes hath finished that your godly 

purpose, without bloudshede of your poore commones, 

and that the Worde of God hath hen so set furth & 

taught by your co?nmand[m]ent, that euery man that 

lusteth may therin learne his duitie and office ; we are and now we are 

„,, -iii-iin i ■ j ,i convinced that to 

fully perswaded, that all such as resiste the pours, resist the powers 

whome God hathe ordeyned and appoynted to rule & 1S oresis ° : 

gouerne the multitude of thys worlde, do not resyste 

man, but God. Be you certayne therfore (most 

graciouse Prince) that we (your most obedient sub- 

iectes) walkyng in the fear of the Lord, wyl not from 

hense forth (so long as the knowledge of Godes "Worde and, so long as we 

shall reigne amongeste vs) attempt any such so diuilishe God's word, 

, n i i T T' l ■ will never rebel 

enterprise, as to rebel agaynst your Highnesse, our most againi 
natural Souerayne and Leage Lorde ; either for our for- 
fathers popyshe tradicions, or other oure owne fantasti- 
cal dreams ; not withstarcdynge that the remenaunt of 
the sturdy beggers (not yet weaded out) do daylye, in 
theyr writynges, counsels, and preach} r nges, stere vs 
thereunto. For what meane they in their sermons 
when they lament the greate discord and myserable though we he 

tempted thereto 

estate ol this our tyme, wishynge that all thynge were by the beggars 
nowe as it was .xx. yeares since, but that they woulde out. 
haue a Pope, pardons, lightyng of candels to images, 
knockyng and knelyng to them, with runnyng hither 
and thither on pilgremage ; besides the infinit number 
of purgatory horseleches, on whom the vengeaunce of 
God is so manifestly declared for their beastly buggery, 



They tell us that 
vice has prevailed 
since we had the 
Scriptures in 

but their aim is 
to make us abhor 
the Uible. 

They would have 
us as blind as we 
were when we 
would have 
fought against 
our king, 
for the maintain- 
ing of their 
popish traditions. 

They have 
procured a law 
that none shall 
have the Bible in 
his house, unless 
he can spend £10 
a year, 
but they only 
wish to famish 
men's souls 
by withholding 
spiritual food. 

Are the rich only 
in possession 
of souls ? 
Christ said the 
Gospel was 
preached to the 
poor, and the 
Gospel, which 
they would shut 

that the very places where thei dwelt, ar not thought 
worthy to be the dwellinges of men, but the caues of 
bruit bestes and venemous wormes 1 Thei tell vs what 
vice, vncharitablenes, lacke of mercy, diuercitie of opin- 
ions, and other lyke enormites, haue raigned euer sence 
men had the Scripture in Englyshe. And what is thys 
other then to cause mens consciens to abhorre the 
same, as the onely cause and originall of all thys ? Thei 
say that it sufficeth a laye man to beleue as thei 
teach, and not to meddle with the enterpretatiore of the 
Scriptures. And what meaneth that, but that thei 
would haue vs so blynd agayn, as we were when we 
would haue fought agaynst oure naturall Prynce, for 
the mayntenaunce of their popyshe traditions and 
purgatory patrimony 1 Thei cannot abyde this name, 
" the "Word of God; " but thei wold haue' the Scripture 
called the commau??denient of God. And what meaneth 
this, but that thei are the same enemyes of God, whom 
that two edged sword shall destroy ] Finally, thei haue 
procured a lawe, that none shal so hardy haue the 
Scripture in his house, onlesse he maye spend x. pound 
by yere. And what meaneth this, but that they would 
famysh the soules of the residue, witholdyng theyr food 
from them ] We appeale to your Highnes iudgement 
in this behalfe, whither this lawe be indifferent or not. 
If none should be alowed meat in your Highnes house, 
but suche as were clothed in veluet, with chaines of 
gold about theyr neckes, what seruauntes wold your 
Maiestie haue shortly 1 What steruelynges would you» 
seruauntes be aboue all other ! For no man within 
your realme may refuse to do your Grace seruyce. 
Hath God put immortall soules in none other but in 
such as be possessioners of this world 1 Did not Chryst 
send word to Ihon the Baptist that the pore receyued 
the Gospell? And the Gospel that thei shutte vp from 
vs, was it not the writynges of poore fysher men and 


symple creatures, euen take?* for the dregges of the up, was written 

by poor fisher- 

worlde 1 "Were not the setters furthe of it and the men. 

,, Those who 

prophetes also, persecuted, tormented, and slayne ? And. preached it were 
why do these men disahle them for readers of the s \.J^ a e 
Scriptures, that are not indued with the possessions of 
this worlde 1 Vndoutely (most gratious Souerayn) be- 
cause they are the very same that shut vp the kyng- 
dome of God before men ; thei enter not them selues, 
nother suffre thei them to entre that wolde. They are These men are 
lyke to a curre dogge liyng in a cocke of haye. For he the manger, 
wyll eate none of the heye hym selfe, nother suffer any 
other beast that commeth to eate therof. But some wyl But many who 
peradue?zture say, they were not all sturdy beggers that were secular men, 
were in the Parlament when this lawe was stablished. enough t" benefit 
For many of them, and the most parte were seculer byit- 
men, and not of suche habilite that this lawe wordd 
permyt them to haue the Scripture in their houses. 
"Wherfore, this lawe is in-different, and taketh not the The law is 
Worde of God from vs ; but we wyth oure fid consent 
haue committed it to them, in the sayde lawe limytted. 
Where vnto we aunswer, that, if we haue geuen it ouer we answer, if we 

„ , ,, . „ .. ,, ,, gave it away from 

from vs to the possessioners of this worlde, we may well ourselves to the 
be lykened to the Gedarites, Marke v., which desired th^wm-ld, 
Christ to departe from theyr country, and the lurking Q^arenet the 
night birdes, which caw not abycle the bryghte beames 
of the son. We may boldly affirme that what man weboiaiy affirm 
soeuer doth wyttyngly and willingly forsake the know- forsakes God's r 
ledge of the lyuely Worde of God (the foode of our ™ rd u none of 
solles, and lyghte of oure footesteppes,) is none of the 
flock of Christ, forasmuch as his shepe heare his voyce, 
& reioyce in the same. Did thei that toke their names of Those who took 
anye philosopher, shut vp theyr masters doctrine from phiiosopher, a " y 
them selfe 1 Did thei not thynke them selues vnworthy teaching!' 8 
to be named after their masters, vnlesse thei knewe "h^mse'ivfs' 
their preceptes and rules 1 Did not the mo/dces, friers, ""J""** °\ him 

x A ' » unless they knew 

and other the supersticious religious, employe all theyr his Precepts; 




following this 
example, study to 
obtain a know- 
ledge of their 

And shall we 
exclude ourselves 
from a knowledge 
of Christ's laws 
which we must 
follow, on pain of 
damnation ? 

If we have 
rejected God's 
offer, when He 
used your 
Highness to 
publish His word, 
in which we may 
learn His love 
towards us ; 

let us repent 
most humbly, 

and beseech Him 
to forget our 

Don't let our 
enemies say the 

studye to knowe their rules and statutes 1 Do not the 
Coelginers at this daye set the hoke of theyr statutes 
at libertie, streightlye commaundyng eche felowe vnder 
payne of punishemente to employ them, to haue the 
through knowledge of the same 1 And shold we glory 
to he the flocke of Chryst, and to he called of him 
Christians, when we do willyngly and wittyngly ex- 
clude our selfe from the knowlege of the rule which 
he hathe commaunded vs to folowe, on payne of damp- 
nation of oure soules 1 Would your Hyghnes thynke 
that man were willyng to do your commaundement, 
that would not diligently reade ouer your Highnes 
letters sent from you to certifie hym of youre wyll and 
pleasure in hys office ] And what other thynge is the 
Avhole Scripture then the declar[at]ion of the wyl of 
God 1 "YVer it lykely therfore, that we, excludyng our 
selues from the knowledge therof, shold he willyng to 
do his wyl? If we haue therfore reiected this merciful 
profer of our moost mercifull Father, when he vsed 
youre Hyghnes, as hys instrumente, to publyshe and 
set forthe hys moost lyuelycke Worde, wherin is de- 
clared the inestimable loue that he heare towardes ys, 
in that he gaue hys onelye Sonne to be an acceptable 
sacrifice for oure synnes ; and the vnspekable mercy 
winch caused him to accept vs as iust, euen for his 
Sonnes sake, without our workes or deseruinges ; let vs 
now humbly fal downe prostrate before his Maiestye, 
wyth perfecte repentance of this, the contempte of his 
mercifull gyfte ; moost humbly besekinge hym, of his 
infinyte goodnes, tenderly to beholde the doloures of our 
hertes, for that we neglected so mercifull a profere ; 
and to forget oure obstinacie ther in, geuynge your 
Hyghnes suche desire of oure saluation, that you wyll 
as fauorably restore vnto vs the Scripture in oure 
English tonge, as you dyd at the fyrst translation ther- 
of set it abrode. Let not the aduersaries take occasion 


to say, the Bible was of a tray tours settinge forthe, and Bible was set 

forth by the 

not of your Hyghnes owne doynge. For so they re- traitor Thomas 
porte, that Thomas Cromwell, late Earle of Essex, was and not by your 
the chyfe doer, and not youre Hyghnes, but as led by except as 'led by 
him. All thys thei do to withdraw the mindes of vs im ' 
(your Hyghnesses subiectes) from the readyng and 
study therof. Which thyng doth easely appere by the 
diligence they shewe in settyng furth and execution of 
your Hyghnes proclamations and iniunctions consern- 
yng the same. For when youre Highnes gaue com- Your prociama- 

i li l ii • t t i i i • tion commanded 

maundement that thei shoulde se that there were m that a Bible 

■■! t -,1 • ,-, -,-f i should be placed 

euery parysh churche, within thys your Highnes i n every church 
realme, one Byble at the least set at libertie, so that re ai° m f ° u tie 
euery man myght frely come to it, and read therin, ^nmieht 7 
suche thynges as should be for his consolation, manye J" eadlt > . 

" ° io but many wished 

of this wicked generation, as well preystes as other to put it into the 

' x " choir, or into a 

their faythful adherentes, wuld pluck it other into the P ew where the 

x poor man dare 

quyre, other elles into som pue, where pore men durst not come ; 
not presume to come. Yea, ther is no smale numbre 
of churches that hath no Byble at all. And yet not and they never 
sufnsed with the withholdyng of it from the pore of decreed that no 

, ■. . ., ,, jiiii! it man should read 

their owne parishes, they neuer rested tyl they had a it dur i ng God's 

commaundement from your Highnes, that no man, of ^lnt!' M * ** 

what degree so euer he wer, should read the Bible in 

the tyme of Goddes seruice (as they call it) ; as though 

the hearyng of theyr Latin lyes, and coniuryng of 

water and salte, were rather the seruice of God, the?z 

the study of his most Holy Worde, the onelye foode of 

our soules, and lyght of our fote steppes ; wythout 

whiche no man can walke vpryghtly in perfect lyfe, 

worthy our name and profession. 

This was theyr diligence in settynge forthe the 
Byble at your Hyghnesse co??zmaundeme7it. But when when your 
your Highnesse had diuised a proclamation for the orders for 
burnynge of certen translations of the ISTewe Testament, certa^trans- 
they were so bold to burne the whole Bibles, because £ew Testament, 


they burnt the they were of those mens translations. And yf your 

whole Bible . d J 

because the same Hyghnesse woulde enquire of them whoe toke the 

men translated it. . 

paynes m translatmge the Great Byble that your High- 
nes hath authorised, we thynke they coulde not, for 
verye shame, denie, but, euen agaynste theyr wylles, 
graunt, that those poore men, whose paines & greate 
trauayle they haue rewarded with fire and banishment, 
see how they play were the doers ther of. See, gratiouse Prince, how 

bo-peep with your 

Higimess's com- they play bopipe with your Highnes commaundementes, 

mands, suppress- . . 

ing, where they suppressmge, in al that they dare, the thyng that youre 

have' allowed. Highnesse hath authorised ; euen as it were men that 

loked for a faire daye, which we trust, in the Lorde 

They wished the Iesu, they shall neuer see. As we herd say, they pro- 

Bible called in, . 

and promised a fered your Highnesse, that if it wolde please you to 
in seven years, call in the Bible agayne (for as much as it was not faith- 
fully translated in al partes) they wold ouer see it, and 
with in .vii. yeres set it forth agayne. A wiles ; we 
in this they were think they haue red the story of a certen man, who, 

like the criminal pit -pi • i 

who saved his life beynge condemned to die, prolered that, it he might 
haue his life, he would doo his prince such a pleasure 
as neuer man dyd, for hee woulde, wythin the space of 
.xiiii. yeres, teach him an ase to daunce. Where vpon 
he had his lyfe graurated him, vpon condition that yf he 
dyd not performe his promessed enterprise, that then 
he shoulde neuer the lesse suffer deathe. Thys done, . 
he was demaunded of one of his familiers, why he was 
so madde to take vppon him such an enterprise, so 
farre beyonde all reason and possibilytie 1 He answered, 

by promising to "my frend, hold the co?itent; I haue wrought wysly, 

teach an ass to „ . , . ,-, .... , -, , ■. •■ T 

dance in 14 years, for wyth m these xini. yeares, other the kynge, 1, or 

the asse, shalbe dead ; so that by thys meanes I shall 

escape thys reprochfull and shamfull death." So your 

They trusted that byshopes (most victoriouse Prince) if they might haue 

Highness would gotten in the Bible for vii. yeres, they wolde haue 

Bible forgotten, trusted that by that tyme, ether, youre Highnes 

shoulde haue ben dead, or the Bible forgotten, or els 


they them selues out of your Highnes reache, so that or themselves out 

i of your reach. 

you should not haue had like power ouer them as you 

haue nowe. "Wei, go to, we trust ere the vii. yeres he 

past, God shall reuaile vnto your Highnes moch more 

of theyr subtyll imaginations then we are worthy to 

know of. Moreouer, wil your Highnes se ho we fayth- 

fully they dyd youre commaundemewt, when you ap- Two were 

poynted two of them to ouer loke the translation of the overlook the 

Bible? They sayd they had done youre Highnes com- 

maundement therin, yea, they set their names there vn- and set their 

names to it, to 

to ; hut when they sawe the worlde som what lyke to testify they had 

wrynge on the other syde, they denyed it, and said 

they neuer medeled therewith, causyng the prynter to afterwards they 

take out theyr names, which were erst set before the omitted, saying 

Bible, to certifie all mew that thei had diligently pe- m eddied witu'it. 

rused it according as your Highnes had commaunded. 

One other poynt of theyr diligewce your Highnes may 

note in the settyng furth and vsyng of youre Hyghnes 

Primer both in Englysh and Latin. And in the 

diligent readyng vnto the people, the exhortation to They never read 

the exhortation to 

prayer, which you ordeyned and commaunded to be prayer, as com- 
redde alwaies before the Prossession in Englysh. "We Highness, 
thynk no man can blameles say, that euer he heard one 
of them reade it twyse ouer. Yea, when your Highnes 
was returned from youre victory done at Bullyn, they 
dyd what they coulde to haue called it in agayne. In 
so much that they caused all such parishes as they 
myght commaunde, to vse theyr olde Kyre Eleyson 
agayne. And yet to this daye, thei vse, on solempne and on Feast 
feastes, to folow theyr olde ordinary, not withstand- ordinary. 16 ° 
yng your Highnes commaundement. But whew thei when they catch 
katch any thyng that soundeth to the contrary, it shall uke*t"f they 
not escape so, we warrant you. It shalbe swynged in l^^^ 
euery pulpyt wyth, "this is the Kynges gratious Jrac\ous"fin. 
wyll ; and yet these heretickes wylbe styll cloyng in the 
Scriptures. A shornaker, a cobbler, a tayler, a boy not 



They say how 
well disposed the 
people used to be; 

how many 

hospitals were 


and colleges 


and would add, 
abbeys and 
chantries were 
then founded, 
if thev dare. 

If they had their 
way, building 
would be the bet.t 
trade going. 

We pray that 
their subtleties 
may always come 
to light before 
they prevail ; 

that these sturdy 
beggars be rooted 

and that the 
tenth of every 
man's increase 
may go to the 

as it was long 
before Christ, 
and long before 
the Law. 

yet xx. yeres of age, shal not sty eke to reproue that a 
lerned manne of xl. yeares studye shall affyrme in the 
declaration of Gods Word. how godly wer the 
people disposed, when thei knew nothyng of the 
Scripture, but as thei were taught by profound clerk es 
and well lerned men ! The?^ were there hospitals 
buylded for the poore. Then wer there coleges buylded 
for the maintenauwee of lernyng." Yea, if they durst 
they would say, " Then were abbayes & chauntries 
founded for the realyfe of the pore soules in the bitter 
payns of Purgatory. Then were our purses filled with 
the offerynges of the deuout people that vsed to seke 
the blessed images, and relickes of our Sauior Christ, & 
of his Blessed Mother Mary with the residue of his 
saints." If your Highnes would rayse vp but one abbe, 
chauntry, or pilgremage, you shuld easely perceiue 
which way thei are bent. "We dout not but for these 
vii. yeres folowyng, masons occupation, with other be- 
longing to buyldyng, would be the best handy craftes 
within this your royalme. We praye God their subtill 
imaginations maye alwaies come to lyghte before thei 
preuail to the hinderarcce of Gods veritie. And that it 
may please hym alwaies to assist your Highnes in the 
defendyng and settyng furth of the same, to hys glory, 
and the soul helth of vs, your Highnes most faithful & 
obedient subiectes. And that you leaue not of, tyll you 
haue roted out al these sturdy begger